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Christiane Andersson

(b Solothurn, c. 1485; d ?Basle, 1527–9).

Swiss draughtsman, goldsmith, die-cutter, engraver, woodcut and stained-glass designer, painter and glass painter. He was the most original and gifted artist of the early Renaissance in German-speaking Switzerland. His highly imaginative drawings, created as independent works of art, are works of exceptional quality, vitality, expressiveness and often humour. For northern European art, Graf played an important role in the liberation of drawing from its traditionally subsidiary status as preparatory study for works of art in other media.

Graf was trained as a goldsmith by his father, Hug Graf (d 1527–30), and remained active in this profession throughout his career. Although almost none of his goldsmith work is preserved, examples such as the silver engraved plates (1519; London, BM; Zurich, Schweizer. Landesmus.) from a reliquary bust executed for a monastery in the canton of Lucerne are of a high quality. He received additional training (1507–8) from the goldsmith ...


Gordon Campbell

[objets de vertu]

Decorative work in a fine material (e.g. glass, porcelain, semi-precious stones, silver or gold) that is attractive because of its antiquity, beauty and quality of workmanship. ‘Vertu’ (It. virtù) refers to a taste for curios or other works of art. The traditional form objets de vertu combines French and English spellings; as the Italian sense of ...


Stephen K. Scher

(di Giovan Michele de’) [Pastorino da Siena]

(b Castelnuovo della Berardenga, c. 1508; d Florence, Dec 6, 1592).

Italian medallist, glass painter and die engraver. He was one of the most prolific and able medallists of the Italian Renaissance, producing around 200 medals. He held various official positions including several in the mints of Emilian courts: in Ferrara (1554–9), in Bologna (1572), in Novellara (1574) and in Florence (1576). In Florence he was ‘maestro di stucchi’ under Grand Duke Francesco de’ Medici (1541; 1574; 1587). He was also renowned as a portraitist in coloured wax for which he apparently developed new materials and techniques to represent hair and skin.

Pastorini trained as a glass painter under Guillaume de Marcillat, who worked in Arezzo until his death in 1529. He practised this craft through the 1530s and 1540s, first at Siena Cathedral (1531–7) and later in the Sala Regia in the Vatican and in San Marco (...