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(b Hong Kong, 1896; d England, 1985).

English designer. With her husband David Joel shortly after World War I she founded Betty Joel Ltd, which was based in a workshop at Hayling Island near Portsmouth, Hants. Early Joel furniture was made in oak, teak and mahogany and executed by craftsmen in an idiosyncratic style of Arts and Crafts combined with Neo-Georgian. In the 1930s a shop was opened in Knightsbridge, London, and manufacturing moved to a factory in Kingston-upon-Thames, designed for the company by H. S. Goodhart-Rendel. By this time Joel’s designs were influenced by the Modern Movement: mostly expensive pieces made to commission in light-coloured woods and veneers. Serpentine, curved and bow-fronted work was produced, as well as simpler planar and ‘stepped’ furniture (e.g. oak dressing-table, 1931; London, V&A). Wood, steel and glass were used for the framework of the furniture, with such luxury materials as ivory for the handles. As well as space-saving and built-in furniture for small modern flats, the firm, working to the drawings of the Joels or other designers, produced lavish interiors for such clients as ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Spokane, WA, 1905; d 1990).

American furniture designer and manufacturer. The son of Japanese parents, after an early career as an architect he turned in 1940 to furniture-making, initially in Seattle and then, after a period of internment, in New Hope, Pennsylvania, where in 1946 he estabished an independent workshop. The workshop produces both series and individual designs, always in solid hardwood with no veneers; designs reflect both American and Japanese traditions, but are contemporary rather than revivalist. Although Nakashima is sometimes described as one of the founding figures of the American craft movement, his workshop used machine tools and, in the case of his series designs, production methods to create furniture that looks hand-crafted. The workshop is still a family business, and is now run by his daughter Mira (b 1942).

The Soul of a Tree: A Woodworker’s Reflections (Tokyo and New York, 1981) D. Ostergard: George Nakashima: Full Circle (New York, 1989)...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

(b Paris, 1742; d Paris, Dec 13, 1803).

French cabinetmaker. He was the son of a Parisian cabinetmaker and was an independent workman before becoming a maître-ébéniste on 14 July 1773. He specialized in marquetry, in particular Chinese-style figures, trophies, still-lifes and flower garlands (e.g. Baltimore, MD, Mus. A.). He also used veneers embellished with bronze mounts depicting such subjects as vases on a terrace or children playing with a cat (e.g. New York, Met.). He was also a dealer in ready-made marquetry motifs. He produced very few pieces of furniture, preferring to buy them from colleagues, decorate them and then sell them to the most famous cabinetmakers or marchand-merciers. A large number of small and prettily decorated pieces of furniture bear his signature (e.g. New York, Met.; Cincinnati, OH, A. Mus.; Detroit, MI, Inst. A.). He was declared bankrupt in 1789.

J. Viaux: Bibliographie du meuble (Mobilier civil français), 2 vols (Paris, 1966–88) G. de Bellaigue: ‘Charles Topino (1742–1803)’, ‘Möbelkunst und Luxusmarkt im 18. Jahrhundert’, ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1915).

Japanese industrial designer , active in the USA. He worked in Charlotte Perriand ’s Japanese office, and in the 1950s emigated to the USA, where he designed two stools that have since become famous: the fibreglass ‘Elephant’ stool (1954), which was the first all-plastic stool, and the ‘Butterfly’ stool (...