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Henry Adams

(b Veracruz, Mar 13, 1880; d Stamford, CT, Jan 10, 1961).

Mexican illustrator, writer, gallery owner, and publisher, active in the USA. He was the son of a wealthy Mexican lawyer and publisher. De Zayas started his career as an artist by providing drawings for his father’s newspaper in Veracruz. In 1906 he moved on to Mexico City’s leading newspaper, El Diario, but a year later, after the ascension of the dictator Porfirio Diaz, whom the newspaper had opposed, he fled to the USA. There he landed a position making caricatures for the New York Evening World. Shortly after his arrival in the USA, he came into contact with Alfred Stieglitz, who staged solo shows of De Zayas’s caricatures at his gallery Gallery 291 in 1909 and 1910, both of which proved to be huge popular successes.

In 1910 De Zayas traveled to Paris, where he stayed almost a year, scouting out adventurous forms of modern art for Stieglitz, notably the cubist work of Picasso and African sculpture. On his return, equipped with knowledge of European modern art and inspired by the work of the French modernist ...


Esther Acevedo

(b Mexico City, 1836; d Mexico City, 1868).

Mexican illustrator and printmaker. According to the obituary by Hilarión Frías y Soto, Escalante “was fortunate enough to escape scholastic corruption … His training was artistic, though disgracefully very incomplete.” This may indicate that Escalante trained in lithographic workshops without attending the Academia de S. Carlos, a recently restructured school for artists.

Although Escalante’s portrait of Pedro Picasso—his music teacher—was accepted at the Academia’s exhibition of 1855, his work as an illustrator did not take an academic route. He became involved in liberal politics at the end of the Three Year War in 1861 and was the first caricaturist for the biweekly newspaper review La Orquesta, which he founded that year with Carlos Alejandro Casarín, who used the pseudonym Roberto Macario in honor of the Honoré Daumier character Robert Macaire (a flattering swindler). Escalante chose to address local problems in his illustrations and both recorded and influenced the implementation of the liberal ideology and the strict enforcement of the ...


Eloísa Uribe

(b Mexico City, 1833; d Mexico City, 1908).

Mexican illustrator and lithographer. He studied at the Escuela Militar de Ingenieros, Mexico City. When the school was reorganized following the American invasion of 1847, he was commissioned to execute portraits of the Child Heroes. During the French intervention he founded a number of political newspapers, including El espectro, El perico and Palo de ciego, for which he executed caricatures and lithographs. Persecution forced him into hiding, but he re-emerged in 1865 as interpreter and chief draughtsman to the Comisión Científica del Imperio. Following the death in 1868 of Constantino Escalante, Hernández became the caricaturist for the periodical La orquesta; he also produced lithographs for El artista (e.g. The Rattle; see Fernández, fig.). He collaborated with Hesiquio Iriarte on, among other things, illustrations for El libro rojo (1870), a novel by Vicente Riva Palacio, director of La orquesta. At the time of his death Hernández was producing caricatures for ...


Aída Sierra Torres

(b Mexico City, ?1820; d Mexico City, 1897).

Mexican illustrator and printmaker. He probably began his career in 1847 in the workshop of the Murguía publishing house. In 1854, in collaboration with Andrés Campillo, he created an outstanding series of illustrations for the book Los mexicanos pintados por sí mismos, in which he portrayed character types (e.g. Great Poet, lithograph) in the manner of Honoré Daumier. In 1855 he founded the firm Litografía de Iriarte y Compañía. The following year he published portraits of famous personalities in the weekly review El Panorama. He was a co-founder in 1861 of the political fortnightly La Orquesta, on which he worked for more than ten years as an illustrator and eventually as a caricaturist and as editor. Iriarte continued to contribute to a number of periodicals, including El Renacimiento, and his firm also published the weekly San Baltazar (1869–70). He collaborated with Santiago Hernández on numerous illustrations for, among others, ...


Jorge Alberto Manrique

(b Mexico City, 1867; d Mexico City, 1941).

Mexican painter, illustrator, and teacher. He entered the Academia de San Carlos in Mexico City in 1884. After studying with Santiago Rebull and José Salomé Pina, he soon devoted himself to the painting of historical subjects favored by liberal critics in an attempt to create a Mexican school of painting, as in Columbus at Rábida and the Founding of Tenochtitlán (both Mexico City, Mus. Pal. B.A.). The highest recognition he received was for a painting of great breadth and aspiration, for which he was awarded a medal when it was exhibited in Philadelphia in 1893: the Torture of Cuauhtémoc (1892; Mexico City, Mus. Pal. B.A.) in which, with a sort of academic realism, the dignity of the last Aztec emperor is portrayed in a sordid setting, contrasted with the suffering of the king of Tlacopan and the cold indifference of the conquistadors. He was a professor at the Academia, had work commissioned in Europe (...


Laura Suffield

(b Montevideo, Uruguay, Feb 11, 1872; d Ditchling, Sussex, Nov 26, 1944).

British calligrapher, typographer and teacher. He went to Great Britain to study medicine at Edinburgh. Poor health forced him to abandon medicine, but he took up the study of calligraphy, influenced by his investigations of letter shapes in manuscripts in the British Museum, London. From 1899 until 1912 he taught writing and lettering at the London County Council School of Arts and Crafts; from 1901 he also taught at the Royal College of Art. From 1910 to 1930 he designed type for the Cranach Press of Graf Harry Kessler (1868–1937) in Weimar and from 1916 to 1929 worked on an alphabet of block letters, based on the proportions of Roman capitals, for London Transport designs and posters. Johnston was a leading member of the artistic community known from 1920 as the Guild of St Joseph and St Dominic, was President of the Arts and Crafts Society (1933–6...


Ricardo Pau-Llosa

(b Cuba, 1818; d Cuba, after 1860).

Cuban lithographer and painter. Cuba’s mid-19th-century boom in printmaking was due to the packaging and advertising needs of its tobacco industry. Laplante was the finest Cuban lithographer of the period, collaborating often with Luis Barañano (fl 1856), Federico Mialhe (1825–1889), and other artists, and realizing the thirty-eight lithographs that illustrate Justo Cantero’s Vistas de los principales ingenios de Cuba (1857). Laplante’s detailed depictions of rural life in Cuba, particularly the sugar plantation, are invaluable windows into the period, as are paintings such as Trinidad, General View from the Loma de la Vigía (1852; Havana, Mus. N. B.A.).

Castro, M. de. El arte en Cuba. Miami, 1970, p. 38.Libby, Gary Russell. Two Centuries of Cuban Art, 1759–1959. Sarasota, FL, Ringling Mus. A.; Daytona Beach, FL, Museum of Arts and Scienes, 1980. Exhibition catalog.Ades, Dawn, Brett, Guy, Carlin, Stanton Loomis, and O’Neill, Rosemary...


María Antonia González-Arnal

(b Valencia, June 16, 1863; d Caracas, July 29, 1898).

Venezuelan painter, draughtsman and illustrator. He executed his first drawings in 1869. In 1874 he met the writer Francisco de Sales Pérez, for whom he illustrated the book Costumbres venezolanas (1877). In 1879 he founded a school of painting with his father, the painter Juan Antonio Michelena, at his home in Valencia. From then on he began to receive drawing and painting commissions. His vast output was academic in character and varied in subject. An excellent draughtsman, he was awarded second prize at the Exposición Nacional in Caracas in 1883. He travelled to Paris in 1885 on a government scholarship and studied at the Académie Julian under Jean-Paul Laurens. The accolades he received in France included a medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris (1889) for the painting Charlotte Corday (Caracas, Gal. A. N.). Michelena returned to Venezuela in 1889 to public acclaim but returned to Paris in ...


Giulio V. Blanc

(b Yaguajuay, nr Placetas, Jan 5, 1896; d Havana, April 8, 1968).

Cuban painter, ceramicist and illustrator. She studied under Leopoldo Romañach (1862–1951) at the Academia de S Alejandro in Havana, where she was influenced by Impressionism. She graduated in 1924 and lived in Paris from 1927 to 1933, studying at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts and the Ecole du Louvre. She also studied composition and colour with the Russian Constructivist and stage designer Alexandra Exter. She held an individual exhibition at the Galerie Zak in Paris in 1933 and in 1934 returned to Cuba.

Peláez applied her Parisian experiences, particularly of Cubism and of her apprenticeship to Exter, to a personal style based on the forms and colours of the luxuriant tropical vegetation and the Baroque colonial architecture of Cuba. Like Víctor Manuel, she combined modernism with native elements in a style at once Cuban and cosmopolitan in paintings such as Still-life in Red...


Alexandra Kennedy

(b Quito, Aug 18, 1842; d Quito, June 24, 1906).

Ecuadorean painter, illustrator, draughtsman, engraver, and teacher. He attended the first Escuela de Bellas Artes in Quito (1872–5) and was one of the most prolific and versatile Romantic artists in 19th-century Ecuador, working in several genres. His portraits of important figures included that of the historian Federico González Suárez (1883; Quito, Mus. A. Mod.). He illustrated González Suárez’s archaeological work Estudio histórico sobre los Cañaris (Quito, 1878), among others, and contributed illustrations of snails and molluscs for the French naturalist Auguste Cousin’s Faune malacologique de la République de l’Equateur (c. 1893–7; Quito, Archv Nat. Hist. Banco Cent. del Ecuador). In connection with the nationalist movement, Pinto tirelessly explored costumbrista and indigenist themes in dozens of drawings, watercolours, and engravings, many of them inspired by Cantares del pueblo ecuatoriano (1892) by the Romantic poet Juan León Mera. He painted such landscapes as El Chimborazo...


Alexandra Kennedy

(b Caranqui-Imbabura, Oct 25, 1845; d Ibarra, March 15, 1920).

Ecuadorean painter. He was self-taught as an artist. Between 1870 and 1874 he was appointed as the sole illustrator to a team of German scientists, including the naturalist Wilhelm Reiss and the geologist Alfons Stübel, who undertook volcanic surveys in Ecuador. Stübel trained him to make scientific oil paintings of landscapes in situ, emphasizing the details of flora and the exact location of mountains and rivers. A few of the 66 works executed during these years are in the Städtische Reiss-Museum, Mannheim. This scientific vision of the Andean landscape, combined with the freedom of the contemporary Romanticism, created a personal style that changed little and made him one of the most important 19th-century landscape painters in Latin America. His scientific paintings served as models for such later works as the Eastern Mountain Range from Tiopullo (1874; Quito, Banco Cent. del Ecuador) and the Deer Hunt (1918; Guayaquil, Mus. Antropol. & Mus. A. Banco Cent. del Ecuador). Troya executed portraits of notable Ecuadorean society figures, including the politician and historian ...


Aída Sierra Torres

(b Veracruz, 1848; d Tacubaya, Mexico City, Feb 14, 1904).

Mexican illustrator and lithographer. He began his career in 1869, making prints for the weekly La ilustración potosina in San Luis Potosí. He collaborated with Alejandro Casarín and Jesús Alamilla on illustrations using engravings coloured with pen for the novel Ensalada de pollos by José Tomás de Cuéllar. In these the use of a schematic design accentuated the appearance of the figures portrayed. He created caricatures (1872–3) for La orquesta and other periodicals, but he established his reputation with caricatures (1874–6) of government figures for the weekly Hijo Ahuizote. Villasana was a member of the political party of President Porfirio Díaz and in 1880 published ferocious caricatures of Díaz’s opponents in El coyote emplumado. He was co-publisher in 1883, with Ireneo Paz, of La patria ilustrada and in 1888 he founded his own weekly, México y sus costumbres; in both periodicals he published his own caricatures of public figures. In ...