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Michèle Lavallée

[Fr.: ‘new art’]

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed.

Art Nouveau has been held to have had its beginnings in 1894 or 1895. A more appropriate date would be 1884, the year the progressive group Les XX was founded in Belgium, and the term was used in the periodical that supported it, Art Moderne: ‘we are believers in Art Nouveau’. The origin of the name is usually attributed to ...


Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....


Mariana Katzarova

(b Kazanlŭk, Feb 22, 1899; d Sofia, April 26, 1986).

Bulgarian painter, stained-glass designer, ceramicist, illustrator and teacher. He studied art under Karl von Maar at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Munich, and in 1924 under Stephan Ivanov (1875–1951) at the National Academy of Arts (Natsionalna Hudozhestvena Academia), Sofia. He became known as an artist who worked in a wide variety of media, executing paintings, book illustrations and stained glass. In 1922 he became the youngest member of the National Art Society of Bulgaria and later its chairman. He was also chairman of the Union of Bulgarian Artists for several terms. During the 1930s Uzunov became known as a master of portrait painting: among his best-known works are the Poet Liliev (1929), the Theatre Director Masalitinov (1931) and the Actor Krustyo Sarafov in the Role of Falstaff (1932; all Sofia, N.A.G.). From 1938 he was a professor of painting at the National Academy of Arts, Sofia. He represented Bulgaria at the Venice Biennale in ...