[Fr.: ‘new art’]
Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed.
Art Nouveau has been held to have had its beginnings in 1894 or 1895. A more appropriate date would be 1884, the year the progressive group Les XX was founded in Belgium, and the term was used in the periodical that supported it, Art Moderne: ‘we are believers in Art Nouveau’. The origin of the name is usually attributed to ...
Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.
The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....
[Baemler, Johann; Bemler, Hans]
German illuminator and printer . He is listed in the Augsburg tax rolls from 1453 as a scribe and from 1477 as a printer. Bämler belonged to the guild of painters, glassmakers, woodcut-makers and goldbeaters, eventually achieving the rank of Zwollfer (director). Examples of his youthful work are two signed miniatures dated 1457 (New York, Pierpont Morgan Lib., MS. M.45) and a signed historiated initial on a detached Antiphonal leaf (Philadelphia, PA, Free Lib., Lewis M 67:3). Between 1466 and 1468 he rubricated and decorated with calligraphic and painted ornament four books printed in Strasbourg: a Latin Bible (Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bib., Bibel-S.2°155), a copy of Thomas Aquinas’s Summa theologica (Munich, Bayer Staatsbib., 2° Inc. s.a.1146a) and two copies of St Augustine’s City of God (Chantilly, Mus. Condé, XXII.D.11, and Manchester, John Rylands U. Lib., no. 3218, Inc. 3A8).
Bämler’s knowledge of printing was probably acquired in Augsburg, in the shop of ...
(fl second half of the 15th century).
Italian master builder and architect. During 1465 and 1466 his name appears in the wages book of the Ospedale Maggiore of Lodi, for which he produced doors, oculi and windows in terracotta. In 1479 he was appointed engineer of the city of Milan, and in 1489 he is mentioned as ducal engineer. He worked on the fortifications at Biasca in 1481, and in the same year Gian Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan (reg 1476–94), recommended Battaggio and Giovanni Antonio Amadeo to succeed Guinoforte Solari as architect to the Fabbrica del Duomo. Amadeo was appointed, but Battaggio did not manage to enter the conservative Milanese workshop either then or two years later, when Ludovico Sforza proposed him in preference to Hans Niesenberger. In 1484 Conte Manfredo Landi III (d 1491) commissioned Battaggio and Agostino Fonduli to finish and decorate the façade of his palazzo in Piacenza (now the Palazzo dei Tribunali). This work included the window-frames, the string course bearing heads of Roman emperors and scenes of the marine thiasos and the ...
Metal knob or boss used for decoration on a book or harness. The term can also denote a bull’s eye in glass and (in early modern English) trunk-hose that is puffed out at the top. It is also used to describe a heavy textile fringe in curtains, pelmets and the top covers of seat furniture....
Irish artists. (1) Margaret Clarke was a painter; her husband, (2) Harry Clarke, was an illustrator and stained-glass artist. After his death in 1931, Margaret Clarke took over the direction of his stained-glass studios.
(b Newry, 1888; d Dublin, 1961).
Painter. She attended Newry Technical School and went to Dublin in 1905 to study at the Metropolitan School of Art under William Orpen, whose assistant she became. In October 1914 she married Harry Clarke. Her many commissioned paintings include portraits of Dermod O’Brien, President of the Royal Hibernian Academy (1935), Dr Edward Sheridan, President of the Royal College of Surgeons in Dublin (1946), and the painting St Patrick Climbs Croagh Patrick (Dublin, Mansion House), commissioned by the Haverty Bequest in 1932, in which the academic influence of Orpen is clear. However, she made her reputation with landscapes and small format subject paintings such as the portrait of ...
(b Leonfelden, Upper Austria, Nov 2, 1878; d Stockerau, nr Vienna, Nov 5, 1936).
Austrian designer, painter and illustrator. He studied from 1899 to 1902 under Kolo Moser and Karl Karger (1848–1913) at the Kunstgewerbeschule in the Österreichisches Museum für Kunst und Industrie in Vienna, and in 1903 under Ludwig Herterich (1856–1932) at the Kunstakademie in Munich. He was represented at the 15th exhibition of the Vienna Secession in 1902 and produced woodcuts for Ver Sacrum in 1903. He was co-founder of the Vereinigung Wiener Kunst im Hause; he designed the poster for the exhibition of 1903–4 and showed stained-glass windows, naturalistic watercolours of peasant types, and tapestry designs. He made numerous study trips to Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and especially Italy, where he studied the work of glassmakers and mosaicists in Ravenna, Rome and Venice. From 1906 he worked intensively to revive the art of the mosaic, prepared the foundation of the Wiener Mosaik Werkstätte (trade licence 1908) and added his own glassworks in ...
(b Upper Norwood, Surrey, Jan 25, 1872; d Kensington, London, March 10, 1945).
English illustrator, painter and designer. She entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, and won a prize for a mural design in 1897. She specialized in book illustration, in pen and ink and later in colour. Among her many commissions were illustrations to Tennyson’s Poems (1905) and Idylls of the King (1911) and Browning’s Pippa Passes (1908). She was particularly popular with the publishers of the lavishly illustrated gift-books fashionable in the Edwardian era. She exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy and the Royal Water-Colour Society. She took up stained-glass design (windows in Bristol Cathedral), which modified her style of illustration to flat areas of colour within black outlines. She also painted plaster figurines and designed bookplates.
Fortescue-Brickdale continued the Pre-Raphaelite tradition, reworking romantic and moralizing medieval subjects in naturalistic and often strong colour and elaborate detail. Her most important oil painting is The Forerunner...
(b Glasgow, Nov 7, 1865; d Glasgow, June 18, 1936).
Scottish painter, stained-glass designer and illustrator. He attended evening classes at the Glasgow School of Art from 1882 to 1885 while an apprentice lithographer. In 1887 he worked as an illustrator on a Glasgow newspaper and in 1889 provided illustrations for a book of poetry by James Hedderwick. His paintings of this period were realist in subject and low in tone, but these illustrations show an awareness of Pre-Raphaelite technique and symbolism, particularly that of Dante Gabriel Rossetti.
Symbolism of a similar kind appeared in his oil paintings in 1889. In two works, Music (priv. col., see Billcliffe, pl. 232) and St Agnes (London, Andrew McIntosh Patrick priv. col., see Billcliffe, pl. 233), the change in subject was accompanied by a more colourful palette and more thickly applied paint. Perspective is flattened, and a dark outline surrounds each figure and other objects in the composition. The religious symbolism and outlined technique, which may have influenced his close friend Charles Rennie Mackintosh, almost certainly reflect Gauld’s involvement in designing stained-glass panels. Throughout the 1890s he worked freelance for some of the many stained-glass manufacturers in Glasgow. For ...
(b London, June 17, 1839; d London, April 15, 1927).
English stained-glass artist, painter and illustrator. He studied painting in London at Leigh’s Art School and the Royal Academy Schools, where he was influenced by Pre-Raphaelitism. Contact with Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s circle and the architect William Burges introduced him to the applied arts, and from 1863 he worked primarily as a stained-glass artist, particularly in collaboration with the glass manufacturers James Powell & Sons and Heaton, Butler & Bayne. After visiting Italy in 1867 he abandoned his early Pre-Raphaelite style for one inspired by Classical and Renaissance art, aiming to create a ‘modern’ style of stained glass no longer dependent on medievalism. His memorial window (1868) to the engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel in Westminster Abbey and the complete glazing scheme (1869–75) of St Mary Magdalene, Paddington, London, illustrate the expressive figure drawing and feeling for monumental scale characteristic of all his mature work. In 1891, dissatisfied with the working methods of the commercial stained-glass firms, he established his own workshop in Hampstead, London, and experimented successfully with making pot-metal glass. Many of Holiday’s later commissions were for American churches; his windows (...
Jan Jaap Heij
(b Amsterdam, Dec 4, 1868; d Bloemendaal, Dec 31, 1938).
Dutch painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer and stained-glass artist. He trained at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam (1886–90), under the directorship of August Allebé. Having initially painted and drawn Impressionistic landscapes, he started working in the ’t Gooi region in 1892, where, influenced by Vincent van Gogh and Jan Toorop, he made a number of Symbolist drawings and lithographs. In 1896 he married the Dutch writer Henriette van der Schalk. They both devoted themselves to the recently founded Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij. In the years up to c. 1900 Holst produced among other things a series of lithographs of political cartoons with socialist content, as well as serene landscapes and paintings of girls from the village of Huizen. His allegorical murals (1902; in situ), on topics such as ‘Industry’ or ‘Commerce’, in the new Koopmansbeurs in Amsterdam by H. P. Berlage (1876–1903), marked an important point in his career as his first opportunity to construct a monumental piece of work. Partly inspired by the murals in the town hall at ’s Hertogenbosch by Antoon Derkinderen, he developed a tight, stylized type of design, which he believed to be ideal for visually representing idealistic and exalted thoughts. In his murals (...
Jan Jaap Heij
(b Amsterdam, May 26, 1878; d Dachau, April 2, 1945).
Dutch painter, designer and applied artist. He trained in design and decorative painting at the Quellinus school and the Rijksschool voor Kunstnijverheid (National School of the Applied Arts) in Amsterdam from 1892 to 1899. He was assigned to assist with the decoration of the Dutch pavilion at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900. A number of his designs for the pavilion were executed in batik, a Javanese technique that had been recently introduced in the Netherlands. In subsequent years Lebeau developed a very personal approach to batiking and within a short time became the leading Dutch artist in this field. His batiked screens in particular were widely acclaimed (examples in Assen, Prov. Mus. Drenthe) and are considered masterpieces of Dutch Jugendstil.
Lebeau is one of the most important representatives of the severe, geometrical trend in Dutch applied arts of the early 20th century. From 1903 he designed damask tablecloths and household linen for the ...
Marsha L. Morton
(b Hamburg, Feb 16, 1803; d Lübeck, Nov 19, 1875).
German painter, draughtsman, stained-glass designer, illustrator and restorer. In Hamburg he studied drawing with Gerdt Hardorff the elder (1769–1864) and painting with Christopher Suhr (1771–1842) and Siegfried Bendixen (1786–1864). His admiration for early German art was inspired during a sketching trip through Schleswig-Holstein in June 1823 with Erwin Speckter. Drawings from this period include a copy of Hans Memling’s altarpiece in Lübeck Cathedral. Following a sojourn in Dresden in 1824, Milde and Speckter travelled to Munich in the summer of 1825 where they studied history painting at the Akademie. In 1826 they lived briefly in Rome; and Milde again worked in Rome from 1830 to 1832 where he was in contact with the Lukasbrüder. Their preference for an outline style reinforced Milde’s own primitivizing linear manner derived from his study of Northern Renaissance art. Milde’s few extant paintings are mostly portraits from the 1830s, although history paintings, genre scenes, marine views and landscapes have also been attributed to him. Milde completed both bust-length oil portraits and family groups set in domestic interiors, which provide a detailed record of middle-class life in Hamburg at this time. In watercolours such as ...
(b Walthamstow [now in London], March 24, 1834; d London, Oct 3, 1896).
English designer, writer and activist. His importance as both a designer and propagandist for the arts cannot easily be overestimated, and his influence has continued to be felt throughout the 20th century. He was a committed Socialist whose aim was that, as in the Middle Ages, art should be for the people and by the people, a view expressed in several of his writings. After abandoning his training as an architect, he studied painting among members of the Pre-Raphaelites. In 1861 he founded his own firm, Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. (from 1875 Morris & Co.), which produced stained glass, furniture, wallpaper and fabrics (see §3 below). Morris’s interests constantly led him into new activities such as his last enterprise, the Kelmscott Press (see §5 below). In 1950 his home at Walthamstow became the William Morris Gallery. The William Morris Society was founded in 1956, and it publishes a biannual journal and quarterly newsletter....
(b Zurich, Feb 1558; d Winterthur, March 27, 1614).
Swiss glass painter, woodcut designer, etcher, book illustrator and writer. He was the son and pupil of the glass painter and councillor Jos Murer (1530–80), founder of a family of artists who lived in Zurich in the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1577 he collaborated with his father on a cycle of 13 pairs of panes representing Thirteen Historic Scenes of the Swiss Confederation for the Zisterzienkloster of Wettingen, Aargau. Christoph’s monograms (
Bailey Van Hook
(b Bergen Heights, NJ, June 10, 1874; d Philadelphia, PA, Feb 25, 1961).
American painter, illustrator, stained-glass artist and author. Although she worked as an illustrator early on, Oakley is remembered as a muralist. Oakley attended the Art Students League, New York, Académie Montparnasse, Paris, and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, but, most importantly, a class in illustration with Howard Pyle at the Drexel Institute, Philadelphia. Pyle teamed her together with Jessie Willcox Smith (1863–1935) to illustrate an edition of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s Evangeline (1897). Smith and Oakley and another illustrator, Elizabeth Shippen Green (1871–1954), rented adjoining studios in Philadelphia and subsequently lived together in a supportive camaraderie until Green’s marriage in 1911. During her brief career as an illustrator, Oakley completed over 100 illustrations, mostly for novels and short stories.
In 1900 she created a stained-glass window on speculation, which led to a major commission for stained-glass windows, mural decoration and a mosaic altarpiece for a church in Manhattan. That project brought her to the attention of architect Joseph Huston (...
(b Strasbourg, July 26, 1814; d Paris, March 16, 1885).
French painter, designer, illustrator and glazier. A pupil of the history painter Henri Decaisne (1759–1852) and of the sculptor David d’Angers, and brother-in-law of the painter Ernest Meissonier, he made his début at the Salon of 1836 in Paris with a genre painting, Consolation (untraced); he exhibited there annually until 1855. During the same period he illustrated a number of novels, including Bernardin de Saint Pierre’s Paul et Virginie (Paris, 1838) and Victor Hugo’s Notre-Dame de Paris (Paris, 1844), and religious books.
In 1839 Steinheil provided the architect Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus with a cartoon, depicting the Passion, for one of the first antiquarian stained-glass windows in France, installed in the Chapelle de la Vierge in St Germain-l’Auxerrois, Paris. It established his reputation among architects and scholars who were eager to rediscover and reintroduce the religious art and artistic techniques of the Middle Ages. Steinheil devoted most of his energies to producing drawings and cartoons, based on original medieval and Renaissance examples but modernized to make them more accessible to contemporary taste. As a result he became one of the most sought after painters of cartoons on all subjects, and he was appointed a member of the Commission des Monuments Historiques. He used his skills to restore the stained-glass windows in Sainte-Chapelle, Paris (...