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F. Hamilton Hazlehurst

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Kathleen Russo

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John Seyller

[Bālchand; Bālacanda]

(fl c. 1596–1640).

Indian miniature painter , brother of Payag. Balchand began his long career in the imperial Mughal atelier with figural illuminations on at least three pages (fols 17r, 33v, 60v) of the Bāharistān (‘Spring garden’) of Jamiz of 1595 (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Elliot 254). The small, repetitive figures in two lightly coloured illustrations in the Akbarnāma (‘History of Akbar’) of 1596–7 (Dublin, Chester Beatty Lib., MS. 3, fols 152v–153r; alternatively dated c. 1604) also bear the mark of youthful apprenticeship. Among the few works known from the next two decades are a single illustration ascribed to him from a dispersed Shāhnāma (‘Book of Kings’) of c. 1610 (ex-Colnaghi’s, London, 1976, no. 88ii), a border decoration in an album prepared for Jahangir between 1609 and 1618 (Berlin, Staatsbib. Preuss. Kultbes., Libr. pict. A117, fol. 13v), a portrait of the Dying ‛Inayat Khan...

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F. Hamilton Hazlehurst

(b Saint-Jean-d’Angely, Charente-Maritime, c. 1562; d Paris, c. 1634).

French garden designer and theorist. Of Huguenot origin, he seems early to have enjoyed the favour of Henry of Navarre, later Henry IV. A respected member of the royal entourage, Boyceau was appointed Surintendant des Jardins du Roi in the succeeding reign of Louis XIII. Consequently, he was in a position to exert substantial influence in determining the nature of garden design at that time. In his Traité du jardinage, published in 1638, Boyceau succinctly summarized the history of French gardening and codified the rules that would govern the 17th-century formal garden. For the first time a French designer adopted an aesthetic point of view, thereby promoting the intellectual climate that was to establish gardening as a fine art. He introduced a new feeling for monumental scale to the French garden, insisting that it should reflect a strong sense of organic unity in which order, symmetry, and visual harmony would be all-pervasive....

Article

Aonghus Mackechnie

(b Perthshire, 1625; d 1710).

Scottish architect and garden designer. He was the younger son of Robert Bruce of Blairhall, Perthshire, and probably attended St Salvator’s College, St Andrews, in 1637–8. Bruce was interested in the arts and was reputed to be well versed in languages, but it was as a politician that he first achieved recognition. He played a significant role in General Monk’s conversion to the Royalist cause in 1659 and was a confidential messenger between the Scottish Lords and Charles II in the months preceding the Restoration. Shortly after 1660 he was knighted, and through John Maitland, 2nd Earl and 1st Duke of Lauderdale—whose second wife was a full cousin of Bruce’s—he obtained various minor though lucrative employments before his appointment in 1671 as Surveyor-General of the Royal Works in Scotland (the ancient post of Master of the Royal Works, which had been re-created specifically for the rebuilding of the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh), which he held until ...

Article

Susan B. Taylor

[Desgotz.]

French family of garden designers. They were related by marriage to André Le Nôtre and, together with the Mollet family, formed a loose grouping of designers and horticulturists that undertook the execution of Le Nôtre’s plans for the most important French formal gardens of the mid- and late 17th century. In 1614 Jean Desgots was responsible for the upkeep of the Tuileries gardens in Paris; in 1624 he was replaced by his brother Pierre, a celebrated draughtsman who in 1616 had married Elizabeth, Le Nôtre’s sister. Pierre Desgots and Le Nôtre collaborated on a number of garden designs, with Pierre often drawing up finished plans based on Le Nôtre’s sketches. He probably served as clerk of works at Chantilly, where, after 1644, Le Nôtre was working for Louis II, Prince de Condé; in 1673 Pierre made two detailed plans of the Chantilly gardens.

Pierre’s son Claude Desgots was sent on a bursary to the Académie de France in Rome in ...

Article

Bruce A. Coats

(b Nagahami, Ōmi Prov. [now Shiga Prefect.], 1579; d Fushimi, nr Kyoto, 1647).

Japanese tea ceremony master, designer and construction supervisor of numerous palaces, castles and gardens. He was one of the most influential figures in Japanese art during the early 17th century. He is noted for the courtly refinement of his designs, which were elegant yet understated, innovative yet respectful of traditions. Few of the many buildings and gardens attributed to him remain in their original form, but his style is found throughout much of Japan. A disciple in his youth of Furuta Oribe, he practised an elaborate style of tea ceremony, and his name has become associated with a tea-room design that is spacious and luxurious without being ostentatious.

Enshū’s father, Kobori Masatsugu (d 1604), was a samurai who served the military leaders Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542–1616) as castle architect and construction supervisor. In 1596 Enshū assisted Masatsugu with work on Fushimi Castle (completed 1594...

Article

Kim Sloan

[de Grey]

English family of architects, patrons and collectors. Principally noted for their interest in garden design and architecture as represented in the family estate at Wrest Park, Beds, many generations of the family were active as statesmen and parliamentarians. Among the important works of art once owned by the family are Claude Lorrain’s Coast View of the Embarkation of Carlo and Ubaldo (Toronto, A. G. Ont.) and Anthony van Dyck’s portrait of the Balbi Children (London, N.G.). In 1676 Anthony, 11th Earl Grey (b 1645; d 19 Aug 1702), designed and built a new north front for the Elizabethan house at Wrest; during the late 1680s he began making Baroque formal gardens to the south of it. His son, Henry Grey, 12th Earl of Kent (b 1671; d 5 June 1740), whose Grand Tour in 1690–91 had included a visit to Rome, inherited the estate on his father’s death and resumed work on the gardens in ...

Article

[Theodor]

(b Hamburg, ?1575; d Rome, Jan 23, 1624).

German engraver. Based first in Hamburg and from 1614 in Nuremberg, he produced engravings after Dürer, including Christ the Gardener (1614; see Hollstein, no. 7) and Ecce homo (1614; h 8), ornamental prints, typified by the Bunch of Fruit of 1614, and a series of 14 prints of the Twelve Apostles with Christ and Paul (1614; h 9–22). He travelled subsequently to Bologna and Florence and in 1618 settled in Rome, living with other artists in the house of the painter Francesco Albani in the Via Paolina from 1621 until his death. His friendship with the engraver Francesco Villamena provided him with considerable inspiration for his own engraving. He worked in Italy from the paintings of Franciabigio and Lanfranco and, most notably, executed a series of 14 engravings of the Life of St John the Baptist (two versions, 1617 and 1618; h 30–43) after Andrea del Sarto’s frescoes (...

Article

F. Hamilton Hazlehurst

(b Paris, March 12, 1613; d Paris, Sept 15, 1700).

French garden designer and collector. He was outstanding in his time for his innovation and skill in garden design, particularly in his work at Vaux-le-Vicomte, Versailles, and Chantilly, and his ardent disciples carried his gardening principles throughout France and beyond, so spreading his influence. Popular among contemporaries, he also enjoyed a special relationship with the traditionally aloof Louis XIV, who bestowed upon him the Order of St Lazare (later replaced by the even more prestigious Order of St Michel), a coat of arms, and, on his retirement, a princely pension. Although the original spelling of his name was Le Nostre, by the late 20th century the form of Le Nôtre had gained most currency.

His career was doubtless determined at an early age, since his grandfather, Pierre, and his father, Jean, were both royal gardeners, who worked principally at the Palais des Tuileries. He was thus initiated into gardening practice by his father and a coterie of distinguished gardeners that included Claude Mollet (i) (...

Article

[Remee; Remy] [Vallemput, Remigius; Vanlimpitt, Remigeus]

(bapt Antwerp, Dec 19, 1607; d London, bur Nov 9, 1675).

Flemish (possibly French) painter, copyist, collector and dealer, active in England. In 1635 he was living in the newly developed area of Covent Garden, London; at that time he was closely associated with Anthony van Dyck and presumably assisted in his studio. Through his varied activities, van Leemput became a leading figure in the London art world, and he assembled a major collection of paintings and drawings. He bought extensively when Charles I’s collections were sold in 1649–51; his purchases included works attributed to Titian, Giorgione, Correggio and Andrea del Sarto. Later he acquired the great equestrian portrait by van Dyck of Charles I with M. de St Antoine (British Royal Col.), which he apparently attempted to sell in Antwerp but asked too high a price. It was still with him at the Restoration in 1660, when it was recovered from him for Charles II.

Although van Leemput painted original works, he was best known for his small-scale copies after van Dyck and others. A series of ‘14 … Ladies heads Copys by Remy’ (described thus in Queen ...

Article

Robert Williams

(d Edgware [now in London], Jan 12, 1714).

English garden designer. He probably first trained at St James’s Palace, and he was subsequently Bishop Henry Compton’s gardener at Fulham Palace. In 1681 he co-founded Brompton Park nursery; by 1687 Henry Wise had joined, soon becoming London’s sole business partner and co-translator of their two gardening directories.

At William III’s accession in 1688 London’s political connections secured him the post of Master Gardener and Deputy Superintendent of the Royal Gardens. William spent large sums on his palace grounds, and London and Wise brought new designs, with stock supplied from Brompton, to Kensington, Hampton Court and elsewhere. Through his contacts in architectural and aristocratic circles, London strove further to expand his business; with Wise left in charge at Brompton, London travelled ceaselessly and gradually received commissions from the provinces. He served an aristocracy demanding productive yet ostentatious gardens, and his numerous layouts were mostly developed through the 1690s and beyond. At ...

Article

(b Florence, 1570–80; d Madrid, Dec 24, 1643).

Italian architect. His career began in Florence, where he was apprenticed to Bernardino Poccetti. He collaborated with Bernardo Buontalenti on the decoration (1593) of the Boboli Gardens and created several hydraulic systems for the gardens of Pratolino and Castello. He designed trophies to adorn the Via Tornabuoni façade of the Palazzo Strozzi and worked on stage settings, mainly with the dramatist Jacopo Cicognini at the court of Grand Duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany. Lotti was sent to Spain in 1626 by Grand Duke Cosimo II to serve at the court of King Philip IV. His accomplishments enabled Philip to compete with the splendour of contemporary Italian and French courts by renovating the royal gardens, which had fallen into disrepair after the expulsion of Moorish engineers, and by producing spectacular theatre settings. Lotti designed a new theatre at the royal palace of Zarzuela (1634; destr.) and the Coliseo de Comedias (begun ...

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F. Hamilton Hazlehurst and Kathleen Russo

French family of artists. Jacques Mollet (fl to 1595) was employed by Charles de Lorraine, Duc d’Aumale, at Anet, château of, Eure-et-Loire, where he worked in collaboration with the architect Etienne Dupérac and made the first parterre de broderie in France (after 1582). His son Claude Mollet (i) (c. 1564–c. 1649) trained under him at Anet, afterwards becoming ‘premier jardinier de France’. The sites at which Claude Mollet worked include Fontainebleau, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Monceau-en-Brie and, most notably, the Tuileries in Paris. His assistants included, in turn, Pierre Le Nôtre and Jean Le Nôtre, grandfather and father respectively of André Le Nôtre, who became the greatest garden designer of the 17th century. Claude Mollet, whose Théâtre des plans et jardinages was posthumously published in Paris in 1652, had a number of his elaborate parterre designs illustrated in Olivier de Serres’s Théâtre d’agriculture et mesnage des champs...

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Valeria Farinati

(b Lacima [now Cima], Lake Lugano, Jan 22, 1669; d Vicenza, Feb 21, 1747).

Italian architect, architectural editor and expositor, landscape designer, draughtsman and cartographer. His work represents the transition from late Venetian Baroque to Neo-classicism, which his studies of Palladio did much to promote in its early stages. His style, however, was never entirely free of the Baroque elements acquired during his formative years.

Muttoni was the son of a builder, and in 1696 he went to work in Vicenza, as members of his family had done since the 16th century, enrolling that year in the stonemasons’ guild. From the beginning of the 18th century he was active as an expert consultant (‘perito’) and cartographer, as is exemplified by the plan of the fortifications of Vicenza that he drew in 1701 for the Venetian government (Vicenza, Archv Stor. Mun.). Throughout his life he continued to undertake various small professional commissions for surveys and on-site studies. His first major commission, however, was the majestic Palazzo Repeta (...

Article

Robert Williams

(b 1653; d Warwick, Dec 15, 1738).

English garden designer . About 1687 he joined the group venture of George London at Brompton Park, a nursery fast becoming the largest and best-stocked in London. By 1694 he was London’s sole business partner, and was subsequently co-translator of their two gardening directories. London’s influential position in the royal gardens helped provide a ready market for Brompton’s stock, and Wise too became increasingly involved in work for the Crown. Between 1689 and 1692 he improved the gardens at Hampton Court Palace: the ground was re-levelled, avenues of timber planted in neighbouring Bushey Park, and a basin dug to receive the Diana Fountain. During the 1690s he and London developed a useful working partnership, with Wise managing Brompton while London scoured England’s country seats for commissions.

At Anne’s succession in 1702 Wise was appointed Royal Gardener, and numerous alterations and additions on Crown property were made by him over the next few years. At the palaces of ...