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P. F. Smith

English country house and garden, near Bakewell, Derbys. The estate was purchased in 1549 by Sir William Cavendish (1505–57) and his wife, Elizabeth Talbot, later Countess of Shrewsbury, and the courtyard house was built from 1552. The 3rd Earl of Devonshire (1617–84) remodelled the interior and refenestrated the house (1676–80). The 1st Duke of Devonshire rebuilt it in stages between 1686 and 1706, following the plan of the earlier house (see Cavendish family §(1)). The four distinct fronts, each articulated with a giant order and topped with a balustrade, are among the finest and earliest Baroque façades in England: the south and west fronts are boldly ornamented with sculptural details, and the curved north façade shows strong Italian influence.

The south wing (1687–9), designed by William Talman (see Talman family, §1), contains the second-floor State Apartments and the chapel. In the State Drawing Room the ceiling (...

Article

Susanne Kronbichler-Skacha

Castle in Salzburg, Austria. To the south of Salzburg, Archbishop Marcus Sitticus von Hohenems (reg 1612–19) commissioned Santino Solari to build a small castle to be used as a summer palace. Schloss Hellbrunn (1613–19) is a most perfect realization of the Italian villa suburbana and the earliest of its kind north of the Alps. Situated at the end of a long avenue, the building is a cube of classic simplicity, with a bifurcate staircase opening on to a cour d’honneur. The most remarkable interior features are the Festsaal (banqueting hall), set asymmetrically on the west side, and its projecting octagon, with frescoes by Arsenio Mascagni (1579–1636). Hellbrunn’s main attraction, however, is its gardens. The Lustgarten or Pleasure Garden was laid out north of the castle and furnished with an unusual variety of grottoes, fountains, ponds and other features including the Roman Theatre, a miniature exedra dominated by a statue of ...

Article

Johannes Zahlten

Palace and garden on the outskirts of Hannover, Germany. After Duke Georg of Calenberg (d 1641) had elevated Hannover to the status of Residenzstadt, his summer residence was developed from an existing palace to the north-west of the town (from 1638). The modest palace, which was altered several times, was almost completely destroyed in 1943, but its Baroque gallery-building (1694–6) survives. The banqueting hall and residential wings are richly decorated: the frescoes (including an Aeneas cycle) were painted by the Venetian Tommaso Giusti (1644–1729), while the stucco decoration was executed by Dossa Grana, Pietro Rosso (fl 1695–1706) and others. To the south of the Residenz lies the park, the Grosser Garten, for which Herrenhausen is famed. The first pleasure garden, inspired by Venetian villa design, was created in 1666 by the landscape gardener Michael Grosse and developed (from 1674) by ...

Article

[formerly Isola di San Vittore]

Island in Lake Maggiore, northern Italy, the principal of three islands near Stresa known as the Isole Borromeo, where the 17th-century Palazzo Borromeo was built; this is a significant example of the harmonious integration of architecture, sculpture and garden design in the Baroque style. Before the 17th century the island was a barren rock with a few cottages and a church, inhabited only by poor fishermen. Count Carlo III Borromeo (1586–1652) initiated a grand project of building and landscaping in 1632 and renamed the island Isabella (later corrupted to Isola Bella) in honour of his wife Isabella d’Adda. Carlo’s scheme was finished under his sons Vitaliano Borromeo and Cardinal Giberto Borromeo (1615–72), Vitaliano taking over most of the supervision of the project. Several artists collaborated on the scheme; Angelo Crivelli (d 1630), who conceived the original plan for the gardens and palace, Francesco Maria Ricchini, ...

Article

F. Hamilton Hazlehurst

(b Paris, March 12, 1613; d Paris, Sept 15, 1700).

French garden designer and collector. He was outstanding in his time for his innovation and skill in garden design, particularly in his work at Vaux-le-Vicomte, Versailles, and Chantilly, and his ardent disciples carried his gardening principles throughout France and beyond, so spreading his influence. Popular among contemporaries, he also enjoyed a special relationship with the traditionally aloof Louis XIV, who bestowed upon him the Order of St Lazare (later replaced by the even more prestigious Order of St Michel), a coat of arms, and, on his retirement, a princely pension. Although the original spelling of his name was Le Nostre, by the late 20th century the form of Le Nôtre had gained most currency.

His career was doubtless determined at an early age, since his grandfather, Pierre, and his father, Jean, were both royal gardeners, who worked principally at the Palais des Tuileries. He was thus initiated into gardening practice by his father and a coterie of distinguished gardeners that included Claude Mollet (i) (...

Article

(b Florence, 1570–80; d Madrid, Dec 24, 1643).

Italian architect. His career began in Florence, where he was apprenticed to Bernardino Poccetti. He collaborated with Bernardo Buontalenti on the decoration (1593) of the Boboli Gardens and created several hydraulic systems for the gardens of Pratolino and Castello. He designed trophies to adorn the Via Tornabuoni façade of the Palazzo Strozzi and worked on stage settings, mainly with the dramatist Jacopo Cicognini at the court of Grand Duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany. Lotti was sent to Spain in 1626 by Grand Duke Cosimo II to serve at the court of King Philip IV. His accomplishments enabled Philip to compete with the splendour of contemporary Italian and French courts by renovating the royal gardens, which had fallen into disrepair after the expulsion of Moorish engineers, and by producing spectacular theatre settings. Lotti designed a new theatre at the royal palace of Zarzuela (1634; destr.) and the Coliseo de Comedias (begun ...

Article

Ian Dunlop

French royal château near Paris. The first château at Meudon (the Vieux Château) was built for Cardinal Sanguin and his niece Anne de Pisselieu, Duchesse d’Etampes (1508–80), mistress of Francis I, between 1520 and 1540. It was of an austere simplicity: two superimposed orders proportioned the façades, and the dormer windows were surmounted by triangular and segmental pediments. On the garden front appeared, probably for the first time, what was to become the classic French façade arrangement. It was divided into five sections with three projecting pavilions, one central and one at each end; each section had a separate roof, those of the pavilions being taller than those of the blocks connecting them. The châteaux of Fontainebleau and Coulommiers, for instance, followed this example. Four small corner towers were built out on corbels like those at Anet.

In 1553 the Duchesse d’Etampes sold Meudon to Charles de Guise, Cardinal of Lorraine, who added a grotto designed by ...

Article

Valeria Farinati

(b Lacima [now Cima], Lake Lugano, Jan 22, 1669; d Vicenza, Feb 21, 1747).

Italian architect, architectural editor and expositor, landscape designer, draughtsman and cartographer. His work represents the transition from late Venetian Baroque to Neo-classicism, which his studies of Palladio did much to promote in its early stages. His style, however, was never entirely free of the Baroque elements acquired during his formative years.

Muttoni was the son of a builder, and in 1696 he went to work in Vicenza, as members of his family had done since the 16th century, enrolling that year in the stonemasons’ guild. From the beginning of the 18th century he was active as an expert consultant (‘perito’) and cartographer, as is exemplified by the plan of the fortifications of Vicenza that he drew in 1701 for the Venetian government (Vicenza, Archv Stor. Mun.). Throughout his life he continued to undertake various small professional commissions for surveys and on-site studies. His first major commission, however, was the majestic Palazzo Repeta (...

Article

Jerzy Z. Łoziński

Polish village, c. 70 km south-west of Warsaw. It is the site of one of the few Polish palaces preserved with all its furnishings. The property belonged to the Nieborowski family in the 16th century, and it was redesigned (c. 1695) by Tylman van Gameren as a Baroque palace for the Primate Michał Stefan Radziejowski. It was a rectangular two-storey building with a façade framed by two towers. In 1922 a third storey, designed by Romuald Gutt, was built into the mansard roof. The palace was redecorated in 1766–8 for Prince Michał Kazimierz Ogiński. The Radziwiłł family, who owned the property from 1774 to 1945, also redecorated the interiors several times. The interiors dating to 1766–8 include the stairwell, with walls covered with faience tiles manufactured in Harlingen, and the Rococo Red Salon. Neo-classical decorations (c. 1784–5) by Simon Bogumił Zug, with grotesque wall paintings by ...

Article

Zbigniew Bania

Residential complex in L’viv, Ukraine (formerly Lwów, Poland), consisting of a fortified manor house with a terraced garden and a church. The house was commissioned by Stanisław Koniecpolski (1591–1646) as a country residence and built between 1635 and 1640 (destr. 1956; rest.), probably to the design of Andrea dell’Aqua (1584–c. 1654). It has four wings, arranged on a plan based on the quadrilateral design of a bastion fortification. Three of the wings are one-storey, their flat roofs forming a terrace that surrounds the interior courtyard on three sides. The fourth wing is three-storey and double-pile, with a three-sided central projection containing a chapel on the courtyard side, and with two, three-bay, corner pavilions. The principal portal of the house was executed according to Italian models, as were the internally retained chimney-pieces and doorframes of black and brown marble from Chȩcin. The stucco decorations of the chapel are from the workshop of ...

Article

Simone Hoog

Town and château in France, 20 km south-west of Paris. A hunting-lodge built for King Louis XIII in 1623 was rebuilt with extensive gardens from 1631 (see fig.). Under King Louis XIV it became the main royal residence and the seat of the French government from 1682. The château was enlarged in two main phases, first by Louis Le Vau from 1668, then, from 1678, by Jules Hardouin Mansart. The interior decorations were carried out under the supervision of the Premier Peintre du Roi, Charles Le Brun.

The gardens at Versailles, laid out by André Le Nôtre, with a programme of sculptures directed by Le Brun, were designed to complement the château: their solar imagery (see §2 below) was directly related to the image of Louis XIV as the Roi Soleil (Sun King). Further altered by Louis XV, Versailles was one of the most resplendent European palaces of the 18th century, a symbol of French royal power and an exemplar for contemporary monarchs....