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F. Hamilton Hazlehurst

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Kathleen Russo

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Lucia Tongiorgi Tomasi

[botanical]

A type of Garden developed by university medical schools in Europe from the mid-16th century for the collection and scientific study of plants; its origins lie in the monastic herbal gardens of the medieval period. The observation of plant specimens for educational purposes led to the establishment of numerous ‘physic’ gardens (hortus medicus): both Pisa and Padua had a botanic garden by 1544, and that at Florence was established in 1545; other early important examples include Leipzig (1580), Leiden (1587), Montpellier (1593), Oxford (1621), the Jardin des Plantes (1626), Paris, Uppsala (1665), Chelsea Physic Garden (1673), London, and Amsterdam (1682). The experimental method that was gradually beginning to dominate scientific study, together with the requirements imposed by the cultivation of plants, soon began to overshadow the aesthetic qualities that had characterized the Renaissance and Baroque garden. Virtually all decorative elements, such as statues, grottoes, fountains or mazes, were excluded from the botanic garden, whose value resided in its collection of such rare and exotic plant species as the sunflower, the agave or the tomato, all from newly discovered parts of the world. Certain plants, including the tulip, fritillary, narcissus, iris and anemone, were particularly sought after in the 17th century because of their shape and colour....

Article

Aonghus Mackechnie

(b Perthshire, 1625; d 1710).

Scottish architect and garden designer. He was the younger son of Robert Bruce of Blairhall, Perthshire, and probably attended St Salvator’s College, St Andrews, in 1637–8. Bruce was interested in the arts and was reputed to be well versed in languages, but it was as a politician that he first achieved recognition. He played a significant role in General Monk’s conversion to the Royalist cause in 1659 and was a confidential messenger between the Scottish Lords and Charles II in the months preceding the Restoration. Shortly after 1660 he was knighted, and through John Maitland, 2nd Earl and 1st Duke of Lauderdale—whose second wife was a full cousin of Bruce’s—he obtained various minor though lucrative employments before his appointment in 1671 as Surveyor-General of the Royal Works in Scotland (the ancient post of Master of the Royal Works, which had been re-created specifically for the rebuilding of the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh), which he held until ...

Article

Susan B. Taylor

[Desgotz.]

French family of garden designers. They were related by marriage to André Le Nôtre and, together with the Mollet family, formed a loose grouping of designers and horticulturists that undertook the execution of Le Nôtre’s plans for the most important French formal gardens of the mid- and late 17th century. In 1614 Jean Desgots was responsible for the upkeep of the Tuileries gardens in Paris; in 1624 he was replaced by his brother Pierre, a celebrated draughtsman who in 1616 had married Elizabeth, Le Nôtre’s sister. Pierre Desgots and Le Nôtre collaborated on a number of garden designs, with Pierre often drawing up finished plans based on Le Nôtre’s sketches. He probably served as clerk of works at Chantilly, where, after 1644, Le Nôtre was working for Louis II, Prince de Condé; in 1673 Pierre made two detailed plans of the Chantilly gardens.

Pierre’s son Claude Desgots was sent on a bursary to the Académie de France in Rome in ...

Article

Kim Sloan

[de Grey]

English family of architects, patrons and collectors. Principally noted for their interest in garden design and architecture as represented in the family estate at Wrest Park, Beds, many generations of the family were active as statesmen and parliamentarians. Among the important works of art once owned by the family are Claude Lorrain’s Coast View of the Embarkation of Carlo and Ubaldo (Toronto, A. G. Ont.) and Anthony van Dyck’s portrait of the Balbi Children (London, N.G.). In 1676 Anthony, 11th Earl Grey (b 1645; d 19 Aug 1702), designed and built a new north front for the Elizabethan house at Wrest; during the late 1680s he began making Baroque formal gardens to the south of it. His son, Henry Grey, 12th Earl of Kent (b 1671; d 5 June 1740), whose Grand Tour in 1690–91 had included a visit to Rome, inherited the estate on his father’s death and resumed work on the gardens in ...

Article

Robert Williams

(d Edgware [now in London], Jan 12, 1714).

English garden designer. He probably first trained at St James’s Palace, and he was subsequently Bishop Henry Compton’s gardener at Fulham Palace. In 1681 he co-founded Brompton Park nursery; by 1687 Henry Wise had joined, soon becoming London’s sole business partner and co-translator of their two gardening directories.

At William III’s accession in 1688 London’s political connections secured him the post of Master Gardener and Deputy Superintendent of the Royal Gardens. William spent large sums on his palace grounds, and London and Wise brought new designs, with stock supplied from Brompton, to Kensington, Hampton Court and elsewhere. Through his contacts in architectural and aristocratic circles, London strove further to expand his business; with Wise left in charge at Brompton, London travelled ceaselessly and gradually received commissions from the provinces. He served an aristocracy demanding productive yet ostentatious gardens, and his numerous layouts were mostly developed through the 1690s and beyond. At ...

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Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

Term applied to a style of architecture, interior décor and garden layout associated with the reign of Louis XIV of France (reg 1643–1715; see Bourbon, House of family, §I, (8)). Once he began his personal rule in 1661, the King took a passionate interest in the building and furnishing of the royal residences, notably Versailles, bringing together the most talented artists of the day to promote the power and magnificence of the monarchy. The style had its origins at Vaux-le-Vicomte, château of, the opulent late Baroque château created in the 1650s for Nicolas Fouquet, Surintendant des Finances, and the collaborative effort of the architect Louis Le Vau (see Le Vau family, §1), the garden designer Le Nôtre [Le Nostre], André and Le Brun, Charles, painter and designer. After Fouquet’s disgrace and imprisonment in 1661, the three worked together to transform the King’s hunting-lodge at Versailles into a statement of political absolutism....

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F. Hamilton Hazlehurst and Kathleen Russo

French family of artists. Jacques Mollet (fl to 1595) was employed by Charles de Lorraine, Duc d’Aumale, at Anet, château of, Eure-et-Loire, where he worked in collaboration with the architect Etienne Dupérac and made the first parterre de broderie in France (after 1582). His son Claude Mollet (i) (c. 1564–c. 1649) trained under him at Anet, afterwards becoming ‘premier jardinier de France’. The sites at which Claude Mollet worked include Fontainebleau, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Monceau-en-Brie and, most notably, the Tuileries in Paris. His assistants included, in turn, Pierre Le Nôtre and Jean Le Nôtre, grandfather and father respectively of André Le Nôtre, who became the greatest garden designer of the 17th century. Claude Mollet, whose Théâtre des plans et jardinages was posthumously published in Paris in 1652, had a number of his elaborate parterre designs illustrated in Olivier de Serres’s Théâtre d’agriculture et mesnage des champs...

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Valeria Farinati

(b Lacima [now Cima], Lake Lugano, Jan 22, 1669; d Vicenza, Feb 21, 1747).

Italian architect, architectural editor and expositor, landscape designer, draughtsman and cartographer. His work represents the transition from late Venetian Baroque to Neo-classicism, which his studies of Palladio did much to promote in its early stages. His style, however, was never entirely free of the Baroque elements acquired during his formative years.

Muttoni was the son of a builder, and in 1696 he went to work in Vicenza, as members of his family had done since the 16th century, enrolling that year in the stonemasons’ guild. From the beginning of the 18th century he was active as an expert consultant (‘perito’) and cartographer, as is exemplified by the plan of the fortifications of Vicenza that he drew in 1701 for the Venetian government (Vicenza, Archv Stor. Mun.). Throughout his life he continued to undertake various small professional commissions for surveys and on-site studies. His first major commission, however, was the majestic Palazzo Repeta (...

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Jerzy Z. Łoziński

Polish village, c. 70 km south-west of Warsaw. It is the site of one of the few Polish palaces preserved with all its furnishings. The property belonged to the Nieborowski family in the 16th century, and it was redesigned (c. 1695) by Tylman van Gameren as a Baroque palace for the Primate Michał Stefan Radziejowski. It was a rectangular two-storey building with a façade framed by two towers. In 1922 a third storey, designed by Romuald Gutt, was built into the mansard roof. The palace was redecorated in 1766–8 for Prince Michał Kazimierz Ogiński. The Radziwiłł family, who owned the property from 1774 to 1945, also redecorated the interiors several times. The interiors dating to 1766–8 include the stairwell, with walls covered with faience tiles manufactured in Harlingen, and the Rococo Red Salon. Neo-classical decorations (c. 1784–5) by Simon Bogumił Zug, with grotesque wall paintings by ...

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Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

French term used to describe artefacts made in Turkey, or in France by Turkish craftsmen, and by derivation the influence on French design of elements from the Byzantine Empire, the Saljuq Islamic period and the Ottoman Empire. Specific motifs, borrowed from the original Turkish carpets, included arabesques or stylized flowers and vegetal scrolls and decorative animal forms—also included within the generic term ‘grotesques’—from the Renaissance onwards. From the Middle Ages inventories and accounts record objects façon de Turquie imported from the East through the Crusades or the Silk route. In the accounts (1316) of Geoffroi de Fleuri, treasurer to King Philippe V of France, ‘11 cloths of Turkey’ were noted, and in 1471 the inventory of the château of Angers records a wooden spoon and a cushion ‘à la façon de Turquie’. In the 16th century Turkish textiles were highly prized, and Turkish craftsmen were employed in Paris to embroider cloth for ladies’ dresses: in ...

Article

Robert Williams

(b 1653; d Warwick, Dec 15, 1738).

English garden designer . About 1687 he joined the group venture of George London at Brompton Park, a nursery fast becoming the largest and best-stocked in London. By 1694 he was London’s sole business partner, and was subsequently co-translator of their two gardening directories. London’s influential position in the royal gardens helped provide a ready market for Brompton’s stock, and Wise too became increasingly involved in work for the Crown. Between 1689 and 1692 he improved the gardens at Hampton Court Palace: the ground was re-levelled, avenues of timber planted in neighbouring Bushey Park, and a basin dug to receive the Diana Fountain. During the 1690s he and London developed a useful working partnership, with Wise managing Brompton while London scoured England’s country seats for commissions.

At Anne’s succession in 1702 Wise was appointed Royal Gardener, and numerous alterations and additions on Crown property were made by him over the next few years. At the palaces of ...