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Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

Term applied to a style of architecture, interior décor and garden layout associated with the reign of Louis XIV of France (reg 1643–1715; see Bourbon, House of family, §I, (8)). Once he began his personal rule in 1661, the King took a passionate interest in the building and furnishing of the royal residences, notably Versailles, bringing together the most talented artists of the day to promote the power and magnificence of the monarchy. The style had its origins at Vaux-le-Vicomte, château of, the opulent late Baroque château created in the 1650s for Nicolas Fouquet, Surintendant des Finances, and the collaborative effort of the architect Louis Le Vau (see Le Vau family, §1), the garden designer Le Nôtre [Le Nostre], André and Le Brun, Charles, painter and designer. After Fouquet’s disgrace and imprisonment in 1661, the three worked together to transform the King’s hunting-lodge at Versailles into a statement of political absolutism....

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Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

French term used to describe artefacts made in Turkey, or in France by Turkish craftsmen, and by derivation the influence on French design of elements from the Byzantine Empire, the Saljuq Islamic period and the Ottoman Empire. Specific motifs, borrowed from the original Turkish carpets, included arabesques or stylized flowers and vegetal scrolls and decorative animal forms—also included within the generic term ‘grotesques’—from the Renaissance onwards. From the Middle Ages inventories and accounts record objects façon de Turquie imported from the East through the Crusades or the Silk route. In the accounts (1316) of Geoffroi de Fleuri, treasurer to King Philippe V of France, ‘11 cloths of Turkey’ were noted, and in 1471 the inventory of the château of Angers records a wooden spoon and a cushion ‘à la façon de Turquie’. In the 16th century Turkish textiles were highly prized, and Turkish craftsmen were employed in Paris to embroider cloth for ladies’ dresses: in ...

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M. Hamilton-Phillips and R. P. Maccubbin

Term applied primarily to decorative arts produced in The Netherlands and England during the reign (1689–1702) of William III and Mary II ( see Orange Nassau, House of family §(5) ) and that spread also to North America at the end of the century. It covers a vocabulary of visual forms rather than a movement, and is represented by richly ornamented furniture, displays of wares from the Far East, embossed and engraved silver, ceramics, luxurious textiles, architectural ornament and garden design. The decorative arts of the 1690s reflect the blending of French, Dutch and English ornamental styles as well as an increased taste for exotica. Although at war with France, William III admired the sophistication of French culture and encouraged the immigration of Huguenot refugees, the French Protestants who fled from France after 1685 when Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes, which had guaranteed them freedom of worship (...