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(b Pieve Santo Stefano, nr Arezzo, May 13, 1836; d Florence, Sept 12, 1922).

Italian dealer, restorer, collector and painter . From 1854 he trained as a painter at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, executing such works as France Succouring Italy during the War of 1859 (1859–60; Impruneta, Villa Triboli). During the 1870s he began acquiring important works of art and became known as a notable dealer in Italian Old Master paintings, sculpture and objets d’art. He often obtained works of impeccable provenance, such as Arnolfo di Cambio’s marble figures for the ancient façade of Florence Cathedral, which included the Nativity, Pope Boniface VIII (both c. 1296–1300; Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo) and Death of the Virgin (c. 1296–1300; destr., fragments in Berlin, Bodemus.; plaster copy, executed by Bardini before the sale to Berlin, in Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo). An extensive range of significant works dating from approximately the 12th century to the 16th passed through his possession, entering major museums and private collections, including numerous Italian bronze statuettes, many of which were acquired by ...

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(b Château de Vérignon, Var, Jan 10, 1771; d Prague, Nov 17, 1839).

French patron and collector. A leading ultra-conservative political figure, he engaged in restoration of French royal properties. As Ministre de la Maison du Roi (March–June 1815) he tried to initiate the restoration of Versailles. As ambassador to Rome (1816–22) he restored the Spanish Steps and Domenichino’s frescoes (1612–15) in S Luigi dei Francesi. His Trinità dei Monti project involved Charles-François Mazois, Ingres, Pietro Tenerani and pensioners of the French Academy in Rome. He was the patron of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Eugène Delacroix, Horace Vernet and Vincenzo Camuccini as well as of artists of lesser renown such as François-Xavier Fabre, Pietro Tenerani, Auguste-Jean-Baptiste Vinchon (1789–1855), Auguste Forestier (1780–1850) and Louis-Vincent-Léon Pallière (1787–1820). Blacas’s extensive collection of ancient art (London, BM) comprised 950 gems, over 500 Greek vases, terracotta and bronze sculpture, Roman mural paintings, Greek and Roman glass, papyrus inscriptions, jewellery, over 400 Egyptian artefacts, Islamic vessels and over 2,000 Greek and Roman coins. He supported scholarly research that resulted in ...

Article

(b Toulouse, 1766; d Paris, 1826).

French dealer, restorer and painter. He may have begun his career as a protégé of Henri-Auguste de Chalvet, a collector and Associate Member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse. His first teachers were Pierre Rivalz and Lambert-François-Thérèse Cammas. He moved to Paris shortly before the French Revolution but went almost immediately to London, where he established himself as a portrait painter, exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1794 and 1795. He returned to Paris in 1796 and that year sent three portraits to the Salon. In 1799, he exhibited the curiously Romantic Girl Surprised by a Storm (New York, Brooklyn Mus.). The following year he achieved popular success with Woman of Property Begging (England, priv. col.). His talents as a portrait painter were particularly admired: surviving examples are Adrien Segond (1812; Paris, Louvre) and Dieudonné Jeanroy (1812; U. Paris V, Fac. Médec.). His style of painting reflected contemporary admiration for highly finished works in the manner of 17th-century Dutch artists....

Article

E. A. Christensen

(b Laxfield, Suffolk, Oct 24, 1787; d London, Oct 13, 1847).

British architect, designer, writer and collector. He trained as a builder and from 1814 worked independently as an architect in London, his practice consisting mainly of church restorations. He published many books on design and architecture: his designs for ornamental metalwork appeared as Ornamental Metal Worker’s Director (1823), and his lithographs of Gothic mouldings, finials and other details, published as Working Drawings of Gothic Ornaments ([1824]), provided architects with models for Gothic capitals and carvings; his publications on architecture include Westminster Hall (1822) and Plans…of the Chapel of King Henry the Seventh (1822–9).

During the 1840s Cottingham designed a variety of pieces of Gothic furniture for his friend, John Harrison of Snelston Hall, Derbys, some of which incorporated fragments of authentic Gothic carving. His design (London, V&A) for a drawing-room cabinet for Snelston Hall, although not strictly archaeological, was based on existing examples of Gothic detailing. Cottingham’s discovery of a series of medieval tiles in the Chapter House at Westminster Abbey stimulated a revival of encaustic tiles, subsequently produced by such firms as Minton; he designed such tiles for ...

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Oldest and largest photography museum in the United States, located in Rochester, NY. Since it opened its doors to the public in November 1949, George Eastman House has played a pivotal role in shaping and expanding the field of American photography. George Eastman, founder of Eastman Kodak Company, never knew his home would become a museum; he bequeathed the mansion where he lived from 1905 until 1932 to the University of Rochester to serve as the residence of its president. In 1946 a board of trustees was formed to establish George Eastman House as an independent, non-profit museum, a memorial to Eastman and his advancements in photographic technology.

Working under director Oscar Solbert, a retired US Army general and former Kodak executive, was the museum’s first curator, Beaumont Newhall. Newhall transformed the museum from one primarily concerned with the technical applications of photography to one emphasizing its artistic development. The museum became an international centre of scholarship, and in ...

Article

Haro  

Linda Whiteley

French family of painters, colourmen, dealers, restorers and collectors. The father of Etienne-François Haro (b Paris, 13 April 1827; d Paris, 4 Feb 1897) was a painter but also a colourman and supplier of artists’ materials in Paris, selling them from his shop the Palette d’Or (renamed Au Génie des Arts at Delacroix’s suggestion). Two of the more important customers were Ingres, who patronized the shop from the late 18th century, and Delacroix, who from about 1826 bought his canvases and paints there. When Etienne-François’s father died he left the business to his wife, from whose aunt they had inherited it.

Etienne-François Haro was the great-nephew of Hubert Robert and was a pupil of Ingres and Delacroix, maintaining a lifelong friendship with both. From the mid-1840s he took an active part in running the business with his mother, but by the first years of the Second Empire (...

Article

Linda Whiteley

(fl c. Paris, 1828–56).

French dealer, framemaker, gilder, restorer and collector. He was one of several 19th-century dealers in artists’ supplies whose activities expanded into dealing in pictures. He supplied canvases and restored pictures, Delacroix first mentioning him in October 1828 in connection with a commission of this kind; when first listed in directories in Paris, in 1837, his specialization is given as framing and gilding. Although there is little evidence of his dealing in Delacroix’s work, he bought pictures from a number of contemporary artists for whom, presumably, he provided frames and canvases; Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps mentioned him in this capacity during the 1840s. It is likely that he took a particular interest in the work of Théodore Rousseau; Avenue of Chestnut-trees (1840; Paris, Louvre) was exhibited in his gallery in 1847, at which time Delacroix remarked on it. Early in 1847 Souty sold his stock (19–22 Jan) at the Hôtel des Ventes Mobilières with the dealer ...