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Phil C. Weigand

Site in Narayit state, Mexico. The term is also used for an associated regional style of pottery and figurines. The site has an architectural complex that dates largely from the Early Post-Classic period (c. ad 900–c. 1200), while the Narayit style is an earlier phenomenon, spanning the Middle and Late Pre-Classic periods (c. 1000 bcc. ad 250). Quantities of chemical turquoise found at Ixtlán del Río and in its vicinity indicate that the region played an important role in long-distance trade. The site is now a national park.

The Pre-Classic period ceramics, and group and architectural figurines, are found over a wide area of Nayarit and adjacent sections of the state of Jalisco, but the main production centre may have been in the vicinity of Ixtlán del Río. The figurines are truly ethnographic documents, nearly always polychrome and almost ‘baroque’ in the amount of detail used. This attention to detail provides a wealth of information on costume, ornamentation, personal artefacts, economic activities, and architecture. Some are clearly portraits, and again great attention is paid to such details as facial expressions and hand gestures. Warriors and group activity scenes are the best-known types. The group scenes often have architectural settings, ranging from individual houses on platforms to entire villages. One spectacular group scene in a modified Ixtlán style represents a ball-game in progress (Mexico City, Museo Diego Rivera de Anahuacalli); other scenes include festivals, processions, dances, and combat....


Richard F. Townsend

Site of a 16th-century rock-cut Aztec temple, c. 60 km south-east of Mexico City. The temple at Malinalco is an example of a widespread type of ritual building described in 16th-century ethno-historical texts and associated with the cult of the earth. Its monolithic inner chamber is the only excavated example to have survived intact. The temple forms part of a ritual and administrative centre built at the hilltop Matlazinca town of Malinalco after it had been incorporated into the Aztec empire. The buildings were begun in 1501, under the Aztec ruler Ahuizotl (reg 1486–1502), as extensions of the symbolic architectural system developed in Tenochtitlán; they are compactly arranged along an artificial terrace partly carved from the steeply sloping mountainside. The façade comprises two sections. Sculptured guardian figures flank the foot of a flight of 13 steps ascending the lower platform. Similar figures flank the front of the upper temple chamber; another figure forms part of the centre of the 3rd to 6th steps, in which the most important sculpture is a large relief carving of a serpent-like mask framing the chamber doorway. The carved mask functions as a hieroglyph for ...