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Terry Smith, Michael Spens, Graeme Sturgeon, Terence Lane, Kevin Fahy, Margaret Legge, Geoffrey R. Edwards, Judith O’Callaghan, Jennifer Sanders, Nancy Underhill, Robert Smith and Joyce McGrath

Country and island continent. It is the world’s smallest continent (area c. 8.5 million sq. km), located between the Indian and Pacific oceans south of South-east Asia, in latitudes parallel to those of the Sahara Desert (see fig.). With an average elevation of only 300 m, Australia is also the lowest continent, its ancient landforms being heavily eroded. The most prominent feature is the Great Dividing Range, the highlands of which run the full length of eastern Australia and recur in the island of Tasmania; in the western half of the continent are extensive plateaux and ridges, with vast desert areas in the centre. The extreme north is tropical, lying within the monsoon belt north of the Tropic of Capricorn; off the north-eastern coast is the Great Barrier Reef, the world’s largest coral reef. Australia has extensive coastal plains and tablelands, those along the east coast being the most heavily populated parts of the country; the vegetation is typically dry, open woodland dominated by eucalypts. The Australian Aboriginal peoples arrived ...

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Terry Smith

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Terry Smith, Michael Spens, Graeme Sturgeon, Terence Lane, Kevin Fahy, Margaret Legge, Geoffrey R. Edwards, Judith O’Callaghan, Jennifer Sanders, Nancy Underhill, Robert Smith and Joyce McGrath

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Michael Hitchcock, Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

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Terry Smith, Michael Spens, Graeme Sturgeon, Terence Lane, Kevin Fahy, Margaret Legge, Geoffrey R. Edwards, Judith O’Callaghan, Jennifer Sanders, Nancy Underhill, Robert Smith and Joyce McGrath

In 

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Philip Stott, Miranda Bruce-Mitford, J. Dumarçay, Frederick Mathewson Denny, Jan Fontein, R. Soekmono, Helen Ibbitson Jessup, Victor T. King, Urs Ramseyer, Michael Hitchcock, Sheila S. Blair, Jonathan M. Bloom, John N. Miksic, Ruth Barnes, Mattiebelle Gittinger, Ward Keeler, Angela Hobart, Victoria M. Clara van Groenendael, Wolfgang Marschall, Bernard Arps, H. I. R. Hinzler, Sian E. Jay, Dawn F. Rooney, Robert S. Wicks, Daniëlle Grosheide and Lewis G. Hill

[formerly Dutch East Indies]

Country in South-east Asia comprising over 13,700 islands that extend in an arc straddling the equator, from Sumatra, west of Peninsular Malaysia, to the island of New Guinea, north of Australia (see fig.). Irian Jaya, the easternmost province of Indonesia, comprises the western half of the island of New Guinea; its population and cultures are Melanesian rather than Indonesian, and it is therefore treated elsewhere (see Irian Jaya). Kalimantan, in the centre of the archipelago, comprises most of the island of Borneo (the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, with Brunei, account for the remainder). The three next largest islands are Sumatra (see fig.), Sulawesi (Celebes) and Java (see fig.). Of the groups of smaller islands, the largest are Maluku (Moluccas)—a term formerly used to denote only the five small clove-producing islands of Tidore, Ternate, Motir, Makian and Bacan but now embracing all the islands between Sulawesi, Timor and Irian Jaya—and Nusa Tenggara (Lesser Sundas), a chain of islands stretching from Bali (...

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Philip Stott

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Graeme Sturgeon

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H. I. R. Hinzler

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Judith O’Callaghan

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A. S. G. Green, J. N. Mané-Wheoki, Ian J. Lochhead, Roger Blackley, Edward Hanfling, Michael Dunn, Robin Woodward, John Stacpoole, Stuart Park, Justine Olsen, Angela Lassig, Jim Barr, Mary Barr, Mary Kisler, Ted Bracey, Leonard Bell, Tony Mackle and Marian Minson

Country and group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean. It is located about 1900 km south-east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and comprises two main islands, North Island and South Island, and several much smaller ones, including Stewart Island (just off the southern tip of South Island) and the Chatham Islands (c. 700 km south-east of Wellington). The two main islands extend c. 1600 km from north to south and are separated by the narrow Cook Strait (see fig.). Both are subject to earthquakes caused by the meeting of two continental plates along the Alpine Fault at the north end of South Island. North Island is also subject to continuing volcanic activity; it has several volcanoes, the highest being Mt Ruapehu (2797 m), as well as areas of boiling mud and geysers, especially around Rotorua. South Island is dominated by the Southern Alps, which contain several glaciers and more than 20 peaks over 3000 m, including Mt Cook (3764 m); on the south-west coast is the glaciated Fjordland region. New Zealand is one of the world’s largest producers of wool, meat and dairy products, with nearly half its total land area devoted to pasture. The population (...

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Barry Craig, Michael O’Hanlon, Eugenia Sumnik-Dekovich, Dirk Smidt, Shirley F. Campbell, Deborah B. Waite, Philip J. C. Dark and Susanne Küchler

Country in the western Pacific Ocean consisting of the eastern part of the large island of New Guinea and a number of island groups (see fig.). (For the western part of New Guinea see Irian Jaya.) The principal island groups are: the Bismarck Archipelago (including New Britain, New Ireland and Manus); Bougainville (geographically part of the Solomon Islands); the Trobriands; D’Entrecasteaux Islands; and Louisiade Archipelago (known collectively as the Massim). Papua New Guinea is conventionally classified as part of Melanesia. The total area is 462,800 sq. km, of which the mainland constitutes 85%. The total population is c. 3,804,000 (UN estimate, 1990). The capital is Port Moresby. Both Britain and Germany claimed parts of present-day Papua New Guinea in 1884, while during much of the 20th century the country was administered by Australia. The process towards self-government began in the 1960s, and full independence was achieved in ...

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John B. Turner

The pattern of development in photography in New Zealand was similar to other colonies in the Victorian era. Progress was slow because of the country’s geographical remoteness and small population. Difficulties of overseas supply and local demand—the very traffic of equipment, materials, ideas, and pictures—have shaped all levels of achievement. Pioneer photographers were participant-observers in the process of nation building who could not but see the world according to the values of their upbringing. For instance, after the wars over land ceased in the 1880s, defeated Maori were imagined as a dying race and their culture was studied with fresh urgency. Maori subjects were common among photographers; the treatments ranging from nostalgic romanticism to abject realism.

Pictorial photography, photography’s first international art movement, dominated the camera club movement throughout the first half of the 20th century, and effectively muted the radical social precepts of modernism to the point of portraying it as an essentially anti-Pictorialist movement. In a society where art practice tends more towards the experiential than cerebral, the influence of Post-modernism, generally perceived as an anti-modernist movement, in its turn seems largely academic....

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Samoa  

Aiono Fanaafi Le Tagaloa

Group of islands in the southern Pacific Ocean. The islands of Manua and Tutuila are a territory of the USA; while Savai’i, Apolima, Manono, Upolu and some smaller islands have comprised the politically independent country of Western Samoa (Malotuto’atasi o Samoa i Sisifo) since 1962. Samoan society is stratified and based on a system of village (aiga), district and island titles, which are largely hereditary. Samoa has had important trading and cultural relations with the other Polynesian islands and the Lav Group of Fiji. In Samoan culture ‘art’ is all-pervasive: it exists in every activity, function, expression, experience, emotion and ritual. It is probably in the use of language that the highest levels of artistry are achieved. There are at least three sets of vocabulary, chiefly, oratorical and general, reflecting the religious, socio-economic and political structure of Samoan society. Art or that which is beautiful, aesthetically pleasing and desirable is defined by the concept of ...

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Terence Lane

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Philip Stott

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Kevin Fahy

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Philip Stott

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