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Article

Jennifer Wearden

English town in Devon, situated on the River Axe, known as a centre of carpet production from the mid-18th century to the mid-19th. In 1755 Thomas Whitty (d 1792), a weaver from Axminster, visited Pierre Parisot’s carpet workshop in Fulham, London. An apprentice showed him the workshop, and on his return to Axminster Whitty built a large vertical loom, taught his daughters to tie the symmetrical or Ghiordes knot (see Carpet, §I, 1) and began to produce carpets. In 1757 he submitted a carpet measuring 4.9×3.8 m to the Royal Society of Arts and was awarded a joint prize with Thomas Moore (c. 1700–1788; see Carpet, §II, 2, (iii)) of Chiswell Street, London. Whitty valued his carpet at £15 and the Society ruled it the best carpet in proportion to its price. In 1758 he was asked to submit three carpets and shared the prize with ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French centre of ceramics production. A pottery was founded in the village of Bellvue (near Toul, in Meurthe-et-Moselle) in 1758. In 1771 it passed into the hands of Charles Bayard (former director of the Lunéville pottery) and François Boyer, who in 1773 were given the right to style the pottery ‘Manufacture Royale de Bellevue’. Bayard left in ...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Gordon Campbell

English centre of ceramics production. Town in Derbyshire where a group of manufacturers of household wares in brown stoneware were active from the 18th century to the early 20th. The most prominent factories were Oldfield & Co. and S. & H. Briddon. The Brampton potter Thomas Davenport (1815–88) emigrated to Utah, where he and his descendants worked as potters....

Article

Buczacz  

Zdisław Żygulski jr

Town in Podolia, Ukraine, formerly in Polish territory, known as a centre for weaving in the 18th and 19th centuries. In the 18th century the town belonged to the magnate family Potocki, and the art of weaving kilims with floral designs flourished. About 1870 Oskar Potocki founded a large factory to produce wall hangings made of silk interwoven with gold and silver thread. These hangings carried on the Polish tradition of brocade weaving but were made on mechanical looms. They are distinguished by subtle shades of pink, orange and red, with tiny motifs, or are predominantly gold with a beautiful sheen. They were expensive and much prized by connoisseurs. The workshop labels, which give the size of each piece (usually about 1.5×2.5 m), show the Pilawa coat of arms of the Potocki family (a cross with two-and-a-half arms), the name Buczacz and sometimes the initials AP for Artur Potocki, the manager. These were woven in or stitched on a separate piece of fabric. ...

Article

Catherine Brisac

French town and château some 8 km south-east of Paris, in the département of Val-de-Marne. The château was built (1680–86) for Anne-Marie-Louise d’Orléans, Duchesse de Montpensier (1627–93), by Jacques Gabriel IV. His design was a simple one, with strong horizontal lines countered by tall rectangular windows and rusticated quoins to the shallow projecting bays. Artists employed on the interior decoration included the painters Antoine Coypel, Gabriel Blanchard, Jean Le Moyne and Adam Frans van der Meulen and the sculptor Etienne Le Hongre. The grounds were laid out by André Le Nôtre. Used as a hunting-lodge by Louis XV, King of France, from 1740, the château was enlarged by Ange-Jacques Gabriel in several campaigns (1742–52), the additions including a gallery, a theatre and various garden buildings. Much sculpture was commissioned for the grounds, which were remodelled, including work by René-Michel Slodtz and Edmé Bouchardon. In ...

Article

Brian Austen

English centre of furniture production. The town is situated in Buckinghamshire near the Chiltern Hills, where there is a plentiful supply of timber, particularly beech. The ‘Windsor’ chair, with which High Wycombe is particularly associated, was available in the London market c. 1720, and London chairmakers drew from the High Wycombe area billets of beech and probably such turned components as legs and stretchers. Turners, known as ‘bodgers’, would fell timber and directly convert it on simple pole lathes. Complete chairs were probably being manufactured in the High Wycombe area by the mid-18th century. Furniture workshops first appeared in the town after 1750, using turned components produced by the ‘bodgers’, making other parts such as the seat and assembling complete chairs for wholesale or retail sale. Four makers were listed in a directory of 1784, three being members of the Treacher family, and in the 1790s William Treacher was offering ‘Windsor, dyed and fancy chairs’. Another early maker was ...

Article

Jennifer Wearden

English town in Hereford & Worcs, known as a centre of carpet production. By the end of the 16th century, if not earlier, weavers in Kidderminster were producing a strong, woollen cloth that served as an inexpensive floor covering and was commonly known as Kidderminster or Scotch carpeting (see Carpet §I 5.). In 1735 a Mr Pearsall drew together individual weavers, establishing the first factory devoted to the production of double-cloth floor covering in Kidderminster; within a few years several other factories had also been established. In 1749 a weaver was brought from Belgium to build Brussels looms, thus breaking Wilton’s monopoly of the Brussels carpet (see Wilton §2). These Brussels carpets, together with Wilton carpets, soon became the main products of Kidderminster, outselling the traditional flat-weave coverings. In 1812 Thomas Lea patented a technique for weaving a triple-cloth floor covering which, though popular, was still inferior to pile carpets in durability. In ...

Article

Lednice  

Jiří Kroupa

[Ger. Eisgrub]

Town in southern Moravia, Czech Republic, known for its manor house and garden. Situated on the border with Lower Austria, about halfway between Brno and Vienna, the estate belonged to the Liechtenstein princes from the mid-13th century to 1945. Before 1588 Hartmann II, Landgrave of Feldberg, had commissioned a house and ornamental garden for use as the family’s country seat. The house was modernized in the 17th century by Charles Eusebius, Prince of Liechtenstein, who employed, among others, the stuccoist Bernardo Bianchi, the masons Pietro Maderna, Pietro Tencalla and Francesco Caratti (1632) and the architects Giovanni Battista I Carlone (ii), Giovanni Giacomo Tencalla from Vienna and Andrea Erna from Brno (1638–41). Further modifications were made by Antonio Beduzzi in the 1730s, by Isidore Canevale in 1766–72 and by Joseph Kornhäusel, who gave the house a Neo-classical façade in 1815. The only part of the house to remain unaltered was the monumental riding school and its stables, designed in ...

Article

Nove  

Bruce Tattersall

Italian centre of ceramics production. A maiolica factory was established in Nove near Bassano, a village on the Venetian mainland, c. 1728 by Giovanni Battista Antonibon (d 1738). In 1752 his son Pasquale Antonibon (d ?1773), who had been in charge of the venture since 1741, built an experimental kiln for the production of porcelain. Until c. 1754 he was assisted by Johann Sigismund Fischer, a painter from Dresden, and Jean-Pierre Varion (d 1780), a modeller from the French factory of Vincennes. By 1762 the factory was producing a hard-paste porcelain made from kaolin (china clay) from Tretto, near Vicenza. The porcelain venture was suspended due to Pasquale’s illness (1763–5) and many workers deserted the concern either to set up such factories as that of the d’Este family or to join the Cozzi Porcelain Factory in Venice. Production picked up briefly, and until its closure in ...

Article

English city and centre of metalwork production. From the 12th century blacksmiths, arrowsmiths and cutlers were active in the locality of Sheffield. Although there are references from the Middle Ages to the manufacture of knives, the cutlery trade did not become significant until the 16th century, when the harnessing of water power and the use of local sources of raw materials helped to establish Sheffield as a leading centre of production. The Earls of Shrewsbury kept firm control over the cutlery trades that operated under the jurisdiction of the manorial court. Most businesses were family enterprises, and apprentices were at times recruited from the minor landed gentry, clergy and yeomen. The numerous processes involved in the manufacture of cutlery and the increasing range of edge-tool wares in the 16th and 17th centuries led to the growth of a network of self-employed ‘little mesters’, specializing in one area of production. Changes in the regulation of the trade were made in ...

Article

Swansea  

Gordon Campbell

Welsh centre of ceramics production. The Cambrian Pottery was established in the Welsh city of Swansea (Welsh Abertawe) c. 1767, initially making pottery (notably creamware) and later porcelain, some of which was made by William Billingsley . The factory’s finest products were decorated by Thomas Baxter (1782–1821), who painted birds and animals, and Thomas Pardoe , who painted flowers. A second factory, the Glamorgan pottery, produced similar wares from 1814–38.

E. M. Nance: The Pottery and Porcelain of Swansea and Nantgarw (London, 1942, R/1994) W. D. John: Swansea Porcelain (Newport, Mons, 1958) Sir Leslie Joseph Loan Exhibition of Swansea Porcelain (exh. cat. by J. Bunt; Swansea, Vivian A.G. & Mus., 1969) E. Jenkins: Swansea Porcelain (Cowbridge, 1970) E. Jones and Sir Leslie Joseph: Swansea Porcelain Shapes and Decoration (Cowbridge, 1988) H. L. Hallesy: The Glamorgan Pottery, Swansea, 1814–38 (Llandysul, 1995) J. Gray, ed.: Welsh Ceramics in Context, Part I...

Article

Tanba  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of Japanese ceramics production based in and around Tachikui and Kamaya villages (Hyōgo Prefect.). Together with Bizen, Shigaraki, Echizen, Seto and Tokoname, Tanba is one of the few Japanese kiln centres that has been active from the 12th century to the present day. The origins of Tanba ware are not perfectly understood, but recent excavations of the Sanbontōge kiln (late 12th century–early 13th), thought to be the earliest Tanba kiln, suggest that the Echizen (Fukui Prefect.) and possibly the Tokoname (Aichi Prefect.) kilns played a central role in the ware’s development. The principal wares, which reflect improvements in Japanese agricultural production in the 12th century, include a limited number of kitchen mortars (suribachi), and greater quantities of wide-mouthed jars (kame) and narrow-mouthed jars (tsubo). Ten kiln sites, spanning a period from the 12th to the 16th centuries, have been identified, and it is thought that these were single-chamber tunnel kilns (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Tickenhall]

English centre of ceramics production. Earthenware was made in the Derbyshire village of Ticknall (also spelt Tickenhall) from the late 15th century until 1886. The village was an important producer of a dark-brown slipware that resembles Cistercian ware , and ‘Tickney ware’ became a generic name for slipware; similarly, itinerant pot sellers became known all over England as ‘Tickney men’....

Article

Brian Austen

English spa town in Kent and centre of decorative woodware production. The chalybeate spring was discovered in 1606, but no major development took place until after 1680, when capital was raised in London to provide shops and amusement rooms. The items that Celia Fiennes, the travel writer, saw being sold on the Parade near the well in 1697 were probably those manufactured in London and sold by tradesmen who visited the town for the season, since there is believed to have been little local manufacturing until the early 18th century. The earliest Tunbridge wares were both turnery and cabinet wares, and some were painted or lacquered in a manner similar to contemporary woodwares produced at Spa in Belgium. Veneered wares decorated with marquetry or parquetry were produced by the late 18th century, and exotic woods used in cubic parquetry designs are distinctive of the period. Prints of Classical and topographical subjects were also extensively employed as decoration. By the late 1820s a technique of producing patterns from small triangular pieces of different-coloured wood had been introduced. From the early 1830s the characteristic tessellated mosaic developed in which such pictorial subjects as birds, butterflies, moths, views of buildings and various types of flower were produced....

Article

M. A. Claringbull

[anc. Kāsī: ‘City of Light’; Kashi; Vārāṇasī; Banāras; Benares]

Sacred city and pilgrimage centre on the banks of the Ganga River between the Barna, or Varuna, and Asi rivers in Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the most holy of the seven sacred cities of Hinduism (the others being Ayodhya, Mathura, Hardwar, Kanchipuram, Ujjain and Dwarka) and has been the focus of Brahmanical learning and religious pilgrimage from ancient times.

The existence of the city from earliest times is attested by myriad references in the sacred texts. The kingdom of Kashi is mentioned in the Vedas, and the kings of Kashi are referred to in the Mahābhārata, although not until the Puranas is Varanasi mentioned as the capital city of Kashi. Around the time of the Buddha (600 bc) 16 great city states flourished in north India, the three most prominent being Maghada, Koshala and Varanasi. Owing to its strategic position at the confluence of the Ganga and Varuna rivers, Varanasi was a significant trading and commercial centre. In many tales of the previous lives of Buddha (Skt ...

Article

Mairead Dunlevy

Irish city and centre of glass production. The earliest Waterford glass factory was established in Gurteens, near Waterford, during the 1720s, and production included lead-glass drinking vessels with pedestal stems, garden glasses, vials, bottles and other green glassware. The factory was closed about 1739.

In 1783 the Waterford Glass House was established by the merchants George Penrose and William Penrose, who employed John Hill and other glassmakers from Stourbridge, England. In 1799 the factory was taken over by three partners, James Ramsey (d c. 1810), Jonathan Gatchell (1752–1823) and Ambrose Barcroft, who in 1802 extended the works and installed new machinery. In 1823 George Gatchell became manager, and the works remained in the family until it closed. The factory produced cut, engraved and moulded glass of excellent quality, and c. 1832 steam power was installed in the factory, which allowed an increase in production.

The outstanding qualities of Waterford glass are its clarity and the precise cutting. The typical early Waterford decanter is barrel-shaped, has three or four neck rings and a wide, flat, pouring lip. Stoppers of Waterford production are almost invariably mushroom-shaped with a rounded knop below the stopper neck. From the cut patterns on marked Waterford decanters it would seem that popular designs included the pillar and arch embellished with fine diamonds. The numerous drawings of Waterford designs (Dublin, N. Mus.) made between ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

English centre of pottery production. The clays of the Cumbrian coastal town of Whitehaven were first used for the commercial production of pottery in 1698, when a pipe factory was opened; clay pipes were made by various manufacturers in Whitehaven until the 1850s. The oldest surviving example of Whitehaven pottery is a jug with naval scenes (Whitehaven, Mus.) dated 1797; the maker is not known. A pottery in a building known as Gin House was founded in 1740 by Thomas Atkinson, and operated by him and his successor John Hudson until 1781. A second pottery was founded in 1813 by John Goulding and John Tunstall. The third and best-known pottery, known as the Whitehaven Pottery, was founded in 1819 and run by Woodnorth, Harrison, Hall and Co., who made tablewares with printed decorations similar to the products of the Staffordshire potteries; it was taken over in 1829 by John Wilkinson, whose widow and son Randle (...

Article

Yixing  

Rose Kerr

Town in Jiangsu Province, China, situated c. 5 km west of Lake Tai, famous during the Qing period (1644–1911) and the 20th century for its high-quality teawares made of red stoneware. Most of the kilns lie to the south of Yixing in the village of Dingshuzhen.

It has been tentatively established that the earliest purplish-red Yixing stonewares were produced as early as the Song period (960–1279); examples include two pear-shaped vessels with dark purplish stoneware body and partial olive-brown glaze, found in a disused well in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, in 1961 (see Lo, p. 15). Excavations in that area have revealed kilns as well as sherds of coarse red stoneware, including many fragments of teaware. The production of Yixing wares is first well documented for the mid-16th century (e.g. teapot from the tomb of the court official Wu Jing (d 1533); Nanjing, Jiangsu Prov. Mus.). It was at this time that the names of individual potters were first recorded. They adopted the practice for which Yixing became famous, that of marking their wares with their own signatures (e.g. hexagonal red stoneware teapot signed by ...