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Article

Gordon Campbell

French centre of ceramics production. A pottery was founded in the village of Bellvue (near Toul, in Meurthe-et-Moselle) in 1758. In 1771 it passed into the hands of Charles Bayard (former director of the Lunéville pottery) and François Boyer, who in 1773 were given the right to style the pottery ‘Manufacture Royale de Bellevue’. Bayard left in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(UK)

English centre of ceramics production. A pottery was founded in the town of Hull (near what is now the Albert Dock) in 1802; the proprietors included Job Ridgway family. It soon closed, but in 1826 it was bought by William Bell, who called it Bellevue; it closed in 1841. The factory produced large quantities of earthenware, much of which was exported to Germany through the Company’s depot in Hamburg. Very few examples of its wares survive; some are marked Belle Vue....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Australian pottery founded in 1858 by a Scot, George Guthrie (1808–1909), in the town of Bendigo, Victoria. The factory made household wares, including acid bottles, bricks, clay pipes, roof tiles and tableware. During World War I it also made portrait jugs of military commanders, and in the 1930s it made agate-ware vases that were marketed as Waverly ware. The pottery is still active, but since ...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Gordon Campbell

English centre of ceramics production. Town in Derbyshire where a group of manufacturers of household wares in brown stoneware were active from the 18th century to the early 20th. The most prominent factories were Oldfield & Co. and S. & H. Briddon. The Brampton potter Thomas Davenport (1815–88) emigrated to Utah, where he and his descendants worked as potters....

Article

Bernadette Nelson

Portuguese centre of ceramic production. Documents record kilns operating in the town in 1488, and the first potters were Álvaro Annes, Vicente Annes and Francisco Lopes. However, the modern ceramics tradition with which the town is associated dates to the time of a certain D. Maria ‘dos Cacos’, who is recorded as having attempted to sell his wares in fairs all over Portugal between 1820 and 1853. Pieces attributed to him are rare. He was succeeded by Manuel Cipriano Gomes (fl 1853–7) from Mafra. In addition to producing faience that resembled wares made in the Oporto factories (see Oporto §2), Gomes also produced a body of wares that were strongly influenced by the work of Palissy, Bernard.

In 1884 the Fábrica de Faianças das Caldas da Rainha was established in Lisbon, under the artistic direction of the painter Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro (see Bordalo Pinheiro family §(1)...

Article

Lambeth  

Gordon Campbell

English centre of ceramics production. The earliest documented pottery in Lambeth (on the south bank of the Thames opposite the city of London) was established in 1570 by the Antwerp potters Jasper Andries (1535/41–c. 1580) and Jacob Janson (later anglicized as Johnson), who made the tin-enamelled earthenware later known as Lambeth Delftware. In ...

Article

Nove  

Bruce Tattersall

Italian centre of ceramics production. A maiolica factory was established in Nove near Bassano, a village on the Venetian mainland, c. 1728 by Giovanni Battista Antonibon (d 1738). In 1752 his son Pasquale Antonibon (d ?1773), who had been in charge of the venture since 1741, built an experimental kiln for the production of porcelain. Until c. 1754 he was assisted by Johann Sigismund Fischer, a painter from Dresden, and Jean-Pierre Varion (d 1780), a modeller from the French factory of Vincennes. By 1762 the factory was producing a hard-paste porcelain made from kaolin (china clay) from Tretto, near Vicenza. The porcelain venture was suspended due to Pasquale’s illness (1763–5) and many workers deserted the concern either to set up such factories as that of the d’Este family or to join the Cozzi Porcelain Factory in Venice. Production picked up briefly, and until its closure in ...

Article

Swansea  

Gordon Campbell

Welsh centre of ceramics production. The Cambrian Pottery was established in the Welsh city of Swansea (Welsh Abertawe) c. 1767, initially making pottery (notably creamware) and later porcelain, some of which was made by William Billingsley . The factory’s finest products were decorated by Thomas Baxter (1782–1821), who painted birds and animals, and Thomas Pardoe , who painted flowers. A second factory, the Glamorgan pottery, produced similar wares from 1814–38.

E. M. Nance: The Pottery and Porcelain of Swansea and Nantgarw (London, 1942, R/1994) W. D. John: Swansea Porcelain (Newport, Mons, 1958) Sir Leslie Joseph Loan Exhibition of Swansea Porcelain (exh. cat. by J. Bunt; Swansea, Vivian A.G. & Mus., 1969) E. Jenkins: Swansea Porcelain (Cowbridge, 1970) E. Jones and Sir Leslie Joseph: Swansea Porcelain Shapes and Decoration (Cowbridge, 1988) H. L. Hallesy: The Glamorgan Pottery, Swansea, 1814–38 (Llandysul, 1995) J. Gray, ed.: Welsh Ceramics in Context, Part I...

Article

Tanba  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of Japanese ceramics production based in and around Tachikui and Kamaya villages (Hyōgo Prefect.). Together with Bizen, Shigaraki, Echizen, Seto and Tokoname, Tanba is one of the few Japanese kiln centres that has been active from the 12th century to the present day. The origins of Tanba ware are not perfectly understood, but recent excavations of the Sanbontōge kiln (late 12th century–early 13th), thought to be the earliest Tanba kiln, suggest that the Echizen (Fukui Prefect.) and possibly the Tokoname (Aichi Prefect.) kilns played a central role in the ware’s development. The principal wares, which reflect improvements in Japanese agricultural production in the 12th century, include a limited number of kitchen mortars (suribachi), and greater quantities of wide-mouthed jars (kame) and narrow-mouthed jars (tsubo). Ten kiln sites, spanning a period from the 12th to the 16th centuries, have been identified, and it is thought that these were single-chamber tunnel kilns (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Tickenhall]

English centre of ceramics production. Earthenware was made in the Derbyshire village of Ticknall (also spelt Tickenhall) from the late 15th century until 1886. The village was an important producer of a dark-brown slipware that resembles Cistercian ware , and ‘Tickney ware’ became a generic name for slipware; similarly, itinerant pot sellers became known all over England as ‘Tickney men’....

Article

Gordon Campbell

English centre of pottery production. The clays of the Cumbrian coastal town of Whitehaven were first used for the commercial production of pottery in 1698, when a pipe factory was opened; clay pipes were made by various manufacturers in Whitehaven until the 1850s. The oldest surviving example of Whitehaven pottery is a jug with naval scenes (Whitehaven, Mus.) dated 1797; the maker is not known. A pottery in a building known as Gin House was founded in 1740 by Thomas Atkinson, and operated by him and his successor John Hudson until 1781. A second pottery was founded in 1813 by John Goulding and John Tunstall. The third and best-known pottery, known as the Whitehaven Pottery, was founded in 1819 and run by Woodnorth, Harrison, Hall and Co., who made tablewares with printed decorations similar to the products of the Staffordshire potteries; it was taken over in 1829 by John Wilkinson, whose widow and son Randle (...

Article

Yixing  

Rose Kerr

Town in Jiangsu Province, China, situated c. 5 km west of Lake Tai, famous during the Qing period (1644–1911) and the 20th century for its high-quality teawares made of red stoneware. Most of the kilns lie to the south of Yixing in the village of Dingshuzhen.

It has been tentatively established that the earliest purplish-red Yixing stonewares were produced as early as the Song period (960–1279); examples include two pear-shaped vessels with dark purplish stoneware body and partial olive-brown glaze, found in a disused well in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, in 1961 (see Lo, p. 15). Excavations in that area have revealed kilns as well as sherds of coarse red stoneware, including many fragments of teaware. The production of Yixing wares is first well documented for the mid-16th century (e.g. teapot from the tomb of the court official Wu Jing (d 1533); Nanjing, Jiangsu Prov. Mus.). It was at this time that the names of individual potters were first recorded. They adopted the practice for which Yixing became famous, that of marking their wares with their own signatures (e.g. hexagonal red stoneware teapot signed by ...