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Article

W. Eugene Kleinbauer

(b Munich, Dec 12, 1912; d Poughkeepsie, NY, Jan 22, 2003).

German art historian of late antiquity, Byzantium and Norman Sicily, active also in the USA. Kitzinger was a prominent medievalist who went to Rome in 1931 to begin doctoral work in medieval art history under the supervision of Wilhelm Pinder. Within three years he earned his PhD at the University of Munich. His dissertation, Roman Painting from the Beginning of the Seventh to the Middle of the Eighth Century, analysed the style of mosaics and frescoes in church buildings and catacombs, and convincingly demonstrated that no linear development can be traced in this period in part because different ‘styles’ can sometimes be shown to have coexisted. He effectively refuted the thesis advanced by Charles Rufus Morey of Princeton University that the Greek Hellenistic style had been transplanted by Alexandrian refugees to Rome in the earliest Middle Ages. Kitzinger pursued this research in major papers—his exacting analysis of texts related to the cult of images before Iconoclasm (...

Article

Noémie Goldman and Kim Oosterlinck

Term for the return of lost or looted cultural objects to their country of origin, former owners, or their heirs. The loss of the object may happen in a variety of contexts (armed conflicts, war, colonialism, imperialism, or genocide), and the nature of the looted cultural objects may also vary, ranging from artworks, such as paintings and sculptures, to human remains, books, manuscripts, and religious artefacts. An essential part of the process of restitution is the seemingly unavoidable conflict around the transfer of the objects in question from the current to the former owners. Ownership disputes of this nature raise legal, ethical, and diplomatic issues. The heightened tensions in the process arise because the looting of cultural objects challenges, if not breaks down, relationships between peoples, territories, cultures, and heritages.

The history of plundering and art imperialism may be traced back to ancient times. Looting has been documented in many instances from the sack by the Romans of the Etruscan city of Veii in ...

Article

(Julius)

(b Neubukow, Mecklenburg, Jan 6, 1822; d Naples, Dec 26, 1890).

American archaeologist and businessman of German birth. The death of his mother in 1831 and accusations of embezzlement against his father (a pastor) in 1833 disrupted his schooling. A consequent sense of under-achievement propelled him to Amsterdam, where he studied bookkeeping and foreign languages. In 1844 he secured a position with the merchant bankers B. H. Schröder & Co., and in 1846 he was posted as the firm’s agent to St Petersburg, where he established himself as a commodity dealer and spent the next 20 years. There followed a short period in America as a banker of doubtful integrity during the California gold-rush (1850–51), a marriage (1852) and three children, travels (1858–9) and a world tour resulting in an undistinguished travel diary, La Chine et le Japon (Paris, 1867).

By 1866 Schliemann was 44 and restless; leaving his wife and family he moved to Paris, ostensibly to study at the Sorbonne. In ...

Article

Susan Langdon

[now Ayios Vasilios]

Site of an Early and Late Bronze Age town in the Corinthia of southern Greece, midway between Argos and Corinth. Excavations at the Zygouries Hill in the Kleonai Valley were conducted by Carl Blegen in 1921–2 for the American School of Classical Studies, revealing an important sequence of Bronze Age settlements. The Early Helladic (eh) phase (c. 3600/3000–c. 2050 bc) was the most abundantly represented, with at least ten houses of mud-brick on stone socle construction arranged close together on narrow streets. The rectangular, flat-roofed, two- and three-roomed structures with fixed central hearths provided one of the first definitive examples of Early Bronze Age domestic architecture. Contemporary graves yielded a broad variety of eh pottery, small gold, silver and bronze ornaments, numerous figurines and stone tools. Like its neighbours Tiryns, Asine, Lerna and Ayios Kosmas, Zygouries suffered a severe destruction at the end of ...