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Article

Hilary Gresty

(b Sheffield, July 24, 1941).

English conceptual artist, writer and photographer. He studied painting at the Royal College of Art from 1962 to 1965 and philosophy and fine art at Yale University from 1965 to 1967. From the late 1960s he adhered to Conceptual art using combinations of photographic images and printed texts to examine the relationship between apparent and implicit meaning. In his ...

Article

W. Iain Mackay

(b Carhuás, Ancash, Oct 2, 1857; d San Miguel de Tucumán, Dec 1922).

Peruvian painter, photographer, teacher and critic. At the age of four he was brought to Lima, where he began to take lessons in art. From 1885 he travelled through France, Italy and Belgium, and on returning to Latin America he settled in Buenos Aires, where he took up photography. In 1905 he returned to Lima, where he set up a workshop and art college at the Quinta Heeren, introducing the latest photographic techniques. On visiting Spain in 1908 Castillo discovered the historical genre paintings of Mariano Fortuny y Marsal, and once back in Lima worked as a painter and as art critic for the magazines Prisma, Variedades, Actualidades and Ilustración peruana. He later supported Daniel Hernández in founding (1919) the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Lima (see also Peru, Republic of, §XI). In parallel with the writer Ricardo Palma, Castillo was concerned with recording the traditions of Lima’s colonial past, and such paintings as the ...

Article

Paolo Costantini

(b Lucera, Foggia, Nov 29, 1904; d Senigallia, Oct 25, 1961).

Italian photographer and writer. He graduated in law from the University of Rome in 1926 and practised as a lawyer in Rome (1926–35). He was self-taught as a photographer. From 1935 to his death he worked as a freelance photographer in Senigallia. He was a founding member of three photographic groups of great importance in the theoretical debate on photography in Italy, the Gruppo degli Otto (1941), La Bussola (Senigallia, 1947) and the Gruppo MISA (1953). He was the recipient of numerous international awards and was one of the most important figures in Italian photography between 1940 and 1955.

Cavalli was dedicated to the exaltation of a formal aesthetic in photography, and he discussed his conviction that photography was an art form in numerous articles in the main Italian photographic magazines between 1947 and 1961 (especially Ferrania, Rivista fotografica and Progresso fotografico). His photographs, first published in ...

Article

Hélène Bocard

(b St Germain-en-Laye, July 7, 1859; d Hennequeville, Normandy, Dec 29, 1936).

French photographer, writer and theorist. He was from a banking family and was financially secure, which enabled him to devote all his time to photography from 1880 to 1914. He was especially interested in the gum bichromate printing process, which could be easily hand tinted, and in which he achieved remarkably subtle effects. He tackled all the genres: oriental scenes, nudes, dancers (e.g. Behind the Scenes, 1900; New York, Met.), portraits (e.g. of Mlle D., pubd in Camera Work, 16 Oct 1906), landscapes and scenes from everyday life. In subject-matter his works oscillate between naturalism, as in Académie (1900; New York, Met.), and symbolism as in Struggle. His works were frequently exhibited (Paris, London, Vienna, New York) and were an instant success. In 1904 Alfred Stieglitz devoted a portfolio to Demachy in his review Camera Work.

Demachy was also a theorist of ‘art’ photography, giving numerous lectures, and writing articles for the ...

Article

Ewa Mikina

(b Radomsko, nr Częestochowa, April 24, 1921).

Polish photographer, writer and painter. He was self-taught as an artist. Just after World War II he founded and became one of the most active members of the avant-garde Club of Young Artists and Scientists (Klub Młodych Artystow i Naukowcow), Warsaw. Club activities, as well as his own ideas concerning possible union between the new, radical left-wing art and the political and social situation in the country, reached an impasse with the rise of Socialist Realism in 1949. He was the editor of the magazine Fotografia from 1953 to 1972 and a lecturer at the Film School, Łódź, from 1966 to 1975. From 1982 he lived in Paris.

In the 1940s Dłubak produced extreme close-up photographs with metaphoric titles. His ‘cool medium’ (deliberately banal) documentary works of the 1950s (e.g. the series Existences, 1955–66) clashed with official, optimistic, propaganda images. Later his work and his numerous theoretical writings were stimulated by studies in ...

Article

Daniela Mrázková

(b Skuteč, Aug 1, 1896; d Prague, March 22, 1945).

Czech photographer and theorist. Together with Josef Sudek and Jaroslav Rössler he was one of the most important representatives of Czech avant-garde photography of the 1920s and 1930s. He studied medicine, law, and philosophy at Charles University in Prague and at the University of Bratislava but did not graduate. As an amateur photographer from 1920 he promoted ‘pure’ photography instead of traditional refined prints resembling the graphic arts and painting. A professional freelance photographer from 1922, he was a leader of the young opposition movement in photography, who founded the Czech Society of Photography (1924) and who wanted photography to fulfil new social functions. In his work Funke managed to combine some of the leading tendencies of European photography between the two World Wars, uniting Constructivism and Functionalism with Surrealism and social commentary. At the same time he managed to retain traditional Czech lyrical qualities. His work was rational, communicative, inventive in design, and emotionally effective. A typical feature is his use of the dynamic diagonal....

Article

Kathryn Morrison

(b May 16, 1878; d Harrow-on-the-Hill, London, Jan 29, 1972).

English writer. He inherited both his interest in medieval art and his photographic skills from his father, the antiquary Samuel Gardner. After graduating from King’s College, Cambridge, in 1901, Gardner entered the family business, the stockbrokers Laurence, Son and Gardner, with whom he remained for 40 years. His contribution to the study of medieval architecture and sculpture was considerable. He travelled throughout the British Isles and the Continent, building up an impressive photographic record of medieval monuments. This collection, now absorbed by the Conway Library of the Courtauld Institute of Art, London, includes many buildings that have since been destroyed, restored or otherwise transformed, and consequently it is of enormous value to scholars. Gardner’s most significant publications were broad surveys of medieval sculpture, which, rather than offering new interpretations of the material, usefully synthesized the findings of other scholars. Many of his works became standard textbooks for students but, by virtue of being so sumptuously illustrated, they also succeeded in making medieval art more accessible to the layman. His first major work, ...

Article

Timothy O. Benson

(b Vienna, July 12, 1886; d Limoges, Feb 1, 1971).

Austrian photomontagist, painter, photographer, printmaker, writer, and theorist. He trained in the academic artistic tradition under his father, Victor Hausmann (1859–1920). In 1900 he went to Berlin, where he later became a central figure in Dada. His important friendship with the eccentric architect and mystical artist Johannes Baader (1875–1956) began in 1905. In the first years of the next decade he was associated with such artists as Erich Heckel and Ludwig Meidner and produced numerous paintings, including Blue Nude (1916; Rochechouart, Mus. Dépt.), and woodcuts, several of which were published in his book Material der Malerei Plastik Architektur (Berlin, 1918). These works blended Expressionism with the influences of artists then exhibiting at Herwarth Walden’s Sturm-Galerie: Fernand Léger, Alexander Archipenko, Robert Delaunay and Sonia Delaunay, Arthur Segal, and others. Around 1915 his widening contacts with the writers Salomon Friedländer and Franz Jung led to innumerable theoretical and satirical writings that were published in ...

Article

Elizabeth K. Valkenier

(Nikolayevich)

(b Novaya Sot, nr Ostrogozhsk, June 8, 1837; d St Petersburg, April 6, 1887).

Russian painter and theorist. Born to a lower-middle-class provincial family, he first worked as a copyist clerk, then as a retoucher with an itinerant photographer. From 1857 to 1863 he attended the Imperial Academy of Arts in St Petersburg, then taught for five years at the School of Drawing run by the Society for the Promotion of Fine Arts. In November 1863, while still a student at the Academy, Kramskoy organized a protest against prescribed mythological themes in the competition for the final Gold Medal that carried a six-year stipend for study abroad. This brave gesture asserted the independence of Russian artists from the dictates of the Court and the state bureaucracy that controlled their work and livelihood. It also marked a decisive break with the Academy’s outdated form of Neo-classicism, patterned on Western models, which had lost popularity with the educated public but continued to be taught and favoured at the official level. After the break with the Academy, Kramskoy sustained a group of thirteen independent painters both organizationally and intellectually in keeping with the spirit of reform and renovation that swept Russia during the 1860s after the emancipation of the serfs. He set up a communal workshop (...

Article

Kevin Halliwell

(L’vovich)

(b Moscow, 1819; d St Petersburg, June 22, 1898).

Russian photographer, writer and critic. He began taking daguerreotypes in 1839 as soon as the process became known. After graduating from the faculty of law of Moscow University he entered the office of the Ministry of the Interior in St Petersburg. In 1843 he was sent on a government survey of mineral water in the Caucasus, where he took 25 daguerreotypes of Piatigorsk, Kislovodsk, Mount Meshuk and Beshtan (untraced). Five of these reached the lensmaker Charles Chevalier (1804–59) in Paris, who displayed two in his shop window. As a result of his success Levitsky decided to become a full-time daguerreotypist in 1844 and travelled to Vienna, Rome, Paris and London in order to study art, chemistry and physics. In 1845 he made his pioneering daguerreotype group portrait of N. V. Gogol’ among a Group of Russian Artists in Rome (see Morozov, 1986, p. 23), the first of a number of group portraits and portraits of writers and artists, which became his speciality. In Paris in ...

Article

John Milner

[Lisitsky, El’ ; Lisitsky, Lazar’ (Markovich )]

(b Pochinok, Smolensk province, Nov 23, 1890; d Moscow, Dec 30, 1941).

Russian draughtsman, architect, printmaker, painter, illustrator, designer, photographer, teacher, and theorist.

After attending school in Smolensk, he enrolled in 1909 at the Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt, to study architecture and engineering. He also travelled extensively in Europe, however, and he made a tour of Italy to study art and architecture. He frequently made drawings of the architectural monuments he encountered on his travels. These early graphic works were executed in a restrained, decorative style reminiscent of Russian Art Nouveau book illustration. His drawings of Vitebsk and Smolensk (1910; Eindhoven, Stedel. Van Abbemus.), for example, show a professional interest in recording specific architectural structures and motifs, but they are simultaneously decorative graphic works in their own right and highly suitable for publication. This innate awareness of the importance of controlling the design of the page was to remain a feature of Lissitzky’s work throughout radical stylistic transformations. He also recorded buildings in Ravenna, Venice, and elsewhere in Italy in ...

Article

Terence A. Senter

(b Bácsborsod, Mohol Puszta, Hungary, July 20, 1895; d Chicago, Nov 24, 1946).

American painter, sculptor, photographer, designer, film maker, theorist, and teacher, of Hungarian birth. Moholy-Nagy’s importance in the 20th century is based as much on his theories as on his practical work. His ideologies related to the relationship between space, time, and light, and the interaction of man with these forces. His great achievement was that he applied his mystical outlook to highly practical enterprises and always recognized the purpose behind his creativity.

Moholy-Nagy’s ambition developed when he exchanged village life for the city of Szeged after his father left his family. Academically outstanding, Moholy-Nagy read law for a year at Budapest University before joining the artillery in World War I. Influential praise for his war sketches converted his aspiration from literature to art. His Expressionist style, social conscience, and investigation of light paralleled trends in the Hungarian avant-garde, from ...

Article

Shana Gallagher Lindsay

Shana Gallagher Lindsay

Post-structuralism is a term given to a critical movement that formed in succession to the structuralist theories of the 1960s, in some cases propounded by the same, mostly French, philosophers, but in which some of the basic hypotheses challenge those of Structuralism.

Post-structuralism in the USA was a hybrid. In the American art world, transformed in the post-war period through the rise of the professionalized art school, with its increased emphasis on reading theory and philosophy, post-structuralism became a guiding force. The term ‘post-structuralism’ denotes various developments in the fields of continental philosophy and critical theory. It can be said to be one of the many interdisciplinary threads that formed the complex fabric of Post-modernism. Though the tendency originated in Europe, it was never clearly defined. Indeed, the term is more widely used in American academic circles, and very few practitioners accept the label ‘post-structuralist’. Post-structuralism involves a critique of metaphysics, of the concepts of causality, of identity, of the subject, and of truth....

Article

Paolo Costantini

(b Biella, Aug 28, 1859; d Biella, Aug 12, 1943).

Italian photographer and mountaineer. He was the son of Giuseppe Venanzio (1823–76), an entrepreneur, economist, writer and photographic theorist who wrote one of the first Italian photographic treatises, Plico del fotografo (Turin, 1856, 2/1863), and the nephew of the statesman, scientist and mountaineer Quintino Sella. After finishing his military service in 1878 he attended college in Biella and began to take an interest in photography. Instruction from his father and advice from the professional Biella photographer Vittorio Besso (1828–95) encouraged his enthusiasm for photography, which he combined with his love of mountains.

Sella photographed on his many mountaineering expeditions in the Alps, the Caucasus, Alaska and the Himalayas (e.g. a series of panoramic views of the Alps, 1880–95), taking photographs with exceptional technical and scientific discipline. With the clarity and grandeur of his images he made a considerable contribution to landscape photography. He was elected an adviser to the Società Fotografica Italiana, founded in Florence in ...

Article

Helen Ennis

(b Berlin, Sept 18, 1913; d Melbourne, Aug 7, 2007).

Australian photographer of German birth. His father, Dr Johannes Sievers, was an architectural historian. Sievers trained at the Contempora private art academy in Berlin in 1933. Due to his leftwing sympathies and Jewish descent, Sievers left Germany in 1934 and lived and worked in Portugal. He returned to Berlin in 1936 where he began teaching at the Contempora academy. Sievers developed his interest in architectural photography through his father, who was an expert on the German architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel, and through contact with influential modernist architect Erich Mendelsohn. Sievers applied to migrate to Australia in 1938—one of his sponsors was photographer Axel Poignant (1906–86), then living in Western Australia—but after being called up to the Luftwaffe he fled to England in 1938. He arrived in Australia in August that year and settled in Melbourne. He married Finnish émigré Brita Klarich in 1939 (divorced in 1972), and had two children, Karin (...

Article

Marita Sturken

Culture of images and visuality that creates meaning in our world today. This includes media forms such as photography, film, television, and digital media; art media such as painting, drawing, prints, and installations; architecture and design; comic books and graphic novels; fashion design, and other visual forms including the look of urban life itself. It also encompasses such social realms as art, news, popular culture, advertising and consumerism, politics, law, religion, and science and medicine. The term visual culture also refers to the interdisciplinary academic field of study that aims to study and understand the role that images and visuality play in our society; how images, gazes, and looks make meaning socially, culturally, and politically; how images are integrated with other media; and how visuality shapes power, meaning, and identity in contemporary global culture.

The emergence of the concept of visual culture as a means to think about the role of images in culture and as an academic field of study is a relatively recent phenomenon, emerging in the late 1980s and becoming established by the late 1990s. There were numerous factors that contributed to the idea that images should be understood and analysed across social arenas rather than as separate categories, including the impact of digital media on the circulation of images across social realms, the modern use of images from other social arenas (such as news and advertising) in art, and the cross-referencing of cultural forms displayed in popular culture and art. It was also influenced by the increasingly visible role played by images in political conflict and a general trend toward interdisciplinarity in academia....

Article

(b Warsaw, Feb 24, 1885; d Jeziory, Polesie, Sept 17, 1939).

Polish writer, art theorist, painter and photographer . He was the son of the architect, painter and critic Stanisław Witkiewicz (1851–1915), creator of the ‘Zakopane style’ ( see Poland, Republic of §II 3. ). He spent his childhood in Zakopane in the Tatra Mountains and was educated at his family home, a place frequented by artists and intellectuals, and also through his many travels to Eastern and Western Europe. From his wide acquaintance with contemporary art, he was particularly impressed by the paintings of Arnold Böcklin. Witkiewicz’s often interrupted studies (1904–10) under Józef Mehoffer at the Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków had less influence than his lessons in Zakopane and Brittany with Władysław Slewiński, who introduced him to the principles of Gauguin’s Synthetism. Witkiewicz abandoned the naturalism of his first landscapes, executed under the influence of his father, rejected linear perspective and modelling and began to use flat, well-contoured forms and vivid colours, as in ...

Article

Chr. Will

( Arnold )

(b Amsterdam, Aug 13, 1860; d Amsterdam, April 13, 1923).

Dutch painter, printmaker, photographer and critic . He came from an old Amsterdam family of wealthy aristocrats with strong cultural ties. From 1876 to 1884 he was a pupil of August Allebé at the Rijksakademie van Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam. J. W. Kaiser (1813–1900) and Rudolf Stang (1831–1927) instructed him in graphic arts. In 1880 he co-founded St Luke’s Society of Artists with Jacobus van Looy and Antoon Derkinderen. In 1882 he visited Paris with van Looy. Between 1883 and 1888 he worked regularly at his family estate, Ewijkshoeve, south of Baarn, often staying there in the company of artistic friends—writers and musicians, as well as painters. With Jan Veth he founded the Nederlandsche Etsclub (Dutch Etching Club), which from 1885 made a strong contribution to the revival of etching in the Netherlands. Witsen was the first among his circle of friends to have his own etching press and also a camera....