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Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Guatemala City, Sept 16, 1781; d Guatemala City, Nov 21, 1845).

Guatemalan painter, printmaker, and medallist. He entered the mint in 1795 as an apprentice engraver but on the recommendation of its director, Pedro Garci-Aguirre, also became Master Corrector at the Escuela de Dibujo de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País, Guatemala City, in 1796, holding the post until 1804. He continued working at the mint until 1809 and demonstrated outstanding skill both as a medallist and engraver of coins and as an engraver and etcher. He returned to the mint in 1823 as second engraver, remaining in the post until his death.

Despite the quality of his work as a printmaker and medallist, Cabrera gained artistic recognition especially as a miniature painter, working mostly in watercolour on ivory in a meticulous technique. He produced some miniatures on religious themes and others of birds, but the majority, measuring no more than 50 mm in height or width, were portraits of members of the Guatemalan aristocracy and bourgeoisie. It is not known exactly how many he produced, but from the middle of the 1830s he began to number them, starting from 500; the highest known number of the approximately 200 authenticated miniatures is 745. Although he suffered some illness, he was most productive during the last five years of his life. An evolution can be discerned from his earliest works, dating from ...


Martine Reid


(b Skidegate, Queen Charlotte Islands, BC, c. 1839; d 1920).

Native Canadian Haida sculptor, metalworker and painter. He spent much of his adolescence at Kiusta with his maternal uncle Albert Edward Edenshaw, chief of the Haida Eagle clan, acquiring a considerable knowledge of Haida art and mythology. In 1882 the Eagle clan moved north to Masset, where, on the death of his uncle in 1884, he assumed his titles and privileges, including his chief’s name Edenshaw. Edenshaw was an imaginative craftsman who incorporated into his work technical and conceptual ideas from both native and non-native sources. He was a versatile and prolific artist who worked within the Northwest Coast tradition of two-dimensional design (see ). He carved both ritual and commercial objects in wood and argillite, including totem poles, masks, chests, boxes, platters and frontlets; painted designs on spruce root mats and hats, the latter often made by his wife, Isabelle; and produced silver bracelets. His commercial objects included a host of forms for non-native and market use; and his contact with a number of anthropologists and collectors resulted in a large body of well-documented, often commissioned works. The model totem poles and house models, for example, commissioned by the ethnographer and linguist ...


Monroe H. Fabian

(b Danzig [now Gdańsk, Poland], Oct 4, 1700; d Bethlehem, PA, Jan 18, 1780).

American painter of German birth, active also in England. Born into a family of goldsmiths, he received his first training in that craft from his father. When his father became a court goldsmith in Berlin, Haidt attended his first drawing lessons at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in that city. After a 10-year journey around Europe (1714–24), he set up his studio in London, where he joined the Moravian Church. From 1724 to 1738 he worked as a preacher in England and Germany; it was probably c. 1746 that he began to paint for the Church. In 1747 he exhibited First Fruits (version, Bethlehem, PA, Archv Morav. Church), which contained 25 life-size figures of people converted to Christianity by Moravian missionaries.

In 1752 Haidt was sent to assist in the decorating of Lindsey House, London, owned by the Moravians. In 1754 he and his wife settled in Bethlehem, PA, and then in Philadelphia, where he painted portraits of his American associates and religious scenes for various Moravian churches and missions. His religious pictures are frequently crowded with figures and brightly coloured and exhibit an awkwardness of perspective and scale, for example ...


(b Vancouver, Jan 13, 1959).

Anglo-Canadian painter. After a period as a student at the Université de Paris-Sorbonne (1977–8), she settled in London and studied art at St Martin’s School of Art (1978–9) and Goldsmith’s College, University of London (1979–82). At the latter her teachers included Michael Craig-Martin and Tony Carter. Her first solo exhibition, in 1984, was of small still-life paintings depicting common objects, either singly or in sets. These were technically remarkable works drawing on the painterly language of Manet and the Post-Impressionists. Her subsequent series of paintings of objects in groups (rows, clusters, layers or grids) borrowed the language of hardware catalogues, shop display windows and formal arrangements in art and photography, while yet creating autonomous visual statements. Sometimes her arrangement of objects was influenced by their functional identity, so that, for example, stamps become islands for the eyes to travel between or wheels speed forward at an unstoppable visual pace (e.g. ...


Sally Webster

(b Philadelphia, PA, Sept 23, 1734; d Philadelphia, Jan 9, 1805).

American painter. Pratt had only a rudimentary education before he became an apprentice to his uncle, James Claypoole, one of Philadelphia’s earliest artists. Pratt took up portraiture full time in 1758 and married Elizabeth Moore two years later. In 1764, Pratt accompanied Betsy Shewell, his cousin and Benjamin West’s fiancée, and John West, the artist’s father, to London. Pratt was witness to their wedding and spent two and half years in West’s studio, a stay commemorated in his best-known work (and the only one he signed and dated), The American School (1765; New York, Met.). Although he spent most of his career in his native city, Pratt took trips to Great Britain and New York, where he painted portraits of Governor Cadwallader Colden (1772; Albany, NY State Mus.), and his daughter, Elizabeth Colden DeLancey, Mrs Peter DeLancey (c. 1772; New York, Met.).

It is fair to say that ...


Dale T. Johnson

(b ?Dublin, c. 1748; d Montreal, Oct 24, 1802).

Irish painter and goldsmith, active in North America. In 1763 he entered the Dublin Society Schools, before leaving for America in 1772. Settling first in Halifax, NS, he had established himself as a miniature painter and goldsmith in Boston by 1775. He was a loyalist and, after the evacuation of Boston in 1776, settled in British-occupied New York in 1777, where he became the leading miniature painter in the city until well after the British had left. Among his prominent sitters were George Washington, Governor George Clinton, John Pintard, Gulian Ludlow, Alexander McComb, and the Van Rensselaers. Ramage’s miniatures, though never signed, are distinctive in style and small in size (about 38×27 mm). They are oval in format, often of an almond shape. His technique is characterized by a linear style so fine, smooth, and rich in colour that the effect is close to that of enamel. Unlike many of his contemporaries who used a stipple technique, Ramage built up his forms through a fine series of hatchings. His subjects are depicted as having thin, sharp noses and whimsical half smiles. The backgrounds tend to be greenish-brown, much lighter in shade to the left of the sitter’s right cheek. Shadows are evident under the eyes and chin. The men are strong and vital, and the women charming and personable. He made most of his own miniature cases, which are fluted, scalloped, and chased in a distinctive pattern. Ramage also painted allegorical scenes and memorial pieces. The circumstances of Ramage’s later life are clouded. In ...


Eduardo Serrano

(b Santa Rosa de Osos, nr Medellín, 1876; d Paris, 1933).

Colombian sculptor, draughtsman, painter and medallist. He studied with Francisco Antonio Cano and co-founded with him the review Lectura y Arte, in which he published illustrations and vignettes influenced by the motifs and sinuous style of Art Nouveau. In 1905 he left for Havana, where his talent was more fully recognized. Cuban patronage enabled him to travel to Paris, where he executed delicate life-size marble statues that blend classicism and sensuality, such as Poetry and Silence (both c. 1914; Bogotá, Mus. N.), which are notable for their harmony and ambitious scale.

Tobón Mejía’s most personal and interesting works, however, were reliefs in bronze and other alloys in which he gave free rein to his talents as a designer, to his admiration for the subjectivity of the Symbolists and especially to his own imagination and fantasy. In works such as First Waves (1915; Bogotá, Mus. A. Mod.), in which a young woman prepares to enter the sea, or ...