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Edward Hanfling

(b Hastings, March 21, 1930; d New Plymouth, Dec 8, 2011).

New Zealand sculptor, painter, printmaker, and installation artist. His art primarily involves assemblage, often with an eye to colour relationships; it also incorporates diverse sources including American modernism, African, and Asian art. Driver had little formal training and worked as a dental technician before he began sculpting with wood, clay, and dental plaster during the 1950s. Between 1960 and 1964 he produced assemblages and collages reminiscent of Robert Rauschenberg, though Driver was not aware of the American’s work then (e.g. Large Brass). In the United States from March to August 1965, he developed an interest in Post-painterly Abstraction as well as in Jasper Johns’s works. References to New York are manifest in his mixed-media wall relief La Guardia 2 (1966; Auckland, A.G.). The Painted Reliefs (1970–74) with their horizontal panels and strips of varying width and depth, mostly painted but sometimes aluminium, indicate the impact of American abstraction, notably that of Kenneth Noland. ...


Christine Clark

(b London, 1767; d Hobart, Tasmania, July 11, 1851).

English painter, printmaker and sculptor, active in Australia. In London he exhibited six portraits at the Royal Academy (1817–23) and three genre paintings at the British Institution and engraved two colour plates for George Morland, before moving to Hobart, Tasmania, in 1832. At the Hobart Mechanics’ Institute in 1833 he delivered the first lecture in Australia on the subject of painting. In 1849 he contributed the paper ‘The School of Athens as it Assimilates with the Mechanics Institution’ to a series of seven lectures (later published) delivered at the Institute. Duterrau painted landscapes and portraits but is best known for his works depicting the Aborigines of Tasmania and their traditional way of life. He was very interested in the events that led to the exclusion of the Aborigines from Tasmania, and in a series of works begun in 1834 but not executed until the early 1840s he showed George Augustus Robinson under commission from the Governor of Tasmania to restore peace with them. ...


Graeme Sturgeon

(b Cockatoo, Victoria, March 18, 1867; d Melbourne, Sept 27, 1925).

Australian sculptor. After inauspicious beginnings and apprenticeship to a pastry cook, Gilbert was led, through his skill in modelling cake decorations, to attend part-time drawing classes at the National Gallery School, Melbourne (1888–91). He also enrolled in night classes at the Victorian Artists’ Society, where he found sympathetic encouragement from the sculptor Charles Douglas Richardson (1853–1932). At that time there was no instruction available in the traditional techniques of sculpture so Gilbert taught himself, continuing to earn his living as a chef at a fashionable Melbourne restaurant. In 1914, aged 47, Gilbert left for London to see the work of the great European sculptors of the past, but the outbreak of World War I only weeks after his arrival left him stranded in England. Too old for either military service or art school, he went on working at his sculpture, submitting it each year to the Royal Academy exhibitions. In ...


Barbara B. Kane


(b Sisteron, Provence, 1850; d Le Pave, St Léonard-de-Noblat, Haute Vienne, March 10, 1896).

French painter, sculptor, designer and teacher, active in Australia. He trained under the architect Viollet-le-Duc and at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, under Jean-Léon Gérôme. In 1871 he was sentenced to death for his political activities in the Paris Commune; this was commuted to transportation to New Caledonia. He arrived in Sydney in 1879 after the granting of political amnesty. He was appointed instructor in modelling at the Sydney Mechanics’ School of Arts and in 1883 became the first lecturer in art at the Sydney Technical College. He also taught privately. His influence on a generation of students that included Lucien Dechaineux (1870–1957), later director of the Hobart Technical College, A. G. Reid, the sculptor, B. E. Minns (1864–1937) and Sydney Cathels, was profound. A founder-member of the Art Society of New South Wales, his frequent contributions to their exhibitions included portraits and busts. Henry sought to establish a national style in the applied arts through the use of distinctive colours and motifs based on native flora and fauna. His delight in the Australian shrub waratah is seen in the design for two large stained-glass windows in the Sydney Town Hall and in the curious designs for a folio of 50 graphic works to be entitled ...


(b St Petersburg, Sept 13, 1873; d Cobbity, NSW, May 29, 1930).

Australian painter, draughtsman and sculptor. He lived for a period in Europe and emigrated to Australia in 1887. He trained under Julian Rossi Ashton, gaining early recognition for his draughtsmanship. In 1901 he studied in Paris at the Académie Colarossi under Auguste Delécluse (b 1855). He was strongly influenced by the work of Diego Velázquez and Edouard Manet. The work of Sandro Botticelli later inspired him to paint in a high key and with an enhanced realism, as in Important People (1914; Sydney, A.G. NSW). He lived in England from 1902 to 1921, and thereafter in Australia.

At first Lambert earned his living through illustrations for magazines and books. In early paintings such as Across the Black Soil Plains (1899; Sydney, A.G. NSW), he expressed a nationalist sentiment through the depiction of Australian pioneers. His principal work was in portraiture, in both pencil and oil, in which he demonstrated a sensitive appreciation of character and bravura style. He also painted large, highly stylized paintings of family and friends, such as ...


Geoffrey R. Edwards

(b Melbourne, June 1863; d Devon, England, Oct 1931).

Australian sculptor, active in Britain. He studied at the National Gallery of Victoria School in Melbourne from 1878 to 1882 and then on the suggestion of the English sculptor Marshall Wood (d 1882) he travelled to London, where he spent three months at the Royal Academy Schools in 1883. Finding the training there too academic Mackennal left and visited Paris and Rome, and in 1884 he set up a studio in Paris. He was helped financially by John Peter Russell, who also introduced him to Auguste Rodin. Mackennal found Rodin’s work too revolutionary for his own tastes but did adopt aspects of Rodin’s sensuous subject-matter. Also in Paris he met Alfred Gilbert, who advised him that his work would be better appreciated in England. In 1886 Mackennal became the head of the modelling and design department at the Coalport Potteries, Salop, England, and in 1887 he won the competition to design two relief panels for the façade of the ...


(b Kentish Town, London, Nov 1, 1868; d Melbourne, Jan 15, 1938).

English sculptor, active in Australia. The son of Horace Montford, Curator of Schools at the Royal Academy of Art, London, he learnt modelling from his father and drawing at the Lambeth School of Art. After studying on a Landseer and British Institute scholarship at the Royal Academy and winning a Gold Medal in 1891, he taught sculpture at the Chelsea School of Art (South-West London Polytechnic) from 1898 to 1903. He also specialized in architectural decoration, completing, for example, reliefs (1892) for Battersea Town Hall and Polytechnic and bronze figure groups (1914) for the Kelvin-Way Bridge, Glasgow. In 1912 he married Marian Alice Dibden, a portrait- and miniature painter. In 1921, attracted by the light, which he believed conducive to monumental sculpture, they travelled to Australia. Montford became very influential in the Victorian Artists’ Society, of which he was President 1930–31. He frequently used the daily press to air avant-garde opinions about the social and environmental role of sculpture in modern cities. He encouraged and assisted such emerging Australian sculptors as Lyndon Dadswell. Montford’s flamboyance, theatrical personality and Bohemian lifestyle were talking points in Melbourne society and led to more than 70 sculptural commissions, including a controversial ...


(b Ballarat, Victoria, 1870; d Rome, Feb 8, 1948).

Australian sculptor and medallist, also active in Italy. Ohlfsen-Bagge came from a well-connected family, attending Sydney Girls’ High School (1884–6) and studying piano under French pianist Henri Kowalski (1841–1916). In 1886 she left Australia to continue musical studies in Berlin at Kullak’s Neue Akademie der Tonkunst under Moritz Moszkowski (1854–1925). She performed for the Kaiser, but was forced to abandon the piano due to neuritis. Her father’s ruin in the 1890 depression forced her to earn a living teaching musical theory. By 1896 she had moved to St Petersburg where she became secretary to the American Consul-General. She turned to sketching and caricature and her talent was so impressive that her Russian friends took her to Rome around 1900. There she learnt the art of modelling and engraving under Camille Alaphillipe and Pierre Dautel. Already mature, she began her artistic career in the tradition of the expatriate American women sculptors living bohemian lives in Rome....


Bernard Kernot and Ngarino Ellis

[Lazarus ]

(b Turanga [now Poverty Bay], NZ, c. 1800; d Turanga, Sept 29, 1873).

New Zealand Maori wood-carver, builder, and tribal leader. Rukupo belonged to the Rongowhakaata tribe and was educated in the tribal school of learning called Tokitoki. In 1831, after shore-based trading was established in Turanga, metal tools replaced stone ones, and thus all Rukupo’s extant works are carved with metal tools. He is said to have helped carve the war canoe Te Toki a Tapiri (Auckland, Inst. & Mus.) at Turanga in 1836. In about 1840 he adopted Christianity, taking the biblical name Raharuhi (Lazarus). Rukupo’s masterpiece is the carved meeting-house Te Hau ki Turanga, erected at Orakaiapu pa (now Manutuke), Turanga, to honour his recently deceased brother from whom he inherited the mantle of tribal leadership. It opened in either 1843 or 1845. It is now housed in the Museum of New Zealand, Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington, but is to be repatriated to Rongowhakaata some time before 2019. Rukupo is also renowned for leading carvers in their work on a new Anglican church at Whakato Marae, Turanga in ...


(b Florence, c. 1820; d Perth, W. Australia, 1907).

Australian architect, sculptor and mason of Italian birth. He travelled widely before emigrating to Melbourne in 1851. After working on the gold diggings, he established himself as a sculptor, monumental mason and contractor. In 1869 he was appointed Diocesan Architect in Goulburn, New South Wales, and worked on the cathedral there. By 1875 he had moved to Brisbane where, in the boom of the 1880s, he designed numerous buildings in a much-admired florid, Italianate style as well as some more restrained schools and Gothic churches. His work in Brisbane included the M. D. Benjamin Warehouse (later Dalgety’s; 1881; destr.), the Opera House (1886; destr.) and the residences Bertholme (1881) and Palm Rosa (1887). He also designed the Christian Brothers College (1875) and All Hallows School (1880), and the churches of St Andrew’s (1878) and St Patrick’s (1880), all in Brisbane. Undeterred by depressed conditions in Queensland after ...


(b East Charlton, Somerset, July 27, 1825; d Neuilly-sur-Seine, nr Paris, Nov 30, 1878).

English sculptor. He was apprenticed to his father, George Summers, a mason. He then worked as a studio assistant, first to Henry Weekes and then in 1846 to Musgrave Lewthwaite Watson. From 1848 to 1851 he attended the Royal Academy Schools in London. In 1851 he contracted tuberculosis, and in 1853, having abandoned a chance to study in Rome, he settled in Australia. The sea voyage effected the hoped-for cure, and for a while he joined his brothers in the goldfields at Tarnagulla. He was a gifted artist who worked in a classical manner, and he soon re-established himself as a sculptor in Melbourne. Among his earliest commissions was the supervision of the stone-carving on the façade of the new Melbourne Parliament House. He became active in art circles and knew the immigrant painters Eugene von Guérard and Nicholas Chevalier. In 1861 he re-formed the then defunct Victoria Society of Arts and in ...


Roger Neich

(b Mangamuka, nr Kaitaia, 1854; d Rotorua, Sept 1931).

New Zealand Maori wood-carver. He went to Rotorua with his mother when he was a few years old, following her capture and forced removal to North Auckland. He grew up at Ruato on Lake Rotoiti among his own people of Ngati Tarawhai, who were celebrated wood-carvers and canoe builders. He learnt the art of wood-carving in the 1870s from his skilled older relatives, Anaha Te Rahui (1822–1913) and Wero Taroi ( fl 1850–80), but by this time large carved war canoes had become obsolete, being replaced by fully carved meeting-houses as the focus of tribal pride and prestige. Waitere assisted his older relatives on the large carved houses that many tribes in various parts of North Island were commissioning from Ngati Tarawhai; the houses on which he worked include Tiki-a-Tamamutu (1878) at Taupo, Uenuku-mai-Rarotonga (1875) at Maketu and Tuhoromatakaka (1909) at Whakarewarewa. He also became a prolific carver for the Rotorua tourist market, executing large commissions for the New Zealand Government Tourist Department. While working for these European patrons he experimented with naturalism, perspective elements and narrative scenes illustrating local tribal legends. Rauru meeting-house (...