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Article

Charlotte Humphreys

(Aleksandrovich)

(b St Petersburg, Nov 28, 1880; d Petrograd [now St Petersburg], Aug 7, 1921).

Russian poet and critic. Italian Renaissance painting and the work of contemporary Russian and foreign artists of the modern school greatly influenced Blok’s poetry, which in turn was exceptionally suggestive for masters of the fine arts as well as for many Symbolist poets. Blok belonged to the second generation of Russian Symbolist poets, who saw literature as a powerful theurgic force, capable of revealing the true, ideal world through temporal symbols. Symbolism in Russia was strongly influenced by the mystical philosophy of Vladimir Solovyov (1853–1900), who initiated the cult of the divine Sophia—the image of Eternal Woman as the soul of the universe and the link between the human and the divine. Blok reflected this cult in his Stikhi o prekrasnoy dame (‘Verses about the beautiful lady’). The beautiful lady whom Blok described is both a real woman and a transcendental figure, unattainable Beauty, the Ideal. She assumes an unearthly aspect, revealing herself to the poet in an atmosphere of dreams that are like fairy tales or medieval visions....

Article

Angela Emanuel

(b Edgcote, Northants, Nov 7, 1851; d Oxford, April 24, 1924).

English critic and historian. In her writing she combined the results of methodical scholarship with a passionate enthusiasm to give a vivid picture of her subjects. She respected the new ‘scientific’ approach to art led by Giovanni Morelli, and her favourable reviews of Bernard Berenson’s early publications were partly responsible for the warm reception some of the new ideas received in England. Among 19th-century artists, she wrote a monograph on Jules Bastien-Lepage (1894), a biography of Jean-François Millet (1896)—possibly under the influence of her one-time editor and friend W. E. Henley—and articles on other French painters. She was a fervent admirer of the Arts and Crafts Movement and her monographs on Sir Edward Burne-Jones (1894), G. F. Watts (1896) and Lawrence Alma-Tadema were greatly admired, not least by the artists themselves, who became her firm friends. She also championed the Italian landscape artist Giovanni Costa....

Article

(b Löcse, Hungary [now Levoča, Slovakia], Sept 3, 1839; d Oct 5, 1910).

Hungarian engineer and art historian. He trained as an engineer and became a senior manager in the Hungarian railways. Following a two-year study trip to Italy (1876–8), he resigned his post and embarked upon a new career as an art historian. He visited Paris and London and in 1880 settled in Stuttgart.

Fabriczy devoted the greater part of his life to the study of Italian, and in particular Florentine, Renaissance art. In 1892 he published a major study of the life and work of the Florentine architect and engineer Filippo Brunelleschi. At the same time, after research in the Biblioteca Nazionale of Florence, most notably on 16th-century documents (the Codice Strozziano and Codice Petrei) containing notes on Florentine artists of considerable art historical value, he published the so-called Libro di Antonio Billi (1891; see Billi, Antonio) and the Codice dell’Anonimo Magliabechiano (1893). Fabriczy’s research had been undertaken in consultation with the Florentine art historian ...

Article

(b Bordeaux, Feb 27, 1884; d Paris, Jan 17, 1972).

French historian, archivist, paleographer and writer. He was chief librarian at the Cour de la Cassation. An expert on Renaissance architecture, sculpture and history, he established precise chronologies of events, and revised the generally accepted view of the Italian influence on the French Renaissance. In his Les Châteaux de la Renaissance he refuted the common assumption that the Italianate architecture seen in France during the reigns of Louis XII and Francis I was built by Italians working in France. He argued instead that much of it was the product of French masons, and maintained that the arrival of Sebastiano Serlio at the French court had led to the dispersal of Italian Renaissance styles among French craftsmen, which had reached a peak in the work of the French architect Pierre Lescot, at the end of Francis I’s reign. Under Henry II, a less Italian, more indigenous style was seen. In Les Châteaux de la France...

Article

(b Vic, 1872; d Vic, 1931).

Spanish art historian, archaeologist and museum curator. He was deeply involved in the nationalist cultural renaissance that took place in Catalonia at the end of the 19th century. His publications include a monograph on 14th-century Catalan art, a companion to an earlier study by S. Sanpere i Miquel on 15th-century Catalan art. Much of the work of Gudiol i Cunill was, however, centred on the Museu Arqueologic Artistic Episcopal, Vic, founded in 1889 and inaugurated in 1891 with a superb collection of 1300 objects, most of which are examples of medieval Catalan art. Appointed curator in 1898, Gudiol i Cunill worked there until his death. He wrote extensively about the museum, as well as producing various guides to the collection.

Arqueología sagrada catalana (Barcelona, 1902) El Museu Episcopal de Vich (Vic, 1918) Els trecentistes Catalans (Barcelona, 1924) Memories del Museu Episcopal de Vich, 1895–1930 (Vic, 1930) E. Junyent: Galería de vicenses ilustres: Mn. José Gudiol y Cunill...

Article

(b Gräfentonna, Thuringia, July 13, 1841; d Tegernsee, Bavaria, March 28, 1916).

German writer, publisher and editor. In 1875 he co-founded the publishing company Knorr & Hirth based in Munich. Werke unserer Väter, an exhibition of German Renaissance arts and crafts held in Munich in 1876, stimulated his interest in art, and in that year he began to edit and publish a series of handsomely produced art books and prints in affordable editions. In 1881 he took over the printing of the Münchner neuesten Nachrichten, developing it into one of Germany’s leading daily newspapers. He himself wrote on a wide range of issues. In Ideen über Zeichenunterricht und künstlerische Berufsbildung (1887), for example, he advocated a democratizing reform of the teaching of art; in Das plastische Sehen als Rindenzwang (1892) he took issue with the optical theories of Hermann von Helmholtz by propagating the idea that the optical function was physiologically inborn. Although he initially favoured German Gothic and early Renaissance art, by the 1890s he had become interested in contemporary art. In ...

Article

Michael Spens

(Alan)

(b London, Oct 8, 1900; d July 16, 1996).

English landscape designer, urban planner, architect and writer. He was educated in London at the Architectural Association School (1919–24). His book Italian Gardens of the Renaissance (with J. C. Shepherd), derived from student research, was published in 1925, the year in which he qualified as an architect. He soon established his practice in London. In the 1930s he was instrumental in developing the Institute of Landscape Architects (now the Landscape Institute) as a professional body. He taught at the Architectural Association School (1928–33), becoming its Principal in 1939. His projects of the 1930s include the village plan (1933) for Broadway, Hereford & Worcs, a model document under the Town and Country Planning Act of 1932, and, with Russell Page (1906–85), a pioneer modernist restaurant and visitors’ centre (1934) at Cheddar Gorge, Somerset. Important garden designs of these years include Ditchley Park (...

Article

(b Reval, 1884; d Munich, Nov 3, 1959).

German art historian. After graduating from Strasbourg and Bonn, he studied in Vienna from 1904 to 1907, under Franz Wickhoff and Max Dvořák. His first academic treatise was on the Italian Renaissance. In 1908 he was commissioned by the Deutscher Verein für Kunstwissenschaft to do research into Carolingian miniatures. This became his life’s work and, although he died before completing the study, it remains of fundamental importance to international art history. By 1914 he had finished collecting extensive material for the first volume, Die Schule von Tours, but World War I and its aftermath prevented publication until 1930–33. During the war he worked in Belgium on Carolingian works of art; this research was published in Belgische Kunstdenkmäler, edited by Paul Clemen (Munich, 1923). In 1918 Koehler was appointed director of the Kunstsammlungen at Weimar, and from 1923 he also worked at the University of Jena, first as lecturer then, from ...

Article

Janet Southorn

(b Nuremberg, 1901–2; d Florence, Sept 25, 1943).

German art historian. He studied at the universities of Würzburg, Munich and Berlin and from 1932 to 1935 was a lecturer at Berlin. In 1935 he became director of the Kunsthistorisches Institut (German Art Historical Institute) in Florence, with which he had been associated since 1926. As a scholar and as director of the Institute, Kriegbaum’s work was characterized by his concern for systematic archival research. His own field of study was 16th-century Tuscan sculpture, especially by Michelangelo, Bartolomeo Ammanati and northern sculptors working in Florence, such as Hans Riechle. He remained in Florence after the outbreak of World War II and was killed in an air-raid. Some of his writings were published posthumously and his contribution to art historical scholarship was commemorated when the Institute reopened on 7 October 1953.

‘Ein verschollenes Brunnenwerk des Bartolomeo Ammanati’, Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Instituts in Florenz (1929), pp. 71–103 ‘Hans Reichle’, Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien [prev. pubd as Jb. Ksthist. Samml. Allhöch. Ksrhaus.]...

Article

Richard Wollheim

(b Vienna, April 26, 1900; d New York, Feb 27, 1957).

American art historian and psychoanalyst of Austrian birth. He was a student of Julius von Schlosser at the University of Vienna and joined the staff of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, as a curator of sculpture and applied arts. He became a leading authority on late medieval and Renaissance goldsmith work and engraved gems, and produced Meister und Meisterwerke der Steinschneidekunst in der italienischen Renaissance in 1928.

Kris became associated with the world of psychoanalysis as a result of his friendship with, and marriage in 1927 to, the daughter of Freud’s family doctor, Oscar Rie. Kris first combined art historical and psychoanalytic method in his study of the physiognomic busts of Franz-Xavier Messerschmidt, the findings of which he presented in separate papers intended for audiences of art historians or of psychoanalysts. In 1932 Kris was made an editor of Imago, the journal of applied psychoanalysis, and he started practising psychoanalysis. He continued to catalogue the goldsmith work in the Kunsthistorisches Museum and initiated two research projects bridging his two interests: one on the myth of the artist, the other on facial expression in the arts, with (respectively) ...

Article

Edith W. Kirsch

(b Cincinnati, March 25, 1904; d Princeton, June 12, 1975).

American art historian. He was educated at the universities of Princeton (BA) and New York (MA, PhD), lecturing at the latter from 1931 to 1933. He subsequently became Lecturer and finally Professor of Fine Arts and Archaeology at Columbia University (1934–53); Professor as well as Curator of Paintings at the Fogg Museum, Harvard University (1954–8); Professor at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, from 1958 to 1975. He was editor of the Art Bulletin from 1940 to 1942, an honorary trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society and the Medieval Academy of America, receiving the Haskins Medal in 1953; he was also a corresponding member of a number of foreign societies, including the British Academy, the Société des Antiquaires de France and the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno, Florence. A student of ...

Article

Michael Podro and Margaret Barlow

(b Hannover, March 30, 1892; d Princeton, NJ, March 14, 1968).

German art historian, active in the USA. He wrote primarily on late medieval and Renaissance art in northern Europe and Italy, mostly, but by no means exclusively, on painting.

Panofsky’s doctoral dissertation (1915) was on the relation of Dürer’s theory of art to that in Renaissance Italy; in 1923 he and Fritz Saxl published a study of Dürer’s engraving Melencolia I. In 1926 he became the first professor of art history at the new university of Hamburg, where he was closely involved with Ernst Cassirer (1874–1945), the professor of philosophy, and with Saxl and Aby Warburg at the Bibliothek Warburg. Panofsky’s name is often narrowly associated with the search for the subject-matter of paintings through reference to traditional imagery and literature. However, his writing always involved a much more ambitious and coherent mode of critical interpretation: he sought consistently to place individual works of art in relation to what he took to be an underlying aspect of the human situation, the reciprocity between ‘objectivity’—our receptive relation to the external world—and ‘subjectivity’—the constructive activity of our thought....

Article

Edwin Lachnit

(b Görz [now Gorizia, Italy], Aug 31, 1887; d Florence, July 7, 1952).

Austrian art historian. He came from a family with wide cultural interests. While still at school Planiscig published numerous essays in the literary periodical Il Marzocco. In 1908 he went to Vienna and studied art history under Max Dvořák and Julius von Schlosser. He obtained his doctorate in 1912 with a dissertation on the history of Venetian sculpture in the 14th century. On Schlosser’s recommendation Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Este, appointed Planiscig adviser on artistic questions. After the murder of the Archduke in 1914, the Este Collection was moved to the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna with Planiscig as custodian. In 1933 Planiscig was appointed Director of the collection of sculpture and decorative arts and modernized the department. He was dismissed by the National Socialists in 1938 and moved to Florence, where he devoted himself to private research. He survived a bombing raid that destroyed his house, but his health was permanently impaired by the shock. Planiscig was an outstanding connoisseur of Italian Renaissance sculpture, in particular the small bronzes of the 15th century, which were central to his scholarly work. His most important books, apart from a number of catalogues, were monographs on sculptors of the Italian Renaissance....

Article

Jaynie Anderson

(b Dresden, Jan 7, 1847; d Lugano, Aug 25, 1937).

German art historian, collector and dealer. The son of a Lutheran clergyman, he first studied theology at Leipzig but while travelling in Italy in 1869 became interested in early Christian archaeology, in which field he determined to continue. His first publications were on the sources of Byzantine art history and the mosaics of Ravenna. In 1876 he met Giovanni Morelli, whose disciple he became. Their lengthy correspondence constitutes an important source for the early history of connoisseurship. Richter published a short biography of Leonardo in 1880, then a series of articles in the Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst and finally his edition of the Literary Works of Leonardo (1883), the work that established his reputation as a scholar. This was the first scholarly edition of Leonardo’s writings, illustrated, moreover, with a selection of mostly authentic drawings at a time when books on Leonardo were normally illustrated by his pupils’ works....

Article

Volker Krahn

(b Berlin, Aug 21, 1872; d Berlin, June 12, 1936).

German art historian and curator. She studied at the universities of Berlin (1899–1903) and Zurich (1903), where she wrote her thesis, Die Gestalt des Menschen in Donatellos Werk, under Heinrich Wölfflin. She then joined the staff of the Kaiser-Friedrich Wilhelm Museum (now the Bodemuseum), Berlin, where she spent the rest of her career apart from a short period (1917–18) in the Institute of Art History, Florence. The department of Italian Renaissance art at the Kaiser-Friedrich Museum achieved world renown under Wilhelm Bode. One of Schottmüller’s first tasks was to compile an index for Bode’s Denkmäler der Renaissance-Sculptur Toscanas. She herself wrote on the art of the Italian Renaissance, mainly on sculpture but also on painting. Her wide-ranging scholarship exactly reflected the approach taken by the museum, which aimed to present art within a cultural context, bringing together paintings, sculptures and other artefacts of a period in what were known as ‘period rooms’. Schottmüller’s writings on the domestic culture of the Italian Renaissance remain exemplary. Her ...

Article

Alison Luchs

(b Basle, Jan 2, 1881; d Begnins, nr Geneva, Jan 14, 1962).

Swiss art historian. He completed his doctorate under Heinrich Wölfflin in Berlin in 1905 and during his subsequent assistantship at the Istituto Storico Germanico, Rome, wrote Die Plastik des XI. und XII. Jahrhunderts in Apulien. He taught art history in Halle and Leipzig before accepting a professorship (1920) at the University of Münster, where he taught until 1948.

Wackernagel pioneered the study of art in relation to a particular historical and social context, specifically that of Renaissance Florence. His Der Lebensraum des Künstlers in der florentinischen Renaissance (1938) set an imposing precedent for similar studies that proliferated later in the 20th century. In sections on commissions and functions of art, patronage and the life, working conditions and social status of artists, the book provides detailed, carefully documented information on the Florentine artistic setting from c. 1420 to 1530, including descriptive reconstructions of the original locations of many works. He focused on great projects such as the cathedral, baptistery and Palazzo Vecchio and on smaller undertakings for individual churches, convents and private homes; on the demands and taste of such individual patrons as the Medici and such corporate ones as the city government, the guilds and the religious orders. He assembled data on artists as individuals and as a group: their work and business practices, professional organization, social life and personalities, as well as their relationship to the contemporary art market. His aim was not to expound a theory so much as to create a detailed, panoramic image of Renaissance Florence as a successful nurturing environment for flourishing artistic production. In this he was influenced by the work of Hippolyte Taine and his concept of the influential milieu; Jacob Burckhardt (especially his studies on Renaissance collectors and on commissions grouped by type and function); and Aby Warburg, who in his studies of Florentine Renaissance art first drew attention to the impact of demand and the requirements of the patron. Eugène Müntz’s surveys of Renaissance art may also have been models as well as sources....

Article

Deborah J. Haynes

(b Hamburg, June 13, 1866; d Hamburg, Oct 26, 1929).

German art historian. His research interests ranged widely, including the art of the Renaissance, costume, festivals, medicine, astrology and magic, but his primary contribution to cultural history is the Warburg Institute.

Warburg was born into a wealthy Jewish banking family and was never obliged to seek academic employment. He trained at the University of Bonn with scholars such as Hermann Usener (1834–1905) and Karl Lamprecht (1856–1915), becoming interested in psychology, in a broad evolutionary perspective and in historical periods of transition. He continued his studies in Munich, Florence and Strasbourg, finally completing a dissertation in 1891 on how Botticelli’s Primavera and the Birth of Venus demonstrate the ‘afterlife of the Antique’. At this time Jacob Burckhardt’s interpretation of the Renaissance as a period of emancipation from medieval values and the rise of the modern individual was being challenged by scholars such as Henry Thode, who argued for an important role for Christian influences. Warburg can be seen as siding with Burckhardt in this disagreement; but whereas Burckhardt conceived of history as progress and the Renaissance as a cultural unity within that progressive movement, Warburg interpreted the Renaissance as a period of transition and uncertainty, viewing it as if abstracted from the course of time. For Warburg history was a vital and energetic tradition, communicated through images as well as words, but these documents could best be understood by looking for their non-temporal unity. Such themes were particularly evident in his dissertation and his writings of ...

Article

Jaynie Anderson

(b Berlin, May 14, 1900; d London, Sept 12, 1971).

German art historian active in Germany, the USA, and England. His work transcends the conventional categories of academic specialization, combining philosophical and aesthetic insight with a sensitive eye and an exceptional range of historical and literary learning. He studied Classics, philosophy, and art history in Berlin, Freiburg, and Vienna, obtaining his DPhil in 1922 in Hamburg under Erwin Panofsky with a thesis on the relation between aesthetic appreciation and historical scholarship. The neo-Kantian influence of Ernst Cassirer in Hamburg was soon superseded by the pragmatism of Charles S. Pierce, which he encountered while teaching philosophy at North Carolina (1925–7). On his return to Hamburg as research assistant at the Bibliothek Warburg, this pragmatism was infused with Aby Warburg’s concept of cultural history, interest in the psychological potency of images, and fascination with significant detail. The close relationship between the two men is documented in Warburg’s diaries. After submitting his anti-Kantian treatise, ...

Article

Janet Southorn

(b Berlin, June 22, 1901; d New York, Oct 11, 1971).

British art historian and writer of German birth. The son of Henry Wittkower and Gertrude Ansbach, he had British citizenship through his British-born father. He studied at the universities of Munich and Berlin, where under the supervision of Adolf Goldschmidt he obtained his doctorate with a dissertation on the 15th-century Veronese artist Domenico Morone. In 1923 he went to Rome, where for the next ten years he worked first as an assistant (1923–7) and then as a research fellow at the Biblioteca Hertziana, for which he began the compilation of bibliographies organized by artist and place. In 1931 he published Die Zeichnungen des Gianlorenzo Bernini, which he wrote in collaboration with Heinrich Brauer. After a brief period as lecturer at the Universität Köln (1933), Wittkower came to London. From 1934 to 1956 he was a member of staff at the Warburg Institute and in 1937 was a founding co-editor of the Institute’s journal. From ...

Article

(b Feldhausen, Dec 31, 1893; d Cologne, May 25, 1978).

German art historian and conservator . He wrote his dissertation in Bonn on Early Renaissance art on the Lower Rhine, and from 1928 to 1951 he was in charge of conservation for the Rhineland. In 1933 he began teaching the care of monuments and Rhenish art at the Universität Bonn, where he was appointed honorary professor in 1939. During World War II Metternich was responsible for the protection of movable works of art in the Rhineland and in France, where he did extremely valuable work pursuant to the Hague Convention. After 1950 he worked for the West German Foreign Office to recover art works that had been taken abroad, and from 1952 to 1962 he was Director of the Bibliotheca Hertziana in Rome. Metternich’s scholarly work was dedicated to the art of the Rhineland. His special interests included Romanesque architecture and murals, such as Bonn Minster, Schwarzrheindorf, St Georg and St Aposteln in Cologne; Gothic churches such as Cologne Cathedral; Renaissance buildings (for example Schloss Rheydt) and such Baroque estates as Schloss Brühl. At the Bibliotheca Hertziana he devoted himself to architecture in Rome from the 15th to the 18th century and especially to problems concerning Bramante and the building of St Peter’s, Rome....