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Article

(b Sarrebourg [now Saarburg, Germany], Oct 14, 1834; d Paris, Feb 28, 1915).

French architect, restorer, teacher and writer. His architectural training began in 1854 in the studio of Henri Labrouste and then, when it was disbanded in 1856, in that of Viollet-le-Duc, which had been opened largely at Baudot’s request. His academic training was limited to a brief period (1856–7) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. From 1856 until the death of Viollet-le-Duc in 1879 Baudot’s life was that of a disciple, first as a student and later as a collaborator on restoration work (especially at Notre-Dame in Paris and the cathedral of Clermont-Ferrand). This patronage, while provoking strong antagonism from certain quarters, made it easy for him to enter professional life. Between 1869 and 1872 Baudot, possibly supported by Viollet-le-Duc who sat on the panel of judges, won first prize in three competitions for new churches: at Rambouillet (built in 1869), Levallois (1870; unexecuted) and Grenoble (...

Article

Amedeo Bellini

(b Milan, Nov 13, 1854; d Rome, Aug 8, 1933).

Italian architect, teacher, restorer and writer. He attended both the Politecnico in Milan and the Accademia di Brera, studying as a pupil of Camillo Boito. He graduated in 1875 and the following year enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, where he attended Jean-Louis Pascal’s atelier, and came into contact with Charles Garnier, Gabriel-Jean-Antoine Davioud and Théodore Ballu. He also cultivated the interest in engraving that he had acquired under the painter Luigi Conconi and exhibited at the Salon of 1877. In 1880 Beltrami won the competition organized by the municipality of Milan for a monument (unexecuted) to the anti-Austrian uprising of 1848 and was appointed to the chair in architecture at the Accademia di Brera. The following year he also shared first prize with Carlo Ferrario (1833–1907) in a competition organized by the Accademia di Brera for a new façade for the cathedral. Between 1880 and 1886...

Article

Giuliana Ricci and Amedeo Bellini

(b Rome, Oct 30, 1836; d Milan, June 28, 1914).

Italian architect, teacher, restorer and writer. Boito was an important figure in many ways in the cultural life of Italy, and especially Milan, in the second half of the 19th century. He not only taught at the Accademia di Brera and the Istituto Tecnico Superiore for nearly 50 years but also took part in competitions (both as competitor and adjudicator), wrote articles on architecture and restoration for newspapers and periodicals, as well as numerous reports for private individuals and the government, and was active in numerous professional associations. He also served on numerous commissions, particularly after his appointment as Director of the Accademia di Brera in 1897.

Giuliana Ricci

Boito entered the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice in 1850 and won a prize there in 1852. In 1854 he entered the Studio Matematico at the Università degli Studi in Padua, and in 1855 he qualified as a professional architect. In ...

Article

V. P. Tsel’tner

[Mikhail]

(b Romanivka, nr Ternopil, Oct 30, 1882; d 1939).

Ukrainian painter, teacher, theorist and restorer. From 1899 to 1905 he studied as the Matejka Academy of Art in Kraków and from 1905 at the Akademien der Bildenden Künste in Munich and Vienna. He lived and worked in Paris from 1908 to 1911 and visited Italy in 1910–11. He then moved to Lemberg (now L’viv), where he restored medieval paintings, and from 1917 settled in Kiev. After the Russian Revolution he emerged as one of the major artists who called for the revival of the Ukrainian national artistic tradition, regarding monumental painting as the most appropriate form. His paintings combine such timeless motifs as labour, motherhood, and man’s relationship to the soil with an acute sense of the great dramas of his time and are produced in a highly distinctive continuation of the Ukrainian Art Nouveau style. He drew on the traditions of Byzantine mural painting, Italian early Renaissance art and the medieval art of Ukraine, as well as on the stylistic features of folk art. He was an outstanding teacher and theorist who defended his ideas vigorously and skilfully in public appearances, uniting around him a set of like-minded young artists and creating a tendency that became known as ‘Boychukism’. From ...

Article

Alexandru Beldiman

(b Vienna, May 23, 1899; d Iaşı Nov 1, 1960).

Romanian architect, urban planner, painter, theorist and restorer. Descended from a Wallachian family of statesmen and scholars, he studied (1920–29) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, with Gustave Umbdenstock and G. Gromort. His work consistently showed Neo-classical and Renaissance influences, from the Palladian-style Chrissoveloni Bank (1928; with A. Schmiedigen), Bucharest, to the substantial number of buildings he completed in Romania during the 1930s. In many of these the classicist forms overlaid a sophisticated functionality in the planning, for example the IAR aeroplane factory (1933), Braşov. He also designed houses (e.g. in Amza Square, Bucharest, 1935), hotels (e.g. the Hotel Bellona on the Black Sea coast, 1934) and churches, such as those at Tetcani and Flǎmânda (1939), and he participated in the production of the master plan of 1935 for Bucharest. He was commissioned to design the Romanian Pavilion for the World’s Fair, New York (...

Article

Seymour Howard

(b Rome, ?1716; d Rome, Dec 9, 1799).

Italian sculptor, restorer, dealer, collector and antiquary. He lived and worked all his life in the artists’ quarter of Rome. He was apprenticed to the French sculptor Pierre-Etienne Monnot from c. 1729 to 1733, and by 1732 had become a prize-winning student at the Accademia di S Luca. From the early 1730s he appears to have worked for Cardinal Alessandro Albani on his collections of antiquities, renovating sculptures with Carlo Antonio Napolioni (1675–1742).

In 1733 Clement XII bought most of Albani’s earlier holdings of antique sculpture in order to prevent their sale and export to the court of Augustus the Strong in Dresden. He housed them in the Museo Capitolino, Rome, where Cavaceppi worked as a principal restorer, with Napolioni and his nephew Clemente Bianchi, under the direction of Marchese Gregorio Capponi and Cardinal Giovan Petro Lucatelli, until the end of the papacy (1740–58) of Benedict XIV. By mid-century, after renovating Early Christian antiquities in the Lateran, Cavaceppi’s reputation extended beyond Italy and with the aid of Albani he had become an independent dealer. He was in great demand among the major collectors and agents of central Europe and England—including ...

Article

Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Amiens, Sept 12, 1835; d Paris, Feb 2, 1904).

French architect and writer. He was a pupil of Eugène-Emanuel Viollet-le-Duc and began his career by building the Hôtel de Ville (1862–5) at Roanne, the church (c. 1865) at Vougy in the Loire and the château of Fleyriat (1868–9) in the Ain. Subsequently he built the churches of Villers and Saint-Cyr-lès-Vignes (Loire) and, more importantly, the Comptoir d’Escompte (1878–82) in the Rue de Rougemont, Paris. During the same period Corroyer also studied medieval architecture and was commissioned to restore the churches at Lamballe, Saint-Pol-de-Léon and Dol. He undertook commissions at Dinan (1872) and Pleyben (1873) and restored churches at Ham, Nesle and Athies (Somme) and the château of Chamarande (Loire), which belonged to the Vicomte de Vougy. In 1878 he began the restoration of Mont-Saint-Michel Abbey but was dismissed in 1888 after a local intrigue. Corroyer also worked for the Service des Edifices Diocésains as diocesan architect to Soissons (from ...

Article

E. A. Christensen

(b Laxfield, Suffolk, Oct 24, 1787; d London, Oct 13, 1847).

British architect, designer, writer and collector. He trained as a builder and from 1814 worked independently as an architect in London, his practice consisting mainly of church restorations. He published many books on design and architecture: his designs for ornamental metalwork appeared as Ornamental Metal Worker’s Director (1823), and his lithographs of Gothic mouldings, finials and other details, published as Working Drawings of Gothic Ornaments ([1824]), provided architects with models for Gothic capitals and carvings; his publications on architecture include Westminster Hall (1822) and Plans…of the Chapel of King Henry the Seventh (1822–9).

During the 1840s Cottingham designed a variety of pieces of Gothic furniture for his friend, John Harrison of Snelston Hall, Derbys, some of which incorporated fragments of authentic Gothic carving. His design (London, V&A) for a drawing-room cabinet for Snelston Hall, although not strictly archaeological, was based on existing examples of Gothic detailing. Cottingham’s discovery of a series of medieval tiles in the Chapter House at Westminster Abbey stimulated a revival of encaustic tiles, subsequently produced by such firms as Minton; he designed such tiles for ...

Article

Alessandro Conti

(b Siena, c. 1820; d Florence, 1867).

Italian restorer. He worked in Florence from 1845. He is known for his manual, published in 1866, in which he frequently disagreed with Conte Giovanni Secco-Suardo. Although it lacks the clear presentation of the latter’s work, Forni’s handbook is nevertheless one of the most valuable manuals of 19th-century restoration. Apart from an over-extensive list of recipes and an inexact approach to bibliography and information, it reflects a more modern working context than Secco-Suardo’s work and devotes much space to the restoration of medieval paintings, as well as dealing with different methods of rescuing, restoring and transferring wall paintings, probably based on advice provided by Gaetano Bianchi. Forni is known to have worked on Cosimo Rosselli’s Adoration of the Magi (Florence, Uffizi) and Pontormo’s Venus based on a cartoon by Michelangelo (Florence, Accad.).

Manuale del pittore restauratore (Florence, 1866) G. Incerpi: ‘Conservazione e restauro dei quadri degli Uffizi nel periodo lorenese’, ...

Article

(b Stuttgart, Feb 2, 1789; d Hassfurt, Sept 28, 1865).

German architect, painter, sculptor, printmaker and writer. He belonged to a large family of artists descended from Franz Joseph (Ignatz Anton) Heideloff (1676–1772), who was a sculptor and possibly also a painter. He was trained by the architect Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret, the sculptor Johann Heinrich von Dannecker and the painter Johann Baptist Seele. He also studied mural painting as assistant to his father, Victor (Wilhelm Peter) Heideloff (1757–1817). As a young man he became interested in Gothic and Romanesque architecture, and while he was in Mainz in 1814 he made the acquaintance of Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (reg 1826–44), who employed him as his architect until 1821. In 1822, having settled in Nuremberg, he was appointed curator of the city’s historical monuments; he used this position to encourage widespread interest in early German art and to rescue many examples from destruction. He also taught at the local Polytechnische Schule from its foundation in ...

Article

James Bettley

(b Hampstead, London, Dec 21, 1835; d Wimbledon, London, Nov 7, 1924).

English architect and writer. Jackson, the son of a solicitor, was educated at Brighton College and Wadham College, Oxford, of which he became a Fellow in 1865. He served his articles (1858–61) in the office of George Gilbert Scott the elder and then set up practice in London in 1861. His early work—including St Peter’s Church (1872–4), Hornblotton, Somerset —attracted little attention, although his book Modern Gothic Architecture (1873) was widely praised: in it Jackson advocated the use of an eclectic English Renaissance style, which he himself used with few exceptions throughout his career.

In 1876 he made his name by winning the competition for the new Examination Schools, Oxford, and went on to work for no fewer than 11 colleges there. He also carried out restoration or other work on practically every university building and designed the new High Schools for Boys and Girls (...

Article

Radomíra Sedláková

(b Prague, March 12, 1882; d Prague, Aug 1, 1956).

Czech architect, designer, theorist and teacher. He graduated in architecture from the Czech Technical University, Prague, where he studied under Josef Schulz and Josef Zítek, and from 1906 to 1907 he was a student of Otto Wagner at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna. In 1908 he worked in Jan Kotěra’s studio in Prague. His early work was influenced by the modernism of Wagner and Kotěra, but he perceived a danger of uniformity in a purely rationalist approach to architecture. In 1911, together with Josef Chochol, Josef Gočár, Vlastislav Hofman (1884–1964), Emil Filla, Václav Špála, Antonín Procházka, Otto Gutfreund and others, he founded the Group of Fine Artists, which sought a more artistic approach to architecture, and in 1912 he and Gočár founded the Prague Art Workshops for the design of arts, crafts and furniture. Within the Group of Fine Artists, Janák developed the principles of Czech Cubism...

Article

Alessandro Conti

[Igino]

(b Siena, July 18, 1866; d Siena, Jan 23, 1946).

Italian forger, restorer and writer. He is best known for his autobiography, a broad panoramic portrait of life in provincial Italy at the end of the 19th century, which conveys something of the disquiet concerning the loss of Italy’s prestige. He also worked as a skilful forger and restorer at a time when the distinctions between the two activities were blurred. Much of his success as a forger was due to the fact that he imitated either the works of lesser painters (such as Sano di Pietro) or the undistinguished works of more famous artists, which could deceive even a connoisseur. A typical example is his copy of Cecco di Pietro’s Agnano polyptych (Pisa, Mus. N. S Matteo), created as a fraudulent substitution for the original (Rome, Pal. Venezia). Few of Joni’s fakes have stood the test of time, despite the fact that he was in contact with such critics and collectors as Francis Mason Perkins and Robert Langton Douglas. Research into collecting and the art market in late 19th-century America has identified Joni’s role as a restorer in such works as ...

Article

Marianne Frodl-Schneemann

(b Hanau, nr Frankfurt am Main, Sept 15, 1780; d Vienna, Oct 28, 1856).

Austrian painter, teacher and Curator of German birth. From the age of ten, Krafft studied at the Hanau Akademie while at the same time continuing his school education in Hanau. In 1799 he went to Vienna with his sister and studied at the Akademie for three years with the history and portrait painter Heinrich Füger. At this time Krafft painted mythological subjects, made copies from older works and produced several self-portraits that already reveal his capacities in this genre, for example Self-portrait (1799; priv. col., see Frodl-Schneemann, pl. I). The dream-like atmosphere of total absorption, which Krafft often achieved through his use of the techniques of early German painting, constitutes one of the most striking aspects of his portraits from the turn of the century. From 1802 to 1804 he was in Paris, where he studied with Jacques-Louis David and François Gérard. The work of these two, together with that of Jean-Baptiste Greuze and Antoine-Jean Gros, was to influence Krafft’s later work when he returned to Vienna. David’s realist tendencies in painting had a fundamental effect on Krafft’s artistic output, and it was through Krafft that this realism contributed to a development towards Biedermeier art in Vienna. In ...

Article

Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Littry (Calvados), April 8, 1813; d Sens, Dec 24, 1874).

French architect and writer. He studied with Guillaume Abel Blouet and Louis-Tullius-Joachim Visconti, and worked for the latter for several years as a draughtsman. Early in his career he won first prize in an open competition for a public abattoir. In Paris he was appointed inspector of works at the Palais de Justice (1849), at the workshop of Saint-Denis Abbey (1850), which was then under the supervision of Viollet-le-Duc, and at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers (1854) under Léon Vaudoyer. On the recommendation of Jean-Baptiste Lassus, he was appointed diocesan architect at Sens in 1854 and restored the cathedral’s transepts and the sacristy of the lower choir; he also designed the pulpit (1871), restored the Francis I wing of the Archbishop’s Palace and built the seminary. He replaced Emile Boeswillwald as diocesan architect at Soissons in 1857. He was appointed a member of the commission for lycées and training colleges in ...

Article

Jaynie Anderson

(b Affori, 1799; d Milan, Jan 11, 1867).

Italian painter, restorer and museum director. The son of an impoverished innkeeper, from the age of 10 he was supported by a Milanese family called Brocca, who financed his education at the painting school in the Brera, Milan. There he studied with Giuseppe Longhi to become a painter of sentimental genre-pieces and fashionable portraits. After graduating he was employed as a restorer by the Abbate Massinelli, a priest from Bergamo, who had acquired a collection of pictures (later bought by Edward Solly) from churches and religious institutions in Lombardy. Molteni then studied at Bologna with Giuseppe Guizzardi (1779–1861), a well-known restorer, and returned to Milan in the 1820s. Elected a member of the Accademia di Brera in 1839, he became Consigliero Ordinario in 1851 and was given a studio there. This was frequented by such museum directors as Sir Charles Lock Eastlake (i), such dealers as Otto Mündler and such private collectors as Sir ...

Article

Deborah Cullen

[MoMA] (New York)

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family §(1) to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (1938–9) designed by Philip S. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone that it still occupies at 11 West 53 Street. Subsequent renovations and expansions occurred in the 1950s and 1960s by Philip Johnson, in 1984 by Cesar Pelli and in 2002–4 by Yoshirō Taniguchi (b 1937). MoMA QNS, the temporary headquarters during this project, was subsequently used to provide art storage. In 2000, MoMA and the contemporary art space, P.S.1, Long Island City, Queens, announced their affiliation. Recent projects are shown at P.S.1 in Queens in a renovated public school building.

According to founding director, Alfred H(amilton) Barr...

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Wiesbaden, 1908; d. Heidelberg, 4 April, 1999).

Art historian of Viennese birth. She studied at Vienna University with Josef Strzygoswki, submitting her thesis on Sasanian silver in 1933. The following year she volunteered at the Islamic department of the State Museum in Berlin under Ernst Kühnel, who had succeeded Friedrich Sarre as director three years earlier. In the spring of 1935 Otto-Dorn went to Turkey, working with the German Archaeological Institute on the ceramics of Iznik and excavating at Kahta in southeast Anatolia. World War II forced her to return to Europe, and in 1948 she began teaching at Heidelberg University, while also excavating at Rusafa in northeastern Syria and then at Kubadabad on Lake Beyşehir. In 1954 she returned to Turkey, where she established the chair of Islamic art and archaeology at Ankara and trained many Turkish students. In 1964 she returned to Heidelberg, but unable to find a position in Germany, she took up the position of professor of Islamic Art at the University of California at Los Angeles, where she taught from ...

Article

Valeria Farinati

(b Venice, Aug 23, 1683; d Padua, Nov 15, 1761).

Italian scientist and archaeologist. He is noted for his work as a technical consultant specializing in architectural and hydraulic problems. He began his studies in 1690 in Venice, at the Seminario Patriarcale, Murano, completing them c. 1705 at the school of the Somaschi Fathers at Santa Maria della Salute. In 1708 he was appointed a professor of astronomy at the University of Padua. On 30 November 1710 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society, London; this was followed by membership of the most famous Italian academies, as well as those of Berlin (1715), St Petersburg (1735) and Paris (1739). He maintained a continuous correspondence with the most eminent scientists and men of culture, both Italian and foreign, and published numerous works on scientific subjects. In the course of Poleni’s career at the University of Padua, he was professor of philosophy (c. 1715–19...

Article

María Teresa Dabrio González

(b Pontevedra, 1937).

Spanish architect, restorer, theorist and teacher. He studied architecture at the Escuela Superior de Arquitectura, Barcelona, where he graduated in 1966 and earned his doctorate two years later. He subsequently developed a career in private practice and also taught architectural design and urban planning at the Escuela de Arquitectura, La Coruña. His interest in the restoration and preservation of the urban environment, especially in Galicia, is reflected in numerous projects in the area, for example the refurbishing of the Casa del Concejo (1982), Brión. Other singular projects that characterize his close identification with this region are competition entries such as his ‘Study of the Natural Elements and Artificial Objects that Make Up the Galician Physical Milieu’ (1983) sponsored by the Ministry of Public Works and City Planning of Madrid, and his design (1989) for a lighthouse in Malpica, Costa de la Muerte. He was also one of the architects invited to design the Spanish Pavilion for the Exposición Universal in Seville in ...