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(b Pieve Santo Stefano, nr Arezzo, May 13, 1836; d Florence, Sept 12, 1922).

Italian dealer, restorer, collector and painter . From 1854 he trained as a painter at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, executing such works as France Succouring Italy during the War of 1859 (1859–60; Impruneta, Villa Triboli). During the 1870s he began acquiring important works of art and became known as a notable dealer in Italian Old Master paintings, sculpture and objets d’art. He often obtained works of impeccable provenance, such as Arnolfo di Cambio’s marble figures for the ancient façade of Florence Cathedral, which included the Nativity, Pope Boniface VIII (both c. 1296–1300; Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo) and Death of the Virgin (c. 1296–1300; destr., fragments in Berlin, Bodemus.; plaster copy, executed by Bardini before the sale to Berlin, in Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo). An extensive range of significant works dating from approximately the 12th century to the 16th passed through his possession, entering major museums and private collections, including numerous Italian bronze statuettes, many of which were acquired by ...

Article

(b Château de Vérignon, Var, Jan 10, 1771; d Prague, Nov 17, 1839).

French patron and collector. A leading ultra-conservative political figure, he engaged in restoration of French royal properties. As Ministre de la Maison du Roi (March–June 1815) he tried to initiate the restoration of Versailles. As ambassador to Rome (1816–22) he restored the Spanish Steps and Domenichino’s frescoes (1612–15) in S Luigi dei Francesi. His Trinità dei Monti project involved Charles-François Mazois, Ingres, Pietro Tenerani and pensioners of the French Academy in Rome. He was the patron of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Eugène Delacroix, Horace Vernet and Vincenzo Camuccini as well as of artists of lesser renown such as François-Xavier Fabre, Pietro Tenerani, Auguste-Jean-Baptiste Vinchon (1789–1855), Auguste Forestier (1780–1850) and Louis-Vincent-Léon Pallière (1787–1820). Blacas’s extensive collection of ancient art (London, BM) comprised 950 gems, over 500 Greek vases, terracotta and bronze sculpture, Roman mural paintings, Greek and Roman glass, papyrus inscriptions, jewellery, over 400 Egyptian artefacts, Islamic vessels and over 2,000 Greek and Roman coins. He supported scholarly research that resulted in ...

Article

(b Toulouse, 1766; d Paris, 1826).

French dealer, restorer and painter. He may have begun his career as a protégé of Henri-Auguste de Chalvet, a collector and Associate Member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse. His first teachers were Pierre Rivalz and Lambert-François-Thérèse Cammas. He moved to Paris shortly before the French Revolution but went almost immediately to London, where he established himself as a portrait painter, exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1794 and 1795. He returned to Paris in 1796 and that year sent three portraits to the Salon. In 1799, he exhibited the curiously Romantic Girl Surprised by a Storm (New York, Brooklyn Mus.). The following year he achieved popular success with Woman of Property Begging (England, priv. col.). His talents as a portrait painter were particularly admired: surviving examples are Adrien Segond (1812; Paris, Louvre) and Dieudonné Jeanroy (1812; U. Paris V, Fac. Médec.). His style of painting reflected contemporary admiration for highly finished works in the manner of 17th-century Dutch artists....

Article

Seymour Howard

(b Rome, ?1716; d Rome, Dec 9, 1799).

Italian sculptor, restorer, dealer, collector and antiquary. He lived and worked all his life in the artists’ quarter of Rome. He was apprenticed to the French sculptor Pierre-Etienne Monnot from c. 1729 to 1733, and by 1732 had become a prize-winning student at the Accademia di S Luca. From the early 1730s he appears to have worked for Cardinal Alessandro Albani on his collections of antiquities, renovating sculptures with Carlo Antonio Napolioni (1675–1742).

In 1733 Clement XII bought most of Albani’s earlier holdings of antique sculpture in order to prevent their sale and export to the court of Augustus the Strong in Dresden. He housed them in the Museo Capitolino, Rome, where Cavaceppi worked as a principal restorer, with Napolioni and his nephew Clemente Bianchi, under the direction of Marchese Gregorio Capponi and Cardinal Giovan Petro Lucatelli, until the end of the papacy (1740–58) of Benedict XIV. By mid-century, after renovating Early Christian antiquities in the Lateran, Cavaceppi’s reputation extended beyond Italy and with the aid of Albani he had become an independent dealer. He was in great demand among the major collectors and agents of central Europe and England—including ...

Article

Ilaria Bignamini

(d London, 1748).

English restorer and art dealer. Possibly related to the print-seller and auctioneer John Cock (d 1714), he began his career cleaning and restoring Old Master paintings. In this capacity he was employed by some of the foremost collectors of his time, including John Hervey (1665–1751), 1st Earl of Bristol, and James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos. Around 1726 Cock set up the earliest art auction rooms in London to survive for any length of time. These were situated in the house in Covent Garden formerly occupied by Peter Lely. Around the same date he joined the gatherings of artists and amateurs of the Rose and Crown Club, London, where he met William Hogarth, who later satirized Cock’s supposed greed and cunning in his engraving Battle of the Pictures (1745). Cock also acted as a property auctioneer, conducting his business on a scale unprecedented in England. After his death he was succeeded in the salerooms in Covent Garden by the firms of ...

Article

E. A. Christensen

(b Laxfield, Suffolk, Oct 24, 1787; d London, Oct 13, 1847).

British architect, designer, writer and collector. He trained as a builder and from 1814 worked independently as an architect in London, his practice consisting mainly of church restorations. He published many books on design and architecture: his designs for ornamental metalwork appeared as Ornamental Metal Worker’s Director (1823), and his lithographs of Gothic mouldings, finials and other details, published as Working Drawings of Gothic Ornaments ([1824]), provided architects with models for Gothic capitals and carvings; his publications on architecture include Westminster Hall (1822) and Plans…of the Chapel of King Henry the Seventh (1822–9).

During the 1840s Cottingham designed a variety of pieces of Gothic furniture for his friend, John Harrison of Snelston Hall, Derbys, some of which incorporated fragments of authentic Gothic carving. His design (London, V&A) for a drawing-room cabinet for Snelston Hall, although not strictly archaeological, was based on existing examples of Gothic detailing. Cottingham’s discovery of a series of medieval tiles in the Chapter House at Westminster Abbey stimulated a revival of encaustic tiles, subsequently produced by such firms as Minton; he designed such tiles for ...

Article

Linda Whiteley

(b 1825).

French dealer, restorer and framer. He began his career managing a modest framing business in Rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs, Paris. The dealer Alexis Febvre (1810–81) became aware of him, provided encouragement and helped him to set up premises in the Rue Laffitte, which in the early years of the Second Empire (1852–70) was rapidly becoming the centre of the art trade. By 1857 Detrimont was buying paintings from Charles-François Daubigny, and in the next few years he gained a reputation as a dealer in contemporary paintings, with a particular interest in landscapes. For a time he was Courbet’s dealer and supervised the stretching and varnishing of his paintings for the Salon of 1861; one of these was Stags Fighting (1861; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay), a picture to which Courbet attached particular importance. It was perhaps through Courbet that Detrimont also dealt with the reclusive painter Amand Gautier, who had briefly enjoyed some success at the Salon of ...

Article

Sarah J. Weatherwax

(b Geneva, Switzerland, Sept 18, 1737; d Philadelphia, PA, Oct 10, 1784).

American painter, draftsman, collector and museum proprietor of Swiss birth. Du Simitière, the son of Jean-Henri Ducimitière (or Dusimitière), an East Indies broker and Judith-Ulrique Cunegonde Delorme, studied art at the University of Geneva. In 1757 he left Amsterdam for the West Indies to document and sketch native flora and fauna and to collect historical materials, launching more than a decade of traveling and collecting in the New World including stops of varying lengths in New York City, Charleston, SC, Burlington, NJ, Boston, MA, Newport, RI, and Philadelphia, PA. In 1769 Du Simitière became a naturalized American citizen, living in Philadelphia (except for a two year sojourn in the West Indies) from 1770 until his death in 1784.

Du Simitière planned to write a natural and civil history of the West Indies and North America based on the large quantities of books, cartoons, manuscripts, coins, newspapers, natural history specimens, broadsides and art he amassed during his travels, but that project never came to fruition. In ...

Article

Linda Whiteley

French family of restorers, dealers, cabinetmakers and painters. François-Simon-Alphonse Giroux (d Paris, 1 May 1848) was a pupil of Jacques-Louis David and became a picture restorer, founding his business in Paris at the end of the 18th century. He specialized in genre paintings of medieval ruins and troubadours and bought particularly from a younger generation of artists such as Louis Daguerre, Charles-Marie Bouton (1781–1863), Charles Arrowsmith (b 1798) and Charles Renoux (1795–1846), all of whom painted church interiors. Giroux also admired Gothic art and became the official restorer for Notre-Dame, Paris. His daughter Olympe Giroux and son Alphonse-Gustave Giroux succeeded him in his business. Another son, André Giroux (b Paris, 30 April 1801; d Paris, 18 Nov 1879), was a painter. François-Simon-Alphonse’s firm publicized its stock by holding exhibitions of Old Master paintings and contemporary art and by publishing catalogues of works both for sale and for hire from their premises. After ...

Article

Achim Sommer

(b Euskirchen, April 22, 1924; d Cologne, April 5, 1987).

German collector and restorer. After World War II he trained as a restorer of paintings in Cologne, Munich and Vienna. He worked in the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum in Cologne from 1949 and took charge of the restoration department in 1963. He started his collection with paintings by Cologne painters such as Peter Abelen (1884–1962), Joseph Fassbender, Peter Herkenrath (1900–93) and Ludwig Egidius Ronig (1885–1959). Under the stimulus of avant-garde exhibitions in Cologne and Düsseldorf, a keen interest in current events in the world of art and his friendships with artists and gallery owners, Hahn widened the scope of his collection. His advice as a connoisseur of contemporary art was valued not only by his museum colleagues but also by collectors such as Peter Ludwig.

Hahn assembled a remarkably complete collection of works by many artists closely connected with Nouveau Réalisme, including Arman, Christo, César, Jean Tinguely, ...

Article

Haro  

Linda Whiteley

French family of painters, colourmen, dealers, restorers and collectors. The father of Etienne-François Haro (b Paris, 13 April 1827; d Paris, 4 Feb 1897) was a painter but also a colourman and supplier of artists’ materials in Paris, selling them from his shop the Palette d’Or (renamed Au Génie des Arts at Delacroix’s suggestion). Two of the more important customers were Ingres, who patronized the shop from the late 18th century, and Delacroix, who from about 1826 bought his canvases and paints there. When Etienne-François’s father died he left the business to his wife, from whose aunt they had inherited it.

Etienne-François Haro was the great-nephew of Hubert Robert and was a pupil of Ingres and Delacroix, maintaining a lifelong friendship with both. From the mid-1840s he took an active part in running the business with his mother, but by the first years of the Second Empire (...

Article

Deborah Cullen

[MoMA] (New York)

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family §(1) to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (1938–9) designed by Philip S. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone that it still occupies at 11 West 53 Street. Subsequent renovations and expansions occurred in the 1950s and 1960s by Philip Johnson, in 1984 by Cesar Pelli and in 2002–4 by Yoshirō Taniguchi (b 1937). MoMA QNS, the temporary headquarters during this project, was subsequently used to provide art storage. In 2000, MoMA and the contemporary art space, P.S.1, Long Island City, Queens, announced their affiliation. Recent projects are shown at P.S.1 in Queens in a renovated public school building.

According to founding director, Alfred H(amilton) Barr...

Article

Linda Whiteley

(fl c. Paris, 1828–56).

French dealer, framemaker, gilder, restorer and collector. He was one of several 19th-century dealers in artists’ supplies whose activities expanded into dealing in pictures. He supplied canvases and restored pictures, Delacroix first mentioning him in October 1828 in connection with a commission of this kind; when first listed in directories in Paris, in 1837, his specialization is given as framing and gilding. Although there is little evidence of his dealing in Delacroix’s work, he bought pictures from a number of contemporary artists for whom, presumably, he provided frames and canvases; Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps mentioned him in this capacity during the 1840s. It is likely that he took a particular interest in the work of Théodore Rousseau; Avenue of Chestnut-trees (1840; Paris, Louvre) was exhibited in his gallery in 1847, at which time Delacroix remarked on it. Early in 1847 Souty sold his stock (19–22 Jan) at the Hôtel des Ventes Mobilières with the dealer ...

Article

Tracy Fitzpatrick

( New York )

The Whitney Museum of American Art, located in New York City, is “dedicated to collecting, preserving, interpreting, and exhibiting American art.” It was founded by Whitney family §(1) in 1930 and opened to the public in the fall of the following year. Whitney, a sculptor and collector, began exhibiting contemporary, avant-garde art in her art studio in Greenwich Village on West 4th Street in 1912. Six years later, she moved her studio to new quarters on West 8th Street and formally established the Whitney Studio Club. The Club served not only as an exhibition space, but also as a salon for its members. In 1929, Whitney revamped the Club, calling it the Whitney Studio Galleries and continuing to exhibit avant-garde art.

While running these spaces and with help from Juliana Force, who directed the Whitney Studio Galleries and became the first director of the Whitney Museum of American Art, Whitney began collecting avant-garde art by American modernists. In particular, she amassed a large body of work by artists of “the Eight,” also known as the ...