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Samo Štefanac

[Aleši, Andrija; Alexii, Andreas; Andrea di Niccolò da Durazzo]

(b Dürres, c. 1425; d Split, 1504).

Dalmatian sculptor and architect of Albanian birth. Although he is recorded in 1435 at Zadar as a pupil of Marco di Pietro da Troia, his most important artistic influence was the Late Gothic style of Giorgio da Sebenico, with whom he worked in 1445 on Šibenik Cathedral and in 1452 at Ancona on the Loggia dei Mercanti. Between 1448 and 1460 Alessi also controlled his own workshop at Split and Rab. In 1466 he began work on his masterpiece, the baptistery at Trogir, which was finished in 1467. The chapel is rectangular in plan, covered with a barrel vault with acute angled coffers; its richly decorated interior is an eclectic blend of Late Gothic and Renaissance elements. The sculpture shares these characteristics: the Baptism of Christ over the entrance, with its elongated figures and complex drapery patterns, derives from Giorgio da Sebenico’s mannered style, while St Jerome in the Desert...

Article

Emma Packer

(b ?London, c. 1470; d ?London, 1532).

English goldsmith. He was the son of a London goldsmith and was the most successful goldsmith working at the Tudor court; his work bridged the transition between the Gothic and the Renaissance styles. He was an official at the Mint from 1504 to almost the end of his life, his appointment possibly facilitated by his marriage to Elizabeth, granddaughter of Sir Hugh Bryce (d 1496), Court Goldsmith to Henry VIII. In 1524 Amadas became the first working goldsmith to become Master of the Jewel House to Henry VIII, an office he retained until 1532, supplying spangles, wire and ribbons to the court. In the 1520s his orders included a large amount of plate for gifts to foreign ambassadors; he also supplied a number of New Year’s gifts for the court. Cardinal Thomas Wolsey was one of Amadas’ most important clients, and Amadas supplied him with a number of lavish objects. Other clients included ...

Article

(b Perugia, c. 1420; d Perugia, July 8, 1496).

Italian painter. He was almost certainly trained in Perugia between 1430 and 1440, where a Late Gothic style was still dominant. Subsequently he was influenced by Fra Angelico, whose polyptych (Perugia, G.N. Umbria) for S Domenico, Perugia, was commissioned in 1437, and more importantly by Domenico Veneziano, who worked in that city c. 1438. The influence of Domenico Veneziano and of Gentile da Fabriano can be seen in Bonfigli’s earliest surviving work, a polyptych (now dismembered), which had a central panel of the Virgin and Child (El Paso, TX, Mus. A.), shown against a densely wooded background, and St Sebastian and a Bishop Saint (Monserrat, Mus.) on one wing. Another wing (untraced) shows St Bernardino of Siena and St Anthony Abbot. Bonfigli is first documented on 7 March 1445, when he undertook to paint a Virgin and Child with Two Angels (untraced) for a chapel near S Pietro, Perugia. A votive fresco of ...

Article

Jack Lohman

[Heinrich; Henryk]

(b ?1360–65; d after 1428).

German architect. Brunsberg’s work represents an important decorative phase of brick Gothic architecture in western Pomerania. There is documentary evidence for his work at St Katharinen, Brandenburg, and a further three buildings are attributed to him on stylistic grounds. His name appears on a brick inscription on the north side of St Katharinen between the Lady chapel portals: Anno d[o]m[ini] MCCCCI co[n]structa e[st] h[aec] ecc[lesi]a in die assu[m]ptionis Mariae virginis per magistru[m] Hinricu[m] Brunsbergh d[e] Stet[t]in (Master Hinrich Brunsberg of Szczecin (Ger. Stettin) built St Katharinen in 1401). Brunsberg is also mentioned 28 times in the town records of Szczecin between 1400 and 1428; in each case he is referred to as master in the context of either owing or being owed money. All his architectural activity was concentrated in the area between Brandenburg and Szczecin.

Brunsberg rebuilt the nave of St Katharinen, a five-bay hall construction, after the old nave collapsed in ...

Article

Adriano Ghisetti Giavarina

(di Marco)

(b Venice, fl ?1458–76).

Italian sculptor and architect. He was active in Romagna and the Marches, working in a transitional style between Gothic and Renaissance, influenced by Venetian taste. His first known work is the signed, but undated low stone relief depicting the Lion of St Mark (c. 1458–60) set into the brickwork over the entrance to the Rocca Brancaleone at Ravenna. In 1462 he was at Amandola, in the Marches, and was then called to the nearby town of Fermo to execute a commission (probably the Late Gothic mixtilinear arch that frames the entrance to the Euffreducci Chapel in the church of S Francesco). In 1465 he completed the door, in Istrian stone and Red Verona marble, of Forlì Cathedral (removed 1841; reconstructed with slight modifications in 1915 for the façade of the Carmelite church), the decorative style of which derives from Renaissance Tuscany. In 1468 he created a portal for the church of S Agostino, Amandola, which combines Romanesque and Late Gothic elements....

Article

Francesco Quinterio

(b ?1438; d Florence, 1503).

Italian mason and architect. He is first recorded in Pisa (1462–3) with other Lombard stonecutters employed to carve the marble tracery for the Gothic windows of the Camposanto (cemetery), adjacent to the cathedral. From 1472 he is recorded as a master mason, responsible for the completion of the church of Santo Spirito, Florence (begun 1436), in accordance with the design by Brunelleschi; Salvi was also responsible for the supply of materials and the repair of tools. In 1475 he was appointed principal mason for the outstanding decorative work of the church, including the upper cornice of the nave, the dome and the façade. He constructed a working model of the dome of Santo Spirito, based on the original model by Brunelleschi, for the office of works. This was the first dome in Florence to have a hemispherical external profile. In May 1482 Salvi was commissioned to decorate the interior of the façade of Santo Spirito, and in ...

Article

Hans Georg Gmelin

[Master of the Halepagen Altar]

(b Lübeck, c. 1460; d Hamburg, 1528).

German Late Gothic painter. His Lübeck origins are demonstrated stylistically in his contribution to the altar of the Lübeck Corpus Christi Brotherhood (1496; Lübeck, St Annen-Mus.). In 1499 he probably married a woman previously married, in succession, to Hans Bornemann, Hinrik Funhof, and Absalon Stumme (fl c. 1486–98): this enabled him to become established in Hamburg as a workshop proprietor. Both Stumme and his wife’s son Henrik Bornemann died that year. Dedeke’s first task was therefore to complete their work on the wings of the St Luke altar for the Jakobikirche in Hamburg. He was accepted into the painters’ guild in 1500: in 1502 he became master of the Brotherhood of St Thomas. After his second surviving altarpiece in Hamburg, for the Company of Fishers (1508; Jakobikirche), he probably remained the leading artist of Hamburg until his death.

Dedeke’s style remained basically unchanged from the Corpus Christi altar. Of this now incomplete double-winged altarpiece, with a carved shrine by ...

Article

Giovanna Damiani

(Ghezzi)

(b Asciano, Siena, c. 1400; d Siena, before 1445).

Italian painter. His few surviving works show that he played a pivotal role in the movement from Gothic painting to the Renaissance style in Siena during the 15th century. He is first documented in 1420, as an apprentice on an unidentified project for Siena Cathedral, and his name appears near the end of the Ruolo dei pittori, the list of the painters’ guild compiled from 1428.

Inferences about Domenico’s artistic education are suggested by the first work securely assignable to him, a small panel of the Virgin and Child Enthroned with SS Peter and Paul (Washington, DC, N.G.A.). This shows an early awareness of Florentine art of the 1420s and complete familiarity with the new artistic language of the Renaissance. The architectural setting, in classical style, is apparently inspired by the new conception of the altarpiece as a sacra conversazione, favoured by Fra Angelico at the beginning of the 1420s. The Virgin, housed in a shell niche, is crowned with a garland held by putti reminiscent of Donatello. She sits firmly and solemnly on a marble throne, holding the muscular child. The composition is a free variation on a model by Masaccio, whose early work, like Domenico’s, shares many features with the sculpture of Luca della Robbia. Another Florentine element, apparently derived from Paolo Uccello, is the halo with star points, also used by Domenico in later works. The strongly Florentine orientation of this early work refutes the theory that he was trained by ...

Article

A. E. Werdehausen

[Benedetto da Firenze]

(fl 1453; d Bellinzona [now Switzerland], Oct 1, 1479).

Italian architect and military engineer. He was one of the first architects in 15th-century Milan to abandon Gothic forms and to introduce elements of the Florentine Renaissance. Although his activity in the service of the dukes of Milan, Francesco Sforza (see Sforza family, §1) and Galeazzo Maria Sforza, is confirmed by numerous documents, very few buildings survive that can be ascribed to Ferrini. In 1461, he was sent to Venice to work on the palace bought by Francesco Sforza, but the attribution to Ferrini of the façade fragment of the so-called Ca’ del Duca at Venice can no longer be sustained. His name has, however, been more securely linked with parts of Milan Castle, which he converted (1472–6) into a residence equipped for the requirements of a Renaissance prince. There, he worked on the Corte Ducale with its extensive apartments, and he designed a courtyard arcade with flanking pilasters in the Florentine manner. He was responsible for planning the entire decoration of the Cappella Ducale, and he worked on the Rocchetta, which was used as the state treasury....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(fl 1518–66).

Sicilian goldsmith. His early work is Gothic, notably a magnificent processional monstrance with Gothic spires (1536–8; Enna, Mus. Alessi) and a reliquary of S Agata (1532; Palermo Cathedral). From the 1540s he adopted a Renaissance style, as exemplified by a crozier (Palermo, Gal. Reg. Sicilia) and a reliquary of S Cristina (Palermo Cathedral)....

Article

Corine Schleif

(fl 1490; d Schwabach, nr Nuremberg, Jan 1509).

German sculptor and architect. He was a leading sculptor of the final phase of the Late Gothic period in Germany. His many works in stone, which range from monumental sculptures for public places to decorative ornaments for private residences, were commissioned primarily by Nuremberg patrons, between 1490 and 1509. Most of these works remain in the city although only a small number are still in situ.

Kraft’s origin, training and early experience are conjectural. It has been suggested that he was born in Nuremberg and first worked as a stonemason’s apprentice on the architectural decoration of the hall choir of St Lorenz. Several widely scattered monuments have been postulated as evidence of his work as a journeyman, including the eucharistic tabernacle in Ulm Minster (1464–71), Hans Hammer’s pulpit in Strasbourg Cathedral and the monuments for Archbishop Dieter von Isenburg and Adalbert von Sachsen (d 1484) in Mainz Cathedral....

Article

Elinor M. Richter

[della Fonte; della Guercia; di Pietro d’Angelo]

(b Siena, ?1374; d Siena, Oct 20, 1438).

Italian sculptor. He was the most significant non-Florentine sculptor of the 15th century: a transitional figure in the development of Italian Renaissance sculpture, who infused the Late Gothic art of Nicola Pisano (i) with a new appreciation of antiquity, paving the way for such later artists as Antonio Federighi and Francesco di Giorgio in Siena, Niccolò dell’Arca in Bologna and, most notably, Michelangelo. He worked for a wide spectrum of patrons—the papal states, noble and mercantile families and the cities of Siena and Florence—and was the only Sienese artist of his century to achieve a truly national reputation.

Jacopo was the son of Piero d’Angelo (fl 1370–1410), a minor goldsmith and sculptor, and had a brother, Priamo (1438–67), who was a painter. His birthdate is uncertain; Vasari described in his Lives (1568) an equestrian statue (untraced), carved when Jacopo was 19, for the funeral of the condottiere Giovanni d’Azzo Ubaldini (...

Article

Dill; Dillmann; Thilman; Till]

(b Heiligenstadt, c. 1460; d Würzburg, July 7, 1531).

German sculptor. He was one of the most outstanding representatives of the last generation of Gothic sculptors in southern Germany, and one of the most fully documented medieval sculptors.

Tilman’s father, Tilman Riemenschneider the elder (d 1483), was a master of the mint, and lived with his family at Osterode in the Harz mountains. Tilman Riemenschneider the younger possibly trained first as a stone sculptor in Erfurt, specializing in alabaster, and then travelled as a journeyman to the south-west of Germany. Elements in his work suggest that he spent time in Strasbourg and Trier and then went to Ulm, where he was apprenticed to Michel Erhart. Riemenschneider’s name appears in the Würzburg records before 1479, when he turned down a commission for an altarpiece. He settled there in 1483 and on 28 February 1485 became a citizen and a member of the painters’ Guild of St Luke, receiving the title ‘Meister’; he married Anna Schmidt in the same year....

Article

(fl 1434–65).

French glass painter. He was a local artist working at the court of René I, Duke of Anjou (reg 1409–80), and was one of the great exponents of the last phase of Gothic stained glass in France. From 1434 to 1448 he was charged with the regular repair of the glass in Angers Cathedral, and his name constantly appears in the cathedral registers until 1454. When a fire in 1451 destroyed much of the original 13th-century glass in the transepts, Robin was made responsible for replacing the rose windows and several of the lancets. Surviving contracts provide limited documentation of the subjects of the original windows and those designated for the 15th-century replacements. Robin was to incorporate the Last Judgement into the north rose and the Signs of the Zodiac into the south. He enlarged the theme of the Last Judgement to include the apocryphal series of the Fifteen Signs of Doomsday...

Article

Torbjörn Fulton

(d 1590).

Netherlandish architect, active in Sweden. He worked from 1566 until his death at Vadstena Castle, on the shore of Lake Vättern, where he added a third storey to the main building and the Gothic church that occupies the central tower. A drawing of the castle made in 1637 was probably based on a design (now lost) prepared by de Roy during the reign of King John III (reg 1568–92), which is mentioned in the castle accounts of 1587. This depicts the castle as it appeared when finally completed: a long single three-storey block with decorated gables, a high central tower and a single lower tower at either end, each crowned with a lantern in the Dutch Renaissance style. The church in the central tower is emphasized by its tall Gothic windows, which contrast with the rectangular windows in the rest of the building. The French character of the castle, epitomized by the arrangement of the originally pavilion-like central tower with flanking wings, and by the sculptured decoration by ...

Article

Marco Torriti

[Stefano di Giovanni di Consolo]

(b Siena or Cortona, c. 1400; d Siena, April 1, 1450).

Italian painter and illuminator. He was the most original painter in Siena in the 15th century. Working within the Sienese tradition, he introduced elements derived from the decorative Gothic style and the realism of such contemporary Florentine innovators as Masaccio. Most of his surviving works are panel pictures, notably those from the altarpiece painted for S Francesco, Borgo San Sepolcro.

The name Sassetta appears to have been associated with him, mistakenly, only since the 18th century (Pecci, 1752), but it is generally used. He was the son of Giovanni di Consolo of Cortona (Bacci, 1936) and is firmly documented first in 1426 in Siena but was probably active there earlier. His influences included Taddeo di Bartolo, Martino di Bartolommeo (fl 1389; d c. 1435), Benedetto di Bindo, Gregorio di Cecco and other artists who were links between the great Sienese painters of the early 14th century (Simone Martini, Ambrogio Lorenzetti and Pietro Lorenzetti) and the art of the 15th-century Renaissance....

Article

Daniel Kletke

(b c. 1450; d 1527).

German goldsmith and architect. He was one of the most important goldsmiths in Augsburg during the transitional period from Late Gothic to Renaissance and worked there as an independent master after 1478, receiving commissions for both secular and ecclesiastical works. From 1486 he was employed by the convent of SS Ulrich and Afra in Augsburg, and he gained particular renown for the conservation of old goldsmith’s works including the abbey’s Romanesque croziers. Interestingly, some of his pieces echo Romanesque as well as 15th-century forms. Such commissions as an architectural model (1498) for the Prince-Bishop of Brixen and a silver figure of the Virgin for Mariae Himmelfahrt, Kaisheim, may account for his increasing fame. Notable is the portable altar from Eichstätt (1492; Munich, Schloss Nymphenburg) with a cycle of engravings and statuettes depicting St Willibald and other saints. The character of the engravings has been linked to the works of Hans Holbein the elder (Fritz). Seld’s extensive travels in ...

Article

[Hanns]

(b ?Regensburg, ?1448; d ?Regensburg, ?1518).

German sculptor. He was the most important Late Gothic sculptor in Salzburg, where he was granted citizenship on 18 October 1479. Despite his probable origins in Regensburg (Martin Valkenauer, his father (?), is documented in 1465 in Regensburg), he worked in a tradition of tomb sculpture found in Salzburg, Wiener Neustadt, and Vienna. The artists who influenced him most were Master E. S. and Nicolaus Gerhaert.

Valkenauer’s first tomb slab was that of Lukas Lamprechtshauser (shortly before 1480; Regensburg, St Blasius). The figures of the Virgin and saints are developed using the whole space between the background and the projecting canopy. The same is true of the figures on two epitaphs: that of Kunz Horn (c. 1502; Nuremberg, St Lorenz), where the enthroned Christ is surrounded by angels of different sizes and adored by Horn and his wife, and the Keutschach epitaph (Maria Saal, Pilgrimage Church). Similarities between the head of God the Father on both these epitaphs and the limewood reliquary bust of ...

Article

Fernando Marías

(b c. 1450; d before 1515).

Spanish architect. He appears to have been trained in the Late Gothic tradition established by Juan Guas and Enrique Egas, and he was the first to introduce Renaissance motifs into Spanish architecture. There is, however, no evidence that he trained in Italy, or that he travelled to Florence and Rome with the Embassy of Iñigo López de Mendoza, 2nd Conde de Tendilla, as has been suggested. Italian elements in Vázquez’s work could have been derived from information provided by clients, for instance in the form of drawings. Vázquez is first documented in Valladolid (1490); his patron was Pedro González de Mendoza, the Cardinal of Santa Cruz. In 1491 he became Master of Works to the Cardinal (working with Alberto de Carvajal, who was in Valladolid from 1488 to 1493). Vázquez planned the chapel altarpiece for the Cardinal’s foundation, the Colegio Mayor de Santa Cruz, Valladolid, before June 1494...