1-20 of 25 results  for:

  • Prints and Printmaking x
  • Ceramics and Pottery x
  • Twentieth-Century Art x
  • Artist, Architect, or Designer x
Clear all

Article

Christine Mullen Kreamer

(b Jan 25, 1930; d Lomé, Jan 4, 2010).

Togolese painter, sculptor, engraver, stained glass designer, potter and textile designer. Beginning in 1946, he received his secondary education in Dakar, where he also worked in an architecture firm. He travelled to France and received his diplôme supérieur from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. A versatile artist, Ahyi is best known for his murals and for monumental stone, marble and cement public sculptures. His work reflects the fusion of his Togolese roots, European training and an international outlook, and he counts among his influences Moore, Braque, Modigliani, Tamayo, Siqueiros and Tall. His work combines ancient and modern themes and materials, maternity being a prominent topic. The messages of his larger, public pieces operate on a broad level to appeal to the general populace, while smaller works often reflect his private engagement with challenges confronting the human condition. His compositions are both abstract and figurative and evoke the heroism and hope of the two world wars, Togo's colonial period and the struggle for independence from France, as well as the political efforts of the peoples of Vietnam, South Africa and Palestine. Ahyi has won numerous international prizes, including the prize of the city of Lyon (...

Article

Inmaculada Julián

(b Madrid, Feb 26, 1937).

Spanish painter, sculptor, potter, printmaker and stage designer . As a painter he was mainly self-taught. After working as a journalist in 1957, he left Spain in 1958 to avoid military service, settling in Paris. There he continued to work both as a journalist and painter. From 1968 to 1972 he lived in Milan, returning to Paris in 1973. His work developed from expressionism to realism (Nueva figurina), which reflected on the pictorial language and function of painting and the artist’s role in society. He manipulated ready-made images, words and elements derived from commercial art and the work of other painters. His pieces formed series whose titles referred to the legacy of the Spanish Civil War and the contemporary political situation to help make their critical point. His work frequently provoked controversy, for example his series Arcole Bridge and St Bernard’s Pass (1962–6) was based on the theme of Napoleon Bonaparte as a symbol of imperialism (e.g. ...

Article

Giulio V. Blanc

(b Havana, Sept 3, 1914; d Westchester, Oct 30, 2008).

Cuban painter, ceramicist and printmaker. He studied at the Academia de S Alejandro in Havana (early 1930s) and at the Academia de S Carlos in Mexico City (1938), where he also became familiar with the work of the muralists. He had his first one-man exhibition at the Lyceum in Havana in 1942.

Bermúdez shared with many of his contemporaries an interest in Cuban realities and themes painted in a manner that was in keeping with 20th-century art movements. His work from the 1940s is characterized by popular Cuban scenes and types depicted in an almost caricatural, naive style with loud tropical colours (e.g. The Balcony, 1941; New York, MOMA).

In the 1950s Bermúdez abandoned the folkloric themes and tropical voluptuousness of his earlier paintings, instead depicting elongated, barely human, Byzantine-like figures. The most accessible of these paintings are of acrobats and musicians. In 1967 Bermúdez left Cuba for political reasons and settled in San Juan, Puerto Rico. There he continued to evolve metallic colour harmonies and surrealistic imagery including clocks, ladders and turbaned figures in his paintings. He also produced murals and lithographs, and his best-known print is the silkscreen entitled ...

Article

Ruth Rosengarten

(António Teixeira Bastos Nunes)

(b Lisbon, Sept 18, 1899; d Lisbon, Aug 18, 1982).

Portuguese painter, printmaker and designer of tapestries and tile panels. Known primarily as a ‘painter of Lisbon’, he began his artistic career as an illustrator and cartoonist as well as writing a weekly satirical page (1928–50) in the newspaper O sempre fixe. He visited Paris in 1929, 1930–1 and again in 1937, when he was impressed by a retrospective exhibition of the work of van Gogh, whose influence is evident in Botelho’s scenes of urban squalor of the late 1930s. He had begun to depict calm, unpopulated views of Lisbon in the early 1930s, for example Side View of the Castle (1935; Lisbon, Mus. Cidade), and from the early 1940s concentrated almost exclusively on this theme. The compositions became increasingly crisp and planar and the piling up of volumes and compression of space increasingly stylized, especially after he began to paint from memory in 1949. The tonalities of Botelho’s paintings remained consistently pale, as in ...

Article

Susan Compton

[Shagal, Mark (Zakharovich); Shagal, Moses]

(b Vitebsk [now Viciebsk], Belarus’, July 7, 1887; d Saint-Paul-de-Vence, Alpes-Maritimes, March 28, 1985).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, designer, sculptor, ceramicist, and writer of Belarusian birth. A prolific artist, Chagall excelled in the European tradition of subject painting and distinguished himself as an expressive colourist. His work is noted for its consistent use of folkloric imagery and its sweetness of colour, and it is characterized by a style that, although developed in the years before World War I, underwent little progression throughout his long career (see.g. I and the Village, 1911; New York, MOMA). Though he preferred to be known as a Belarusian artist, following his exile from the Soviet Union in 1923 he was recognized as a major figure of the Ecole de Paris, especially in the later 1920s and the 1930s. In his last years he was regarded as a leading artist in stained glass.

Chagall spent his childhood, admirably recorded in his autobiography, in a warm Hassidic family in Vitebsk [now Viciebsk], with frequent visits to his grandfather’s village home. He attended the traditional Jewish school but afterwards succeeded in entering the local Russian high school, where he excelled in geometry and drawing and determined to become an artist. At first he studied locally in the studio of ...

Article

Paula Furby

(b Mount Barker, March 24, 1911; d Adelaide, May 15, 1995).

Australian painter, printmaker, potter, teacher and art critic. Chapman studied at the South Australian School of Arts and Crafts (1928–32) and became a fellow of the Royal South Australian Society of Arts (RSASA) while still a student. Ivor Hele (1912–93) was a notable influence on her and when he became a war artist, Chapman taught his life-drawing and painting class at the school from 1940–41. From 1942–5 Chapman served in the Australian Women’s Army in army education in Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney. In 1945 in Sydney she married the artist James Cant (1911–82). With Cant she was a co-founder of the Studio of Realist Art (SORA). While supporting realist artists as secretary–organizer of SORA, Cant experimented with abstraction and surrealist automatism. She exhibited abstracts works with the Contemporary Art Society in 1947–8.

From 1949–55 Chapman and Cant lived in England, but she did little painting, being then and later the main breadwinner in her marriage. They returned to Australia and settled in Adelaide in ...

Article

Willemijn Stokvis

[Beverloo, Corneille Guillaume]

(b Liège, July 3, 1922; d Auvers-sur-Oise, France, Sept 5, 2010).

Dutch painter, printmaker, ceramicist and writer. He studied drawing at the Amsterdam Rijksakademie from 1940 to 1943 but taught himself to paint. While at the academy he became a close friend of Karel Appel. His early work was naturalistic, but he began to treat his forms more schematically c. 1945. After the liberation he was inspired by the joie de vivre of French painters, and in particular by the work of younger artists such as Edouard Pignon, which led him to adopt a lyrically Cubist style.

In 1947 Corneille spent four months in Hungary. He discovered Surrealism when browsing in a small bookshop in Budapest. Here he also encountered the work of Klee and Miró for the first time; they became an important source of inspiration. Corneille, who also wrote poetry, began to rely more on his imagination in his work. The devastation wrought by the war in the old city of Budapest captured his interest, in particular the contrast between the rhythm of straight lines and the ruins, interrupted by bursting mounds of fertile ground, covered by vegetation; it became a point of departure for his subsequent work....

Article

W. Iain Mackay

(b Lima, 1926).

Peruvian painter, printmaker, and ceramicist, active in Europe. He studied at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Lima until 1953 and then began to exhibit paintings, prints, murals, and ceramics on an annual basis in Lima. He continued his studies in Spain in 1956, and from then on remained in Europe, mainly in Paris and Madrid. In Paris he became an assistant at the printmakers’ workshop at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts. Following a period in Cuba where he worked at the Taller de Grabado de Cubanacán, Espinoza Dueñas returned to France to study ceramics at Sèvres, executing sculptural, symbolic works reminiscent of Pre-Columbian Peruvian ceramics. His paintings, which are expressionistic in style, are colorful, energetic and full of symbolism (e.g. Pampa Road, 1955; Lima, Mus. A.).

Lavalle, J. A. de and Lang, W. Pintura contemporánea II: 1920–1960, Col. A. & Tesoros Perú. Lima, 1976, pp. 158–159.Evento artesanal cerámico: Taller Museo de Cerámica Contemporánea, creado y dirigido por el maestro Francisco Espinoza Dueñas, con la colaboración del Ayto. de Pilas (Sevilla)...

Article

Karen Cordero Reiman

(b Aguascalientes, May 30, 1900; d Mexico City, Aug 26, 1984).

Mexican painter, printmaker, writer and ceramicist. He enrolled at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, in 1917 and soon became active in the post-revolutionary nationalist cultural movement, attempting to recuperate folk-art motifs and techniques. In 1920 he designed a ceramic frieze for the Colegio Máximo de San Pedro y San Pablo, Mexico City. He edited the influential art magazine Forma (1926–8) and was involved in creating the Escuela Libre de Escultura y Talla Directa, Mexico City, the ¡30–30! group (which promoted the democratization and de-academization of the arts), and the Centros Populares de Pintura, which offered art education to people in industrial areas, encouraging the representation of their surroundings without academic constraints. In the 1930s he directed an exhibition space funded by the Ministerio de Educación Pública, for which, with Roberto Montenegro and Francisco Díaz de León, he designed posters and catalogues noted for their innovative typography. Fernández Ledesma also produced prints inspired by popular graphics and figurative paintings influenced by Picasso and by Pittura Metafisica; he also wrote several books on popular traditions and stage and costume designs....

Article

Fani-Maria Tsigakou

(b Athens, May 23, 1882; d Athens, March 20, 1966).

French illustrator, printmaker and designer of Greek birth. At a very early age he showed a talent for drawing and soon took to drawing cartoons. He studied mathematics for two years at the National Technical University in Athens, but he finally enrolled at the Higher School of Fine Arts in Athens, where he studied under Nikiforos Lytras. In 1899, when he was still a student, he won first prize in a competition for cartoons run by the Paris newspaper Le Journal. Upon graduation he went to Paris on a scholarship and studied for some time at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Fernand Cormon. He continued to draw cartoons for the Greek magazines Pinakothiki and Panathinea; he also worked for the German periodicals Simplicissimus and Lustige Blätter, and on the strength of this was invited to go to Germany, where he stayed from 1907 to 1909.

In 1914 Galanis joined the Foreign Legion, took out French nationality and was transferred to an infantry regiment. In the course of his postings during World War I he was sent to Corfu in ...

Article

Rodolphe Rapetti

(b Paris, June 7, 1848; d Atuona, Marquesas Islands, May 8, 1903).

French painter, printmaker, sculptor and ceramicist. His style developed from Impressionism through a brief cloisonnist phase (in partnership with Emile Bernard) towards a highly personal brand of Symbolism, which sought within the tradition of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes to combine and contrast an idealized vision of primitive Polynesian culture with the sceptical pessimism of an educated European (see fig.). A selfconsciously outspoken personality and an aggressively asserted position as the leader of the Pont-Aven group made him a dominant figure in Parisian intellectual circles in the late 1880s. His use of non-naturalistic colour and formal distortion for expressive ends was widely influential on early 20th-century avant-garde artists.

Article

Ticio Escobar

[Cervera, Andrés Campos]

(b Asunción, 1888; d Valencia, Spain, 1937).

Paraguayan painter, engraver, and ceramicist. He studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, and spent six years studying in Paris in private studios. His first exhibition, in Asunción in 1920, marked a turning-point in the history of Paraguayan art. He showed oil paintings inspired principally by Cézanne and the Fauvists, and the arbitrary colors and heavy impasto of his stylized landscapes introduced local artists to the innovations of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism previously unknown in Paraguay; as a result, other painters began to use them in their work. In his engraving, Herrería used a simplified line based on flat contrasts of color. From 1922 he began to work in ceramics, developing themes derived from Pre-Columbian Latin American traditions and scenes of daily rural life in Paraguay. His plates and small sculptures had designs influenced by Art Deco. The series of motifs used in his ceramics show a deep understanding of Paraguayan humor and popular art and give a vivid portrait of everyday life that transcends the merely picturesque....

Article

Troels Andersen

[Jørgensen, Asger Oluf]

(b Vejrum, Jutland, March 3, 1914; d Århus, May 1, 1973).

Danish painter, printmaker, decorative artist, ceramicist, sculptor and writer, also active in France. His personality and work exerted a decisive influence on his contemporaries, and he is recognized as one of the most important Scandinavian artists since Edvard Munch. He grew up in the provincial town of Silkeborg, Jutland, but after qualifying as a teacher in 1935 he went to Paris to study under Fernand Léger. He also worked as an assistant to Le Corbusier in 1937 during the Exposition Universelle. In 1938 he held his first exhibition in Copenhagen, with Pierre Wemaëre (b 1913). Jorn had to return to Denmark shortly before the outbreak of World War II. In 1941 he set up Helhesten, a magazine dealing with art, literature and archaeology. Among its contributors were Ejler Bille, Henry Heerup, Egill Jacobsen and Carl-Henning Pedersen; they developed a concept of spontaneous–abstract art, based partly on the pioneer work of Richard Mortensen and Ejler Bille during the 1930s....

Article

Judi Freeman

(b Argentan, Orne, Feb 4, 1881; d Gif-sur-Yvette, Seine-et-Oise, Aug 17, 1955).

French painter, draughtsman, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, and ceramicist. Among the most prominent artists in Paris in the first half of the 20th century, he was prolific in many media and articulated a consistent position on the role of art in society in his many lectures and writings. His mature work underwent many changes, from a Cubist-derived abstraction in the 1910s to a distinctive realist imagery in the 1950s. Léger attracted numerous students to his various schools, and his ideas and philosophy were disseminated by modern artists throughout Europe and the Americas.

Born in rural Normandy, Léger often said that he was of ‘peasant stock’. Although his father was a cattle merchant, Léger was sent by his family to Caen in 1897 to be an apprentice in an architect’s office, where he remained until 1899. In 1900 he went to Paris and again worked in an architect’s office as a draughtsman. After compulsory military service in ...

Article

Sabine Kehl-Baierle

(b Liberec, Bohemia [now in Czech Republic], Sept 28, 1874; d Vienna, March 23, 1960).

Austrian painter, printmaker, designer and ceramicist. After being taught to draw at the Gewerbemuseum in Reichenberg, from 1890 to 1900 he studied drawing at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Vienna (now the Hochschule für Angewandte Kunst) under the Austrian Franz von Matsch (1861–1942). In 1909 he was appointed a teacher at the Kunststickereischule in Vienna, and from 1909 to 1935 he was a professor at the Kunstgewerbeschule. In 1906 he founded Wiener Keramik with Michael Powolny. The firm contributed tiles for Josef Hoffmann’s Palais Stoclet in Brussels (1905–11). From 1907 the Wiener Werkstätte took over the distribution and sale of their vases, figurines, boxes and tiles, selling them also in Germany from 1908. In 1913 Wiener Keramik merged with the Künstlerische Werkstätte Franz und Emilie Schleiss in Gmunden to form the Vereinigte Wiener und Gmundner Keramik. In collaborative works by Löffler and Powolny it is often very difficult to establish who did different aspects. Löffler preferred to provide the often fanciful designs, leaving the modelling to other assistants, for example in the figurines ...

Article

Martina Rudloff

(b Berlin, Feb 18, 1889; d Burgbrohl, nr Cologne, Nov 13, 1981).

German sculptor, potter, draughtsman and printmaker. He first sculpted animals while studying under Richard Scheibe (from 1907), and in 1910 modelled animals for the Schwarzburg Porcelain Factory. After World War I his interest in classicism gave way to the influence of Expressionism and of the Sturm artists, as part of a search for a new spirituality. This new style of work can be seen in Woman Suckling (gold-plated limewood relief, 1919; Bremen, Marcks-Haus). Walter Gropius, who founded the Bauhaus in Weimar in 1919, asked Marcks to establish a ceramics workshop for the school in the nearby village of Dornburg. With his students he set out to create a Bauhaus ceramics ethic of simplicity and honesty of design as determined by the materials used and the function of the object. In stylistic terms he combined geometry with a local pottery tradition. He was also inspired by Lyonel Feininger to make woodcuts of rural genre themes....

Article

José Corredor-Matheos

(b Barcelona, April 20, 1893; d Palma de Mallorca, Dec 25, 1983).

Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker and decorative artist (see fig.). He was never closely aligned with any movement and was too retiring in his manner to be the object of a personality cult, like his compatriot Picasso, but the formal and technical innovations that he sustained over a very long career guaranteed his influence on 20th-century art. A pre-eminent figure in the history of abstraction and an important example to several generations of artists around the world, he remained profoundly attached to the specific circumstances and environment that shaped his art in his early years. An acute balance of sophistication and innocence and a deeply rooted conviction about the relationship between art and nature lie behind all his work and account in good measure for the wide appeal that his art has continued to exercise across many of the usual barriers of style.

Article

Melissa McQuillan

(b Málaga, Oct 25, 1881; d Mougins, France, April 8, 1973).

Spanish painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker, decorative artist and writer, active in France. He dominated 20th-century European art and was central in the development of the image of the modern artist. Episodes of his life were recounted in intimate detail, his comments on art were published and his working methods recorded on film. Painting was his principal medium, but his sculptures, prints, theatre designs and ceramics all had an impact on their respective disciplines. Even artists not influenced by the style or appearance of his work had to come to terms with its implications.

With Georges Braque Picasso was responsible for Cubism, one of the most radical re-structurings of the way that a work of art constructs its meaning. During his extremely long life Picasso instigated or responded to most of the artistic dialogues taking place in Europe and North America, registering and transforming the developments that he found most fertile. His marketability as a unique and enormously productive artistic personality, together with the distinctiveness of his work and practice, have made him the most extensively exhibited and discussed artist of the 20th century....

Article

Freda Constable

(William)

(b Acton, London, July 23, 1903; d off Iceland, Sept 2, 1942).

English painter, wood-engraver and designer. He was educated at Eastbourne School of Art and then at the Royal College of Art (1922–5), where he was taught by Paul Nash and became close friends with Edward Bawden. His early works included the refectory mural (destr. 1940) in Morley College, London, and wood-engravings in the tradition of Bewick for the Golden Cockerel, Curwen and Nonesuch presses. In the 1930s he began painting larger compositions in a wider range of colour, and this led him to use lithography for such illustrations as those for High Street (text by J. M. Richards; London, 1938). Ravilious also produced designs for Wedgwood, including the celebration mug (1936) for the coronation of King Edward VIII, which was withdrawn and revised for the coronations of George VI and Elizabeth II; the Alphabet mug (1937); the Afternoon Tea (1937), ...

Article

Judit Geskó

(b Kaposvár, May 23, 1861; d Kaposvár, Nov 27, 1927).

Hungarian painter, printmaker, pastellist, ceramicist and designer. In 1881 he graduated in pharmacy from the Budapest University of Sciences. He worked as a pharmacist for a short time and then became tutor to Count Ödön Zichy. In 1884 he registered at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich, becoming a student in the life class and studying under Johann Caspar Herterich (1843–1905) and Wilhelm von Diez (1839–1907). In 1887 he went to Paris to work in the studio of Mihály Munkácsy, for whom he copied and finished paintings for export to the USA. In 1889 Rippl-Rónai went to Pont-Aven, where he painted In a Pont-Aven Bar (1889; Budapest, priv. col.) and Woman in a White Spotted Dress (1889; Budapest, N.G.), which shows the influence of Whistler (which persisted throughout his career) and in which, as in many of his paintings of this period, the dominant colour is black. In ...