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Article

Sheila S. Blair

[Abu Ṭāhir]

Persian family of potters. The family is sometimes known, somewhat improperly, by the epithet Kashani [al-Kashani, Qashani], which refers to their home town, Kashan. It was a major centre for the production of lustre pottery in medieval Iran, and they were among the leading potters there, working in both the Monumental and the Miniature styles (see Islamic art, §V, 3(iii)). As well as the lustre tiles for many Shi‛ite shrines at Qum, Mashhad, Najaf and elsewhere, they made enamelled and lustred vessels. Three other families of Persian lustre potters are known, but none had such a long period of production. At least four generations of the Abu Tahir family are known from signatures on vessels and tiles, including dados, large mihrabs and grave covers. The family may be traced to Abu Tahir ibn Abi Husayn, who signed an enamelled bowl (Cairo, Mus. Islam. A.). A lustre bowl in the Monumental style (London, N.D. Khalili priv. col.), signed by ...

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Gordon Campbell

Name of at least four potters in Staffordshire in the late 18th century and early 19th. The most distinguished William Adams (1746–1805) was the founder of Greengates Pottery, where the design and high quality of his jasper ware has led to the mistaken inference that he had been trained by Josiah Wedgwood; in fact he trained with John Brindley, brother of the canal builder James Brindley. His wares, of which some 300 examples are known to survive, are stamped Adams and Co. Apart from jasper ware, he also made underglaze blue-printed ware. He was succeeded by his son Benjamin, who ran the business until its closure in 1820.

The works of Adams of Greengates are sometimes confused with those of his three namesakes: William Adams (1748–1831) of Brick House, Burslem and Cobridge; William Adams of Stoke-on-Trent (1772–1829), who exported many blue-painted wares to the USA; and William Adams (...

Article

Andrew Weiner

(b Beirut, 1925).

Lebanese painter and writer active in the USA. Daughter of a Greek Christian mother and a Syrian Muslim father, Adnan was educated in Lebanon before going on to study philosophy at the Sorbonne, Harvard, and the University of California, Berkeley. For many years she taught aesthetics at Dominican College, San Rafael, CA; she also lectured and taught at many other colleges and universities. During the 1970s Adnan regularly contributed editorials, essays, and cultural criticism to the Beirut-based publications Al-Safa and L’Orient-Le Jour. In 1978 she published the novel Sitt Marie Rose, which won considerable acclaim for its critical portrayal of cultural and social politics during the early years of the Lebanese Civil War. Adnan published numerous books of poetry, originating in her opposition to the American war in Vietnam and proceeding to encompass topics as diverse as the landscape of Northern California and the geopolitics of the Middle East. Her poetry served as the basis for numerous works of theater and contemporary classical music....

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Carlos Cid Priego

(b Logroño, Dec 26, 1759; d Madrid, 1842).

Spanish sculptor and ceramicist. He moved to Madrid at an early age and was apprenticed to the French sculptor Robert Michel (i), who was employed at the court. He won first prize in a competition at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes, and organized the royal workshop for the carving of precious stones, where he executed two magnificent cameo portraits of Charles IV and Queen Maria Luisa (c. 1796; Madrid, Pal. Real). He was a leading sculptor in the Buen Retiro porcelain factory, for which he produced a large amount of work. In 1797 he entered the Real Academia de Bellas Artes and was promoted until he was finally appointed Director-general in 1821. He was also appointed Honorary Chamber Sculptor to Charles IV. His successful career made him an influential figure in Spanish art. He was one of the leading exponents of Neo-classical sculpture, producing works that were technically accomplished although stylistically rather cold. He executed a large amount of work between ...

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Christine Mullen Kreamer

(b Jan 25, 1930; d Lomé, Jan 4, 2010).

Togolese painter, sculptor, engraver, stained glass designer, potter and textile designer. Beginning in 1946, he received his secondary education in Dakar, where he also worked in an architecture firm. He travelled to France and received his diplôme supérieur from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. A versatile artist, Ahyi is best known for his murals and for monumental stone, marble and cement public sculptures. His work reflects the fusion of his Togolese roots, European training and an international outlook, and he counts among his influences Moore, Braque, Modigliani, Tamayo, Siqueiros and Tall. His work combines ancient and modern themes and materials, maternity being a prominent topic. The messages of his larger, public pieces operate on a broad level to appeal to the general populace, while smaller works often reflect his private engagement with challenges confronting the human condition. His compositions are both abstract and figurative and evoke the heroism and hope of the two world wars, Togo's colonial period and the struggle for independence from France, as well as the political efforts of the peoples of Vietnam, South Africa and Palestine. Ahyi has won numerous international prizes, including the prize of the city of Lyon (...

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Bernadette Nelson

(d Lisbon, 1779).

Portuguese potter and painter. He became director and painting master of the Real Fábrica do Rato in Lisbon after the expulsion in 1771 of the first director Tomás Brunetto. With his predecessor, Almeida is associated with the factory’s most successful and distinctive period. Initially he collaborated with the potter and painter Severino José da Silva (d 1797) who was also vice-director and head of the potters’ workshop. Almeida planned to reform the factory, but his ideas were thwarted in 1772 when the board of directors instructed him to dismiss many employees including da Silva and the painters João and Antonio Berardi. However, in 1777 Almeida was granted a ten-year monopoly, the conditions being that he was obliged to have six well-trained artisans at hand, and he was to be given all the materials he needed, provided that he reimbursed the board of directors within the ten-year period. There was a marked change in style in the wares produced at the factory under Almeida’s direction. In particular, the large pieces enamelled with polychrome decoration were abandoned in favour of smaller and more delicately executed items of blue-and-white tableware that were influenced by wares from the Rouen faience factories (...

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José Meco

(fl Lisbon, c. 1720–60).

Portuguese decorative artist. His apprenticeship was probably undertaken with Master PMP, the painter of glazed tiles. His most important commission between 1729 and 1731 was for the panels of blue and white tiles, made in Lisbon, that cover the lower storey of the cloister of Oporto Cathedral, which represent scenes from the Song of Solomon. These panels are characteristic of the High Baroque phase of tile-making and show an appreciation of theatre and stage design in the deepening landscape backgrounds of the figurative panels, in the bold outlines and in the enlarged ornamental framing. The spectacular arched frames of the Oporto panels were influenced by Roman Baroque architectural ornament.

The attractive blue and white panels (c. 1735–45) in the cloister of the monastery of S Vicente de Fora, Lisbon, are attributable to Almeida. They contain landscapes, buildings, gardens, Baroque fountains, hunting scenes and other secular subjects, some after the engravings of ...

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Mieke van der Wal

(b The Hague, Jan 6, 1876; d The Hague, Dec 11, 1955).

Dutch sculptor and ceramicist. He trained at the Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague (1894–7) and in various sculpture studios. In 1898 he decorated the shop-front of the gallery Arts and Crafts in The Hague after a design by Johan Thorn Prikker, who advised him to set up on his own. From 1901 Altorf exhibited regularly and successfully; he was represented at the Prima Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa Moderna in Turin in 1902, where he won a silver medal, and at the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris in 1925.

Altorf was a leading exponent of Dutch Art Nouveau. His work is characterized by a strong simplification of form. It is often compared with that of Joseph Mendes da Costa but is somewhat more angular and austere. At first Altorf made mainly animal forms from various types of wood, ivory, bronze and ceramic. In firing his modelled figures, he worked with the ceramicist ...

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Lisa M. Binder

(b Anyako, Ghana, June 13, 1944).

Ghanaian sculptor, active in Nigeria. He earned a bachelor’s degree in sculpture (1968) and a postgraduate diploma in art education from the University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (1969). After graduation he taught at the Specialist Training College (now University of Winneba), Ghana, in a position vacated by the eminent sculptor Vincent Kofi. From 1975 he was Professor of Sculpture at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Anatsui’s practice often makes use of found objects including bottle caps, milk-tins and cassava graters. However, he is not concerned with recycling or salvaging; instead he seeks meaning in the ways materials can be transformed to make statements about history, culture and memory.

His early work consists of ceramic sculptures manipulated to reconfigure pieces of memory. In 1978 he began his Broken Pots series, which was exhibited the following year at the British Council in Enugu, Nigeria. Several of the ceramic works were made of sherds that were fused together by a grog-like cement of broken pieces. Making art historical references to ...

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Carmen Ravanelli Guidotti

[Giorgio da Gubbio; Mastro Giorgio]

(b Intra or Pavia, c. 1465–70; d Gubbio, 1555).

Italian potter. He probably learnt the rudiments of pottery at Pavia and seems to have moved to Gubbio c. 1490, together with his brothers Giovanni Andreoli (d c. 1535) and Salimbene Andreoli (d c. 1522). He became a citizen of Gubbio in 1498. He is particularly well known for his lustrewares, and other potters, especially from the Metauro Valley, sent their work to be lustred in his workshop. His wares made in 1518–19 were frequently signed and dated. His istoriato (narrative) wares (e.g. plate decorated with Hercules and the Hydra, c. 1520; Oxford, Ashmolean) can be dated until at least 1537. In 1536 the workshop seems to have been taken over by his sons Vincenzo Andreoli (Mastro Cencio) and Ubaldo Andreoli.

G. Mazzatinti: ‘Mastro Giorgio’, Il Vasari, 4 (1931), pp. 1–16, 105–22 F. Filippini: ‘Nuovi documenti interno a Mastro Giorgio e alla sua bottega (1515–1517)’, Faenza: Bollettino del Museo internazionale delle ceramiche in Faenza...

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Claire Dumortier

(b ?Castel Durante, fl 1512; d Antwerp, 1541).

South Netherlandish potter of Italian birth. He probably worked in Venice before settling in Antwerp at the beginning of the 16th century (see Antwerp §III 2.). In 1512 he purchased a house called De Groote Aren in the Oude Veemerct and in 1520 established the Den Salm workshop in the Kammenstraat, which became the most important in Antwerp. His five sons also worked as potters in Antwerp and abroad: Guido Andries the younger (1535/41–c. 1587) in Antwerp; Frans Andries (b before 1535; d after 1565) in Seville; Joris Andries (c. 1535–c. 1579) in Middelburg; Jaspar Andries (1535/41–c. 1580) in Norwich and London (Lambeth); while Lucas Andries (b before 1535; d c. 1573), the eldest son, eventually inherited his father’s workshop in Antwerp. Guido Andries the elder produced faience pots and paving-tiles, the most remarkable of which are those from the abbey of Herkenrode, which are influenced by Venetian maiolica (...

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José Meco

(b Lisbon, 1688; d Lisbon, 1753).

Portuguese decorative artist. He was highly active in the second quarter of the 18th century, during the period when High Baroque glazed tiles were produced in the Lisbon factories. His output was enormous, and his work was distributed throughout Portugal and Brazil. In partnership with his son-in-law, the painter Nicolau de Freitas (c. 1703–65), he continued the tradition of António de Oliveira Bernardes (see Bernardes family, §1). Under the influence of Joanine wood-carving and silver, the decorative borders of their tiles became richer and more elegant, dominated by grimacing masks and cascading palm and acanthus foliage. The tile makers adapted the convention of using arched frames, which end in garlanded volutes often accompanied by cherubs, for their high dado panels.

Two chapels in the church of Vilar de Frades, Barcelos, dated 1736 and 1742 are decorated with scenes, signed by Antunes and Freitas, from the Life of the Virgin...

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Joan Marter

(b Benicia, CA, Sept 4, 1930; d Benicia, Nov 2, 1992).

American ceramicist. Arneson was an influential artist of the Bay Area from the 1960s until his death. He was identified with Funk art in the 1960s and expanded his creation of witty ceramic sculpture by focusing on self-portraits and political subjects. He spent his youth in a small working-class town and worked as a cartoonist for the local paper. Arneson received an undergraduate degree in 1954 from the California College of Arts and Crafts in Oakland and taught at a local high school. His master’s degree was awarded in 1958 by Mills College. In 1962 he began teaching at the University of California, Davis, and he continued there as head of the ceramics department for 30 years. Also on the faculty were Wayne Thiebaud, William Wiley, and Roy De Forest. Graduates from UC Davis include renowned clay artists David Gilhooly (b 1943) and Richard Shaw (b 1941...

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Inmaculada Julián

(b Madrid, Feb 26, 1937).

Spanish painter, sculptor, potter, printmaker and stage designer . As a painter he was mainly self-taught. After working as a journalist in 1957, he left Spain in 1958 to avoid military service, settling in Paris. There he continued to work both as a journalist and painter. From 1968 to 1972 he lived in Milan, returning to Paris in 1973. His work developed from expressionism to realism (Nueva figurina), which reflected on the pictorial language and function of painting and the artist’s role in society. He manipulated ready-made images, words and elements derived from commercial art and the work of other painters. His pieces formed series whose titles referred to the legacy of the Spanish Civil War and the contemporary political situation to help make their critical point. His work frequently provoked controversy, for example his series Arcole Bridge and St Bernard’s Pass (1962–6) was based on the theme of Napoleon Bonaparte as a symbol of imperialism (e.g. ...

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José Corredor-Matheos

Spanish Catalan family of ceramicists . Josep Llorens Artigas (b Barcelona, 16 June 1892; d Barcelona, 11 Dec 1980) studied art in Barcelona at the Escuela de Artes y Oficios de la Lonja, at the Cercle Artístic de Sant Lluc and in 1915 at the Escola Superior de Bells Oficis. In 1923 he went for a lengthy stay to Paris, where he carried out a profound reconsideration of his pottery, divesting it of all decoration. In 1941, once more in Barcelona, he joined the Escuela Massana as a teacher, giving new impetus to Spanish pottery. His vessels, made of monochrome earthenware on the wheel, were not particularly unusual in their shape, but they were distinguished by the extraordinary quality of their glazes.

Llorens Artigas exhibited widely internationally and received several major awards. He collaborated with several major painters, beginning in 1923 with Raoul Dufy in Paris and later with ...

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Gordon Campbell