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Margo Machida

(b New York, Aug 16, 1949).

American printmaker and installation artist. Born and raised in New York City, Arai, a third-generation Japanese American printmaker, mixed-media artist, public artist and cultural activist, studied art at the Philadelphia College of Art and The Printmaking Workshop in New York. Since the 1970s, her diverse projects have ranged from individual works to large-scale public commissions (see Public art in the 21st century). She has designed permanent public works, including an interior mural commemorating the African burial ground in lower Manhattan and an outdoor mural for Philadelphia’s Chinatown. Other works include Wall of Respect for Women (1974), a mural on New York’s Lower East Side, which was a collaboration between Arai and women from the local community. Her art has been exhibited in such venues as the Bronx Museum of the Arts, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Museum of Modern Art, International Center for Photography, P.S.1 Museum, the Brooklyn Museum, the Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art, all New York and the Library of Congress, Washington, DC. She is the recipient of awards and fellowships from National Endowment for the Arts, New York Foundation for the Arts, and Joan Mitchell Foundation....


Robert Buerglener

[motor car]

Architecture and the automobile have been intimately connected since the late 19th century. The attributes of cars required specific architectural solutions for manufacture, sales, and service. On a broader level, the overall built environment was forever changed by roadside structures designed to meet the needs of drivers.

Automobile factories evolved in tandem with mass production; modular form and open floor spaces provided flexibility in machine placement and possibilities for expansion as production needs changed. Detroit-based architect Albert Kahn, with his associate Ernest Wilby (1868–1957), set a new standard for 20th-century industrial buildings through innovative use of space and materials. For the Packard Company’s Building Number Ten (Detroit, 1905; enlarged 1909), Kahn used reinforced concrete to create modular bays, repeatable horizontally and vertically, with wide interior spans and large window surfaces. For Ford’s Highland Park factory (begun 1909; see fig.), Kahn designed a multi-building complex of reinforced concrete and steel-framed buildings that housed machinery strategically in the sequence of production. In Ford’s River Rouge manufacturing complex in Dearborn, MI (...


Aya Louisa McDonald

[Mokugo; Mokugyo]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], June 21, 1856; d Kyoto, Dec 16, 1907).

Japanese painter . He was the leading Western-style (Yōga; see Japan, §VI, 5, (iv)) landscape painter of the Meiji period (1868–1912) and one of the founder-members of the Meiji Bijutsukai (Meiji Fine Arts Society, established 1889; later absorbed into the Taiheiyō Gakai [Pacific Painting Society]), the first association of Western-style painters in Japan. Asai was born into a samurai family retained by the Sakura clan. He was originally trained in Japanese bird-and-flower painting (kachōga) in the literati (Nanga or Bunjinga) style, but turned later to oil painting and at the age of 19 entered the Shōgidō, a private school of Western-style painting. The school had been opened in Tokyo the previous year by the artist Shinkurō Kunisawa (1847–77), who had studied painting under John Wilcolm in London.

When the government-sponsored Kōbu Bijutsu Gakkō (Technical Art School) was opened in Tokyo in ...


Ralph Croizier

[Ch’i Pai-shih; zi Huang; hao Baishi Laoren, Baishi Shanweng]

(b Xiangtan, Hunan Province, 1863; d Beijing, 1957).

Chinese painter. He was probably the most popular painter in 20th-century China, esteemed alike by the conservative scholarly élite, the common citizens of China’s urban centres, foreign collectors and revolutionaries both artistic and political for his traditional paintings of birds, flowers, small animals and insects. The range of his appeal from the 1920s onwards derived from his character, his lifestyle and his image as a traditional, high-minded scholar–artist who remained aloof from corrupt politics and preserved cultural values during the politically and socially unsettled period after the fall of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911). Such an image may seem paradoxical given his humble social origins in rural Hunan Province and his early career as a carpenter; however, lowly beginnings and self-improvement through culture and learning were admirable according to Confucian standards, and by the end of Qi’s life the new Communist government had hailed him as an authentic ‘People’s Artist’....


(b New Orleans, LA, March 15, 1873; d New Orleans, 1949).

American photographer. Bellocq is known to have worked as a commercial photographer in New Orleans from 1895 to 1940 and to have photographed for local shipbuilders and in the Chinese sector of New Orleans, although none of this work apparently survives. His photography is known only through prints made by Lee Friedlander from the 89 gelatin dry plate negatives found after Bellocq’s death. These negatives date from c. 1912 and are sympathetic portraits of prostitutes of New Orleans and interior views of their workplaces. Known as the Storyville Portraits, 34 were shown by MOMA, New York, in a travelling exhibition in 1970–71. Bellocq’s life was the subject of Pretty Baby (1978), a film by Louis Malle.

E. J. Bellocq: Storyville Portraits: Photographs from the New Orleans Red-light District, circa 1912 (exh. cat. by J. Szarkowski and L. Friedlander, New York, MOMA, 1970)G. Badger: ‘Viewed’, British Journal of Photography...


Catherine Cooke


(b Zhitomir, 1875; d Gatchina, July 19, 1933).

Russian architect and teacher. After early training in Pskov, he studied (1901–10) at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, latterly in the studio of Leonty Benois. After a year in Odessa he was commissioned in 1911 by the developer Konstantin Rozenshtein to execute façades for residential buildings on the fashionable Bol’shoy Prospect (Petrograd Side), St Petersburg. His treatments at nos 77 (1912–13) and 75 (1913–15) are respectively Gothic and Renaissance classical in their detailing. These, and his elevations in freer classical mode for Gontskevich’s building (1912–15) at no. 102 of the same street, derive their strong identity from the grotesque treatment of stylistic detail that characterizes all Belogrud’s work. Other built works of this period included the Skating Rink complex (1912) in St Petersburg and the Municipal Theatre (1913), Saratov. During these years he was also a lively contributor to stylistic and professional debates in Russian architecture. In ...


Jason C. Kuo

revised by Zaixin Hong

[Huang Pin-hung, ming Zhi, zi Pucun /Po-chun]

(b Jinhua, Zhejiang Province, Jan 27, 1865; d Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, Mar 25, 1955).

Chinese scholar, epigraphist, and painter. Huang Binhong was a visionary known for his world view on Chinese art, original art writings, and modern expressionist style. Drawing on a lifelong study of old masters (lingu) and close observation of nature (xiesheng) through extensive travels around the country, he transformed traditional Chinese landscape painting in the 20th century. In 1953, both he and Qi Baishi were honored by the Communist government as the “Excellent Painter of the Chinese People” and the “Artist of the Chinese People” respectively, and from then on referred to as Huang of the South and Qi of the North.

Born into a merchant family from Shexian, Anhui Province, Huang passed the entry level of the civil service examination but ended that career path at the age of 29. While running the family enterprise, he cultivated his passion for landscape painting and ancient seals. By the time he left Shexian for Shanghai in ...


Aileen June Wang

(b San Leandro, CA, Feb 3, 1972).

American performance and video artist of Chinese ancestry. Chang earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of California, San Diego in 1994. She showed her first solo exhibition at Jack Tilton Gallery, New York, in 1999. Her body of work focused on how people can be deceived, either through sight—what one sees is not necessarily true—or through mainstream assumptions about such topics as Asia, sexuality, and socially accepted behavior. Chang attributed her past stint in a cybersex company as the catalyst for exploring illusion as a theme. She realized that video flattened three-dimensional, live performances into a stream of two-dimensional images, enabling her to engage in visual deception.

Most of Chang’s early works investigated problems of gender and sexuality, using her own body and elements suggesting violence or transgression. The photograph Fountain (1999) depicted her inside a cubicle of a public lavatory, with a urinal visible on the far wall. Wearing a business suit, she knelt on hands and knees, seemingly kissing herself but actually slurping water off a mirror on the floor. The accompanying video focused on Chang’s face and her passionate interaction with her own reflection. While the photograph suggested female humiliation in a male world, the video complicated matters by implying that the act was motivated by narcissism....


Ralph Croizier

revised by Walter Davis

[Wu Ch’ang-shih; Wu Ch’ang-shuo; ming Jun, Junqing]

(b Anji, Zhejiang Province, 1844; d Shanghai, 1927).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, and seal-carver. The most prominent figure in the Shanghai school during the early 20th century, he rejuvenated the genre of bird-and-flower painting, contributed to the internationalization of the Chinese art world, and helped lead a national revival of traditional Chinese painting and calligraphy in the 1910s and 1920s. Although he initially aspired to become a scholar–official and passed the imperial civil service examinations at the county (xiucai) level, he later made his living as a professional artist, developing an international clientele and a reputation as a literati painter and calligrapher that continues to the present.

While pursuing a career in government service, Wu mastered the Confucian classics and studied poetry, epigraphy, and calligraphy (see China, People’s Republic of, §IV, 2, (vii)). Contact with such professional painters as Ren Yi in the cultural and commercial metropolis of Shanghai during the late 19th century opened up to Wu the possibility of a professional artist’s career. After a brief appointment as a county official in ...


Kim Kumja Paik

[cha Uksang, Kongnip; ho Shimjŏn, Pulburong, Purija, Purong]

(b Sunhŭng, 1861; d 1919).

Korean painter. He excelled in landscapes, figures, flowers and birds, as well as in many styles of calligraphy, and was among the very last court painters of the Bureau of Painting (Tohwasŏ; see Korea §XI 1.) at the end of the Chosŏn period (1392–1910). In 1881 he was sent as a draughtsman to Tianjin in China with a group of men to learn the technique of producing modern weapons. In 1900 he painted the royal portrait of Kojong (reg 1864–1907). Perhaps as a reward for this assignment he was appointed magistrate of the county of Yangch’ŏn and T’ongjin in Kyŏnggi Province. In 1911 he and his contemporary Cho Sŏk-chin were the leading teachers at the Sŏhwa misulwŏn (Academy of Calligraphy and Painting), newly established in Seoul to train artists, among whom were Yi Sang-bŏm, Pyŏn Kwan-sik, No Su-hyŏn (1899–1978) and Kim Ŭn-ho. An and Cho were also closely involved in the Sŏhwa misulhoe (Calligraphy and Painting Arts Group). An thus became a bridge between the late Chosŏn and the modern period....


Hiroyuki Suzuki

(b London, Sept 28, 1852; d Tokyo, 1920).

English architect, active in Japan. He was articled to Roger Thomas Smith and then entered the office of William Burges. In 1876 he was awarded the Soane Medallion by the RIBA. In the next year he was appointed the first professor of architecture at the Imperial College of Engineering (now Tokyo University) in Japan, in which role he taught every aspect of architecture and building construction. During this period he was also active as an architect, designing such buildings as the Tokyo Imperial Museum (1877–80; now Tokyo National Museum) and a national banqueting house, Rokumeikan (Deer Cry Pavilion), for the Ministry of Public Works. After leaving his academic and governmental posts, Conder went into private practice and designed many residences, including the Iwasaki residence in Kayacho (1896; see Japan, §III, 5), the Shimazu residence (1915) and the Furukawa residence (1917). His style gradually changed from Gothic to more classical. He is often called the father of Western architecture in Japan, not only on account of his designs but also because of his role in establishing the Western method of architectural higher ...


Toru Asano

(b Kagoshima, Sept 18, 1867; d Tokyo, March 19, 1943).

Japanese painter. After studying Nihonga (modern Japanese-style painting), in 1884 he went to Tokyo, where he became the pupil of the Shijō-school artist Kawabata Gyokushō (1842–1913). He changed to Yōga (Western-style painting) in 1890, studying with Yukihiko Soyama (1859–92) and Hōsui Yamamoto (1850–1906). When the course in Yōga was established at the Tokyo School of Fine Arts (now Tokyo University of Fine Arts and Music) in 1896, he was made an assistant professor on the recommendation of Seiki Kuroda (1866–1924), at the same time becoming a member of the Hakubakai (White Horse Society). Through his contact with Kuroda he was introduced to plein-air painting, but he was soon influenced by Art Nouveau and other European fin-de-siècle styles.

From 1900 Fujishima produced cover illustrations for the magazine Myōjō (‘Venus’); oil paintings such as In Praise of the Tenpyō Era (1902; Kurume, Fukuoka Prefect., Ishibashi A. Mus.) and ...


Frederick Baekeland

(b Suruga Prov. [now part of Shizuoka Prefect.], 1862; d Tokyo, 1922).

Japanese calligrapher. Gadō was one of the outstanding Meiji-period (1868–1912) kana (Japanese phonetic script) calligraphers. Having lost his father, a martial arts instructor, when he was a youth, he went to Tokyo, working first for a fish wholesaler and then as a clerk in the Ministry of Finance. He spent all his spare time studying calligraphy and, apart from some later training with Naruse Taiiki (1827–1902), a kanji (Chinese script) calligrapher, he was essentially self-taught. In 1890 Gadō made his name with his rendition of Ki no Tsurayuki’s (?ad 872–945) classic kana preface to Japan’s first imperially sponsored poetic anthology, the Kokinwakashu (‘Collection of Japanese poems from ancient and modern times’; commissioned in 905). It was Gadō’s calligraphy on a set of poem cards (shikishi) presented to the dowager empress in the same year that ensured his appointment in 1891 to the faculty of the Peers School for Girls in Tokyo, where he served until his death; he also taught several members of the royal family. In ...


Anthony W. Lee

(b Gee Village [now Chu Village], Guangdong Province, China, Feb 22, 1906; d New York, NY, June 5, 1963).

American painter, poet, essayist and inventor. Gee traveled to San Francisco in 1921, joining his father, a merchant in Chinatown. In 1925 he enrolled at the California School of Fine Arts (now the San Francisco Art Institute) where he took classes with Otis Oldfield (1890–1969) and Gottardo Piazzoni and experimented for the first time in oils. A year later he co-founded two separate art collectives, the Modern Gallery, comprised mostly of white artists with substantial European-based training, and the Chinese Revolutionary Artists’ Club, comprised exclusively of young Chinese immigrants. The differences between the groups reflected an ongoing tension in Gee’s professional and political ambitions between the search for newer forms of modern art and the desire to ennoble a diasporic Chinese sensibility. He initially developed a style of short, choppy brushwork and the juxtaposition of hot and cold colors, and subjects based on the people, streets and goods of Chinatown. He would later call this practice “Diamondism.”...


Yoshikazu Iwasaki

(b Nagano Prefect., Sept 21, 1874; d Tokyo, Sept 16, 1911).

Japanese painter. In 1895 he graduated from the painting department of the Tokyo School of Fine Arts, where he then worked as a lecturer. In 1898 he participated in the establishment of the Japan Art Institute, Tokyo, and he received theoretical instruction from Tenshin Okakura. With Taikan Yokoyama he actively continued to experiment in an effort to create a modern form of Japanese-style painting (Nihonga; see Japan, §VI, 5, (iii)). He visited India (1903), where he met Abanindranath Tagore, and travelled in the USA and Europe (1904–5). After his return to Japan, Hishida’s painting style became deeply lyrical, while being based on intellectual composition and keen observation. His major works include Patriarch Xiangxiang (1907; Tokyo, N. Mus.) and Fallen Leaves (1909; Tokyo, Eisei Bunko).

Hishida Shunsō: Dai Nihon kaiga [Great Japanese painting] 5 vols (1976)

Hashimoto Gahō

Japan, §vi, 4(v)(c): Rinpa painting: Edo, after c 1800...


Eizo Inagaki

(b Yonezawa, Dewa Province [now Yamagata Prefect.], 1868; d 1954).

Japanese architectural historian and architect. He graduated from the School of Engineering at Tokyo Imperial University in 1892 and then undertook graduate studies in architectural history. He participated in research on the oldest building in Japan, the temple of Hōryūji at Nara, and carried out a survey of the principal buildings that recorded details of the temple’s proportions, construction and decoration. In 1898 he published the Hōryūji kenchikuron (‘Discourse on the architecture of Hōryūji’), his first lengthy thesis. In 1897 he began to teach at the School of Engineering at the university; in 1901 he received his doctorate and in 1905 he became a full professor in the department where he continued teaching until his retirement in 1928.

In his research Itō was more interested in comparing the civilizations of the East and West, and the influences on them, rather than merely accumulating archaeological information. As he explained in his first thesis, for example, the architecture of Hōryūji was derived from the Gandhara style in India, having been transmitted to the Korean peninsula and then to Japan. At this time, ...


Deborah Nash

[Kao Chien-fu]

(b Panyu County, Guangdong Province, Oct 12, 1879; d Macao, May 22, 1951).

Chinese painter. He was one of the principal founders of the Lingnan school of painting in southern China in the 1920s and 1930s. He sought to modernize the Chinese art world by introducing new painting techniques and through such innovations as public art exhibitions and art classes in public institutions.

The three founders of the Lingnan school—Gao Jianfu, his younger brother Gao Qifeng (1889–1935), and Chen Shuren (1883–1949)—all served their apprenticeships in traditional Chinese painting at the studio of Ju Lian (1828–1904) in Lishan in Panyu County. Between 1892 and 1898 Gao studied and executed paintings of birds, flowers and insects in Ju Lian’s style and, under the patronage of a wealthy collector, Wu Deyi (d c. 1920), made numerous copies of paintings of the Song (960–1279) and Yuan (1279–1368) periods in Wu’s collection. In 1903 Gao enrolled at the Guangzhou (Canton) Christian College, where he studied Western painting under ...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[K’ang Yu-wei; zi Nanhai]

(b Nanhai, Guangdong Province, 19 March 1858; d Qingdao, Shandong Province, 31 March 1927). Chinese reformer, scholar and calligrapher. He is best known as the instigator of the Hundred Days Reform, which lasted from 16 June to 21 September 1898, when the Guangxu emperor (reg 1875–1908) accepted Kang’s proposals for far-reaching change. Kang convinced the emperor of the importance of incorporating Western methods into Chinese culture so as to strengthen China against foreign aggression. The profoundly conservative dowager empress Cixi (1835–1908) staged a coup which brought the movement to an end. Kang fled the country and did not return until 1913, after the fall of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911).

Kang’s formal education in calligraphy and epigraphy began under the tutelage of the eminent scholar, Zhu Ciqi (1807–81). Kang later chose a few models and copied them avidly: the Shimen ming, calligraphy carved into a cliff face in Shanxi Province in ...


Hiroyuki Suzuki

(b Hagi Prov., now Yamaguchi Prefect., Dec 20, 1854; d Tokyo, Oct 24, 1917).

Japanese architect. He was one of the first four students to graduate from the Department of Architecture, Imperial College of Engineering (now Tokyo University) in 1879. After a short spell in the Ministry of Public Works, he became an architect in the Ministry of the Imperial Household in 1886, a position he held for the rest of his life. As the first court architect Katayama designed palaces, villas and residences for the imperial family, but his output also included the imperial (now national) museums (all extant) in Nara (1894), Kyoto (1908) and Tokyo (Hyōkeikan, 1909). His style, which was neo-classical with a French Beaux-Arts flavour, was regarded as the most suitable to express the enlightened atmosphere of the Japanese court. He visited European countries and the USA in 1882–4, 1886–7, 1897–8, 1899 and 1902–3. His last three visits were undertaken in connection with the design of his best and largest work, Akasaka Detached Palace or Akasaka Rikyū, Tokyo (...


Yoshikazu Iwasaki

(b Aichi Prefect., Nov 24, 1873; d Tokyo, June 30, 1957).

Japanese painter. He was trained in the techniques of Japanese-style painting (Nihonga) at the school of Kōno Bairei in Kyoto; however, in 1896 he became the student of Hashimoto Gahō in Tokyo. As Gahō’s protégé, he exhibited in the early Inten exhibitions of the Japan Art Institute. In 1914, during the institute’s revival by Yokoyama Taikan (1868–1958) and others, he did not participate with them and was principally active in the official exhibitions such as the Bunten (of the Ministry of Education), the Teiten (of the Imperial Art Academy) and the New Bunten. Kawai introduced some of the techniques of Western Realism into his style, which was based on the traditional Kanō and Maruyama–Shijō schools, thus establishing an extremely clear Naturalist style. Using graceful brushstrokes he primarily illustrated scenes of rural life and mountain villages. His most important works include Fleeting Spring (1916) and ...