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Article

Alan Powers

(Irving Jeffrey)

(b Haiphong, French Indo-China [now Vietnam], Oct 16, 1900; d Rodmersham, Kent, Nov 8, 1979).

English illustrator and author. From 1905 he grew up in England, becoming a professional artist in 1926 after part-time study at the Westminster School of Art, London. He became known as an illustrator of genre scenes in a variety of media, often with a comic Victorian flavour. He was best known for illustrated stories, the first of which, Little Tim and the Brave Sea-captain (Oxford, 1936), was followed by numerous imaginative and popular children’s books and by many other illustrated books. Baggage to the Enemy (London, 1941) reflected his appointment in 1940 as an Official War Artist, recording the German invasion of France, and the North African and Italian campaigns. His freelance career continued after the war with a steady production of illustrative and ephemeral work in an instantly recognizable style that relied on ink line and delicate washes.

The Young Ardizzone: An Autobiographical Fragment (London, 1970) Diary of a War Artist...

Article

Hiroshi Kashiwagi

(b Tokyo, Feb 19, 1929).

Japanese graphic designer . He graduated from Hosei University (Tokyo). In 1955 he received an award from the Japan Advertising Artists Club for his poster Give back the Sea, establishing himself as a socially committed designer. He was initially influenced by the American designer Ben Shahn. In 1962 he designed the iron gate for the government office building at the Izumo Grand Shrine (Shimane Prefect.). In 1965, along with many of Japan’s leading designers, he was chosen to take part in the Persona Exhibition, which stressed the personal identities of individual designers. In 1975 Awazu was art director on Shūji Terayama’s film Den’en ni shinu (‘To die in the country’). During the 1960s and 1970s Awazu’s work was influenced by the vernacular design that challenged Japanese modernism. He has designed for many national and international exhibitions, including Expo ’70 (Osaka). Since the late 1980s much of Awazu’s work has been commissioned by national and local government bodies....

Article

Hiroshi Kashiwagi

(b Nagano, June 22, 1903; d March 26, 1986).

Japanese graphic designer. He graduated from the Tokyo Prefectural School of Technology in 1921 and taught there from 1922 to 1941. During this period he was exposed to the work of overseas avant-garde artists László Moholy-Nagy, Herbert Bayer and El Lissitzky. He also established links with Tomoyoshi Murayama and other members of the Sankakai group of painters. These contacts had a great influence on his later designs and led to his emergence as the founder of Japanese modern design. In 1933 he participated in the founding of the Japan Studio (Nihon Kōbō). He designed the photography exhibitions in Junzō Sakakura Japan Pavilions for the Paris World Expositions of 1937 and the New York Exposition of 1939. These exhibits exemplified Hara’s philosophy that the real work of the designer is the organization of graphic elements. His designs for the propaganda magazine Front (published by the Tōhōsha company) during the Pacific War (...

Article

Hiroshi Kashiwagi

(b Niigata, April 6, 1915; d 1997).

Japanese graphic designer. He studied principles of Constructivism at the Institute of New Architecture and Industrial Arts, Tokyo, a private institute established and run by Renshichiro Kawakita with the aim of introducing Bauhaus design theories in Japan; he graduated in 1935 and in 1938 joined the Nippon Kōbō design studio (now Publishing on Design Inc.). For over a decade from 1937 he worked as art director on a number of Japanese magazines, including Nippon and Commerce Japan. In 1951 he participated in the establishment of the Japan Advertising Arts Club, which secured social recognition for the profession of graphic designer. In 1955 he took part in the ‘Graphic ’55’ exhibition, together with Hiromu Hara, Paul Rand and others. Kamekura received an award from the Japan Advertising Arts Club in 1956 for a poster calling for peaceful use of atomic power. He co-founded the Nippon Design Centre (Tokyo) in 1960 with ...

Article

Atsushi Tanaka

(b Osaka, Oct 13, 1887; d Ashiya, Hyōgo Prefect., Feb 13, 1931).

Japanese painter and illustrator. He distinguished himself in painting at middle-school. In 1907 he entered the department of Nihonga (Japanese-style) painting at the Tokyo School of Fine Art and later transferred to the department of Yōga (Western-style) painting. After graduating in 1914 he returned to Osaka and continued to paint. In 1919 he entered his first exhibited work in the 6th Nikakai (Second Division Society) show. The painting, the N Family, received the Chogyū Prize. In the Nikakai exhibition of 1920 his portrait of the Young Girl Omme received the Nika Prize.

In 1921–2 Koide made his first trip to the West, travelling to Paris and Berlin and throughout southern France. This led to him abandoning his early style, which had been characterized by rigid compositions and dark tonalities, in favour of a more even, stronger brush style with a lighter palette; his works became lighter in spirit. In 1923...

Article

(b Los Angeles, CA, Sept 2, 1931; d New York, Feb 10, 2012).

American graphic designer. As an American of Japanese descent, Miho was sent to an internment camp in Arizona during World War II, a difficult experience that she chose not to dwell on, but which helped her find other focuses and goals. In high school she received a scholarship for a summer programme at the Minneapolis School of Art (now the Minneapolis College of Art and Design) and was influenced by Modernism during her first visit to New York City, taking in the architecture and artwork of places such as Manhattan’s Museum of Modern Art. After high school she took a part-time job at the Bureau of Engraving in Minneapolis and continued to take classes at the Minneapolis School of Art. She then received a full scholarship to study at the Art Center School in Los Angeles (now the Art Center College of Design, Pasadena), CA. She focused on graphic design and eventually switched to industrial design so she could study packaging design with Mary Sheridan, sometimes assisting in her design office. She graduated with honours in ...

Article

Jeremy Howard

[Nadezhda] (Nikolayevna)

(b Ulaan Baatar, Mongolia, Jan 31, 1952; d Moscow, March 6, 1969).

Russian illustrator and graphic designer. The phenomenon of Nadya Rusheva arose as the result of the exploitation of a child talent and the demand for positive achievements that accorded with the Soviet myth. Her death at the age of 17 from a brain haemorrhage acted as a final sad chord in her cultural role. Her first drawings became known in 1964 when the Moscow intellectual elite was seeking an embodiment of Nikita Khrushchov’s political thaw. She exhibited in the offices of the famous opposition periodical Yunost’ (‘Youth’). She produced over 10,000 works in a number of series, most of which were essentially the line illustrations of a gifted, developing child for the classics from world literature. This work, created mostly in ink, felt-tip pen and crayon, was inspired by the amateur illustrations of 19th- and 20th-century writers, most notably Aleksandr Pushkin and Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. Typical of her most mature work was her illustration of ...

Article

Nelly Perazzo

(b Buenos Aires, Oct 1, 1927).

Argentine painter, graphic designer, teacher and critic. After studying in Japan from 1935 to 1951 he returned to Argentina, remaining there until his move to New York in 1963. His paintings from 1952 were in the style of Art informel, with a calligraphic emphasis demonstrating his sympathy with oriental art, but around 1960 he moved towards a more gestural abstraction in works such as Painting No. 20 (1961; Buenos Aires, Mus. A. Mod.), using thicker paint and more subdued colours.

In 1964 Sakai began to use more geometric shapes in his pictures, and he continued to do so on moving in 1965 to Mexico, where he remained until 1977. His example opened the way to geometric abstraction in Mexico, where there was no real tradition of such work. In 1976, shortly before returning to New York, he began a series of paintings using the formal repetition of parallel undulating lines of strongly contrasting colour. From ...

Article

James Cahill

revised by Vyvyan Brunst

[Ch’eng Shih-fa; Cheng Tong; Ch’eng T’ung]

(b Songjiang County, Shanghai Municipality, 1921; d Shanghai, Jul 17, 2007).

Chinese painter and illustrator. By his own account Cheng was determined from an early age to become a painter. Although his father died when Cheng was nine, support from relatives enabled him to enter the Shanghai Academy of Fine Arts in 1938, where he was trained in the traditional disciplines of landscape and bird-and-flower painting. He also took an interest in the work of modern Chinese masters. Following graduation, he worked briefly in a bank before joining the Shanghai Art Publishing Agency in 1952 as an illustrator. His assignments included New Year paintings and drawings for editions of short stories. Among his first successes was a series of plates for a contemporary edition of the 18th-century satirical classic Rulin waishi (“The scholars”) by Wu Jingzi, which in 1959 won a medal at the Leipzig International Book Exhibition (Eng. trans., Yang Hsien-yi and G. Yang, The Scholars, Beijing, 1957). However, his most impressive early achievement was a set of illustrations for another classic, Lu Xun’s ...

Article

Janet Koplos

(b Fuefuki, Yamanashi Prefecture, Jan 2, 1969).

Japanese sculptor and installation artist. A Tokyo-based graphic-design graduate of Tama Art University, Tokyo (1992), Suda briefly worked in the design field. Exposed to wood-carving in art school, he began to use both traditional Japanese techniques and those of his own devising and to present his work in unconventional installations.

Suda replicated and interpreted flowers and other plants in fine-grained magnolia wood through realistic, life-size carving and painting. The artist, raised in the countryside, came to this subject after moving to the mega-metropolis of Tokyo. He favoured familiar plants and also selected motifs according to the flora around museum venues. The magnolia – in the form of a blossom, bud, seed pod, twig, or leaf – was a frequent motif and was featured in exhibitions at D’Amelio Terras Gallery (2000) and the Asia Society (2010) in New York City and at the Contemporary Museum, Honolulu (...

Article

Akira Tatehata

(b Kōbe, March 13, 1919; d Paris, May 14, 1996).

Japanese painter. He entered Osaka Art School in 1933 but left it in mid-course. From 1937 to 1945 he worked at the publicity department of a railway company in Osaka as a graphic designer. After World War II he decided to become a painter. He went to Paris in 1952, where he studied at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, and in the following year exhibited at the Salon d’Octobre. His abstract works of the early 1950s have a static, poetic picture surface with delicate texture. However, from 1957 a dramatic, bold element began to appear (e.g. Festival, 1960; Fukuoka, A. Mus.), involving simplified forms reminiscent of calligraphy. From then, he exhibited regularly at such exhibitions as the Salon des Réalités Nouvelles and the Salon de Mai. In the mid-1960s his style underwent a drastic change. Sugai produced compositions with dynamic movement, flat colour fields eliminating traces of brushstrokes, and sign-like forms with a clear outline. Such works as ...

Article

Hiroshi Kashiwagi

(b Tokyo, Sept 8, 1932).

Japanese graphic designer. He graduated in architecture from Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music in 1955 and then worked as a freelance graphic designer. He specialized in posters, calendars, record covers, catalogues and stamps and later books, magazines, exhibitions and film and television graphics. His series of covers for the magazine Space Design (1966–70) made a resounding impact. He was regarded as one of Japan’s most innovative designers; his work is influenced by cosmology, Hollywood, Buddhism and the Space Age and fuses images, quotations and typography of different sizes. He used shadow and perspective to achieve depth in two-dimensional layout and was noted for his use of rich black backgrounds. In his design for Zen Uchu-shi, Summa Cosmographica, text pages, as well as covers, are entirely in black, the text itself being white. Sugiura organized and designed many exhibitions that reflect his wide-ranging interests, for example ...

Article

Hiroshi Kashiwagi

(b Nara, Jan 13, 1930; d Jan 10, 2002).

Japanese graphic designer. He graduated from the Kyoto City College of Fine Art in 1950. He was employed as a textile designer with the Kanegafuchi Spinning Co., Kyoto (1950–52), and then worked for the Sankei Shinbun Press, Tokyo, as a graphic designer (1952–7). In 1960 he co-founded the Nippon Design Centre in Tokyo with Yusaku Kamekura, and from 1961 to 1965 he lectured at the Kuwazawa Institute of Design, Tokyo. In 1963 he established his own studio—the Tanaka Design Atelier—in Tokyo, changing the name to Ikko Tanaka Design Studio in 1976. He rose to prominence in the graphics industry in Japan with designs that synthesized Japanese pictorial traditions with popular Western styles of typography and layout. His work typified the energy of Japanese graphics communications. He designed posters, corporate logos, book and magazine layouts and exhibition displays, for example the Japanese Government’s History Pavilion displays at Expo ’70, Osaka, and the ...

Article

Reiko Tomii

[ Tenmyōya ]

(b Musashino, Feb 10, 1966).

Japanese painter and graphic artist . Mostly self-taught, from childhood he loved to draw and he joined a high-school painting club. In 1983 the American film Wild Style (1982) inspired him to study hip-hop culture and become a graffiti artist. While working as a graphic designer of CD jackets at a record company, Tenmyouya submitted his art works to major competitive exhibitions for graphic artists such as Urbanart and JACA (Japan Association of Art and Culture’s visual art competition) and was often successful. His trapezoidal Manga Ukiyo-e series received a special award in JACA ’97 by reinterpreting the popular media of manga and ukiyo-e, as well as the life of modern yakuza outlaws, a popular TV and film subject. In 2000 Tenmyouya left his design job and had his first solo exhibition at a rental gallery, Harajuku, in Tokyo. He also found an outlet for his graphically oriented works in the print media, starting his monthly contribution of the ...