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Article

Henrik H. Sørensen

[cha Chŏngjung ; ho Tusŏngyŏng ]

(b 1499).

Korean painter. A descendant of the royal Yi family—founders of the Chosŏn dynasty—in the line of King Sejong and mentioned in the Injong shillok (‘Veritable records of King Injong’), he was considered one of the most important Academy painters of his day. He was renowned for his rendering of dogs and cats and of flowers and birds, placed usually in highly formalized garden settings. His paintings exude an innocent and peaceful atmosphere. In his work he combined the ‘outline’ style with the ‘boneless’. His paintings bear some resemblance to the type of animal paintings produced at Huizong’s Northern Song Academy in the 12th century in China, although his subjects are more dynamic, if less realistic.

Only four works from his hand are thought to have survived. His most celebrated painting is Bitch with Puppies. Another of his paintings, Puppies under a Flowering Tree (P’yŏngyang, Kor. A.G.;), shows three puppies, two resting, one sitting up, beside a tree on which two magpies have alighted. ...

Article

Jurgis Elisonas

Japanese castle in Azuchi-chō, Shiga Prefecture. It was the prototype of the sumptuous residential castles of the Momoyama period (1568–1600) of Japanese history (often called the Azuchi–Momoyama period, taking its name from the castle). This palatial citadel was built as the visible sign of the new order imposed on Japan by Oda Nobunaga, chief unifier of the country after a century of military conflict and political disorder. Begun in February 1576 and inaugurated as Nobunaga’s official residence on 5 June 1579, Azuchi Castle was burnt down by marauding soldiery on 4 July 1582, 13 days after Nobunaga was assassinated in Kyoto. Apart from the tiles, fragments of ceramic vessels and metal fittings uncovered in the course of archaeological surveys, stoneworks are all that remain.

The citadel was composed of the lord’s main castle, which was divided into three enceintes, and a number of separately enclosed outbuildings, the residences of Nobunaga’s principal vassals. Its grounds occupied ...

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

Article

Wu Bin  

Dawn Ho Delbanco

revised by Katharine Burnett

[Wu Pin; zi Wenzhong; hao Zhixian]

(b Putian, Fujian Province, c. 1543; d c. 1626).

Chinese painter. One of the most talented late Ming (c. 1570–1644) professional artists active in Nanjing and Beijing, whose paintings of landscapes and Buddhist figural compositions present an alternative mode to the prevailing style established by 16th-century amateur scholar–painters.

Under the Jiajing (reg 1522–1566), and Wanli (reg 1573–1620) emperors, Wu Bin served in various court appointments as secretary in Nanjing and Beijing. In this capacity, he rose to the position of Drafter in the Secretariat in the Grand Secretariat, the highest division in the Ming imperial bureaucracy. This position would have utilized Wu’s skills as a calligrapher, recording court documents in the requisite seal script. It is likely that it was through this post that Wanli would have come to know Wu and his talent as a painter. And while in the capital cities, Wu Bin would have had the opportunity to meet other artists, notably Mi Wanzhong (...

Article

Biombo  

Sofía Sanabrais

Name used in Mexico and throughout Latin America for a folding screen. The word biombo is a transliteration of the Japanese word for folding screen—byōbu—an acknowledgement of its place of origin. The Japanese byōbu has long been a quintessential example of Japanese art and was a common diplomatic gift to foreign courts in the early modern period (see Screen, §1). Referred to as the ‘face of Japanese diplomacy’, byōbu were presented as ambassadors of Japanese culture to places as far off as London and Mexico City. Byōbu also found their way to New Spain as exports in the Manila Galleon trade. In 17th-century Mexico the Japanese screen was admired by artists and patrons, and was adapted and reinterpreted on a grand scale. The unique format of the biombo provided new ways for artists to depict subject-matter, and locally made biombos began appearing in the archival record in the first years of the 17th century. ...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Hong Sŏn-p’yo

(b 1491; d 1554).

Korean painter of the early Chosŏn period (1392–1910). He was born into the aristocracy. After passing the civil service examinations in 1519, he was elected to the Bureau of Painting but in the same year was implicated in a purge of reform-minded scholars and was sent into exile for 20 years. Exile, however, allowed him to devote his time to calligraphy, painting and poetry. Sin was renowned for his ‘eight parts’ (Chin. bafen; Kor. p’albun) style of calligraphy (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (ii), (b)), a style that combines cursive script (Kor. ch’osŏ) with the ornamental seal characters of clerical script (yeso). Furthermore, his bamboo and vine compositions were so outstanding that since his time he has been described as a samjŏl (‘three supremes’) to indicate his talent in three contrasting areas. No composition has survived that can be proved conclusively to be by Sin, though the drawing ...

Article

Celia Carrington Riely

[Ch’en Chi-ju; zi Zhongshun; hao Meigong, Meidaoren, Migong]

(b Huating, Jiangsu Province [modern Songjiang, Shanghai Municipality], 16 Dec 1558; d 19 Oct 1639). Chinese editor, writer, calligrapher and painter. He exemplified the literati ideal of the accomplished gentleman–scholar who rejected the sordid world of political involvement and devoted himself to a life of literary, artistic and philosophical pursuit. At the age of 28, having passed the prefectural examination, the first important step leading to a career in government office, Chen renounced official life in a dramatic gesture, by burning his Confucian cap and gown. Thereafter he lived at country retreats at Kunshan and then Mt She, near Huating in Jiangsu Province: entertaining guests; writing and editing; composing the poems, prefaces, epitaphs and biographies for which he was in constant demand; and travelling to places of scenic beauty in the company of friends.

Chen followed the lead of his close friend Dong Qichang, the foremost painter, calligrapher and connoisseur of the late Ming period (...

Article

Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[Chou Ch’en; zi Shunqing; hao Dongcun]

(b Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, c. 1470; d c. 1535).

Chinese painter . Zhou Chen was a pre-eminent professional painter of the Ming period (1368–1644), alongside masters such as Dai Jin. Zhou learnt a conservative style based on Southern Song period (1127–1279) landscape painting from his teacher Chen Xian (1405–96), who specialized in the ‘plain-line’ (baimiao) technique of painting. Zhou later taught Tang Yin for whom Zhou is reported to have worked as a ‘ghost painter’, displaying his versatility.

An example of Zhou Chen’s technically finished early style is North Sea (handscroll, early 16th century; Kansas City, MO, Nelson–Atkins Mus. A.). The influence of 12th-century painting, such as Li Tang’s late works, made during the Southern Song period, can be seen in the strong diagonal composition and the juxtaposition of dark, intricate foliage against lighter eddies and whirlpools of the water. Similarly, the artist’s strict attention to details such as the outline of each leaf, the ‘axe-cut’ texture strokes (...

Article

Burglind Jungmann

[cha Simang; ho Yŏnggok]

(b 1533; d after 1593).

Korean painter. The son of a scholar–official, he passed the chinsa (literary licentiate) examination in 1576 and took up a civil service career. He was famous for painting grapes and is frequently equated with the bamboo painter Yi Chŏng (i) and the plum-blossom painter Ŏ Mong-nyŏng. In Korea, unlike in China, there is a long-standing tradition of painting grapes that reaches back possibly as far as the Koryŏ period (968–1392). The earliest surviving examples, however, date from the 16th century.

All that remains of Hwang Chip-jung’s work are a few small album leaves, which might only be fragments of larger compositions. In Grapevine (album leaf, ink and colour on paper; Seoul, Cent. Stud. Kor. A., Kansong A. Mus.), which bears an inscription dated 1593 and the signature Yŏnggok, the fruit has nearly all fallen so that the bare stalks show through, partly concealed by a large vine leaf. At the tip of the vine other, smaller leaves seem to sway in a light breeze. Together with the softly blowing tendrils they lend an airy and natural feeling to the painting. The ink tones are finely harmonized, particularly in the representation of the fruit. Two other album leaves attributed to Hwang Chip-jung, ...

Article

Burglind Jungmann

[cha Konggan ; ho Naong, among others]

(b 1578; d 1607).

Korean painter . Active during the middle of the Chosŏn period, he came from a family of painters extending back to his great-grandfather. His grandfather, Yi Pae-ryŏn, is nowadays commonly identified with the court painter Yi Sang-chwa, while landscape paintings survive from both his father, Yi Sung-hyo (b 1536), who died at an early age, and his uncle, Yi Hŭng-hyo (1537–93), who brought him up. Yi Chŏng’s talent for painting manifested itself in his childhood. In 1589 he went to the Kumgang Mountains in central Korea, where he painted landscapes and heavenly kings on the walls of Changan Temple two years later. A farewell poem written by his teacher Ch’oe Ip (1539–1612) indicates that Yi Chŏng had also travelled to China. The painter died after a heavy drinking session before he had reached the age of thirty.

A small Landscape (album leaf, ink on paper, 345×230 mm; Seoul, N. Mus.) bears the seal ‘...

Article

[cha Chungsǒp ; ho T’anun ]

(b 1541; d after 1625).

Korean painter. Active during the middle of the Chosŏn period, he was a great-great-grandson of King Sejong and bore the noble title Sŏgyang-jŏng. His work consists primarily of monochrome bamboo paintings. This genre was cultivated fairly early in Korea, mainly under the influence of the Chinese literati painters of the Northern Song period ( see China, People’s Republic of, §V, 4, (ii) ). From the beginning of the Chosŏn period bamboo constituted the most important examination subject for the Bureau of Painting (Tohwasŏ). Yi Chŏng’s early paintings display the influence of painters of the Chinese Yuan period (1279–1368), such as Li Kan. Soon, however, elements of contemporary Ming (1368–1644) painting, especially in the style of the Zhe school, as exemplified by Zhu Duan, also appeared in his work. For instance, Yi Chŏng moved the subject in a similar way from the centre to the side of his painting and combined the bamboo motif with freely drawn sketches of boulders. In contrast to his Chinese models, he joined the bamboo leaves into bundles, which he spread out rhythmically over the entire surface of the picture. Consequently, the stems in the background with light ink tones were strongly set off from the darker ones in the foreground, making them appear as shadows and producing an effective expansion in depth (...

Article

Junghee Lee

[Yi]

Korean dynasty that ruled the Korean peninsula from 1392 to 1910. The founder of the dynasty, Yi Sŏng-gye, posthumously known as King T’aejo (reg 1392–8), established Neo-Confucianism as the official ideology, encouraging a modest and practical lifestyle. Thus the patronage of extravagant art was discouraged, and the status of the artist was reduced. Buddhism was often zealously suppressed but remained the private religion of the palace women, the common people and even some kings. T’aejo, for example, built Sŏgwang Temple in north-eastern Korea, the area of his origin; King Sejo (reg 1455–68) built the marble pagoda of the Wŏngak Temple in Seoul in 1466; and the Dowager Queen Munjŏng patronized painters (see Korea, §IV, 2, (i), (d)) and supported temple constructions during the reign of King Myŏngjong (reg 1545–67).

With the establishment of the capital at Hanyang (now Seoul), T’aejo built the Kyŏngbok and Ch’angdŏk palaces and city walls in ...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

[ Chu Tuan ; zi Kezheng ; hao Yiqiao ]

(b Haiyan, Zhejiang Province; fl c. 1501–21).

Chinese painter . He probably began his artistic career as a minor court painter in the latter part of the reign of the Hongzhi emperor (reg 1488–1505); one of his paintings, dated 1501, bears a seal indicating that he had been summoned to court at least by that date. During the reign of the Zhengde emperor (reg 1506–21), when he was most active, he rose to the position of daizhao (‘painter in attendance’) at the imperial atelier, the Renzhi dian, and was honoured by the gift of a seal from the emperor, after which he nicknamed himself Yiqiao (‘the woodcutter’). Along with some other contemporary court painters, he was considered to belong in a loose sense to the Zhe school .

Zhu painted a wide range of subjects, from figures and landscapes to bamboo and birds. His model in the first two genres was the Yuan-period (1279–1368) painter Sheng Mao. In bamboo painting, Xia Chang (...

Article

Echizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in Japan, based on some 20 kiln sites 7 km north-west of the city of Takefu (Fukui Prefect.). Echizen is known as one of Japan’s ‘Six Old Kilns’. It is one of three centres that arose in the area (the others being Kaga and Suzu) in the 12th century in response to increased agricultural production. Ceramics appeared in Fukui Prefecture in the 6th century ad with the manufacture of Sue stoneware, fired in tunnel kilns (anagama; see Japan §IX 2., (ii), (a)). In the 12th century, however, increased agricultural production, coupled with the introduction of new technology, encouraged the development of a higher-fired brown stoneware. The use of a tunnel kiln with a dividing pillar, the manufacture of jars with everted rims and incised horizontal bands and the use of the coil-and-paddle technique in the early Echizen wares point to origins in kilns such as ...

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Jurgis Elisonas

(b ?1537; d Fushimi [now in Kyoto], Sept 18, 1598).

Japanese military leader and patron. He helped to unify Japan, ending the turmoil of the last century of the Muromachi period (1333–1568). Hideyoshi sought to mythologize his obscure but plebeian origins; of the five family names he used, none was his own, and Toyotomi was the name of an ‘aristocratic’ house created at his behest by the imperial court in 1585. In the service of Oda Nobunaga, the prime mover of Japan’s unification, Hideyoshi rose from a minor attendant to a general entrusted with the pursuit of major campaigns. When Nobunaga was murdered in 1582, Hideyoshi thrust himself forward as leader of the ‘realm’ established by Nobunaga in central Japan. In the next few years he consolidated and extended his primacy, and by 1591, as a result of his conquests and appropriations, all of traditional Japan was subjected to his regime, which laid down the foundations of Japan’s early modern social order. To legitimize this regime, Hideyoshi resurrected patrician forms of government: in ...

Article

Han Ho  

Yi Sŏng-mi

cha [Kyŏnghong; ho Sŏkpong, Ch’ŏngsa]

(b Kaesŏng, Hwanghae Province, 1547; d 1605).

Korean calligrapher and scholar–official. He was one of three prominent calligraphers of the Chosŏn period (1392–1910), the others being Yi Yong and Kim Chŏng-hŭi. Han was awarded the chinsa degree in 1567 and served as district chief of Kap’yŏng, Kyŏnggi Province, and court official in charge of writing official documents. He excelled in regular, running and cursive scripts. During the Japanese invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1598 Han was in charge of writing most of the diplomatic documents that were sent to China and Japan (e.g. his letter of 1597; Seoul, Sunggun’gwan U. Mus.; see Kim, Choi and Im, fig., p. 137). Consequently, his fame as calligrapher spread to China where he was praised by Wang Shizhen and Zhu Zhifan (fl early 17th century).

In the early Chosŏn period, the style of Zhao Mengfu was still dominant, as it had been since its introduction to Korea during the late Koryŏ period (...