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Ken Brown and Karen L. Brock

Shogunal dynasty that ruled Japan during the Muromachi period (1333–1568). According to the anonymous Taiheiki (‘Chronicle of great peace’; ?1370–71), Ashikaga, the name of a town in Shimotsuke Province (now Tochigi Prefect.), was taken as a family name by a branch of the military Minamoto family. The Ashikaga came to power when the first Ashikaga shogun, Takauji (1305–58), overthrew the Hōjō regents in Kamakura and installed the ambitious Emperor GoDaigo (reg 1318–39) in Kyoto. When GoDaigo refused to name Takauji as shogun, the latter deposed him and replaced him by his own candidate. GoDaigo fled to Yoshino (Nara Prefect.), where he set up a rival court. The schism continued during the early Muromachi period, which is also known as the Nanbokuchō (‘Northern and Southern Courts’; 1336–92) period. Takauji and his son, the second shogun Ashikaga Yoshiakira (1330–67), paid respect to the old aristocracy in Kyoto, but the third shogun, ...



Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....



Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....


Masatomo Kawai


(d 1492).

Japanese painter and Zen monk. He was a close disciple of Ikkyū Sōjun, the Zen abbot of Daitokuji in Kyoto. After Ikkyū’s death, Bokusai compiled his master’s biography, and he became first-generation head of Shūon’an in Takigi (Tanabe, Kyoto Prefect.), the mortuary temple Ikkyū built for himself. In 1491 Bokusai built ...


Masatomo Kawai


(1348–c. 1420).

Japanese Zen monk, scholar, calligrapher, poet and painter. He began his training as a monk at Nanzenji in Kyoto, under Shun’oku Myōha, the nephew and disciple of Musō Sōseki, one of the leading Zen prelates of the Muromachi period (1333–1568). His other teachers included the Zen recluse Shakushitsu Genkō and Gidō Shūshin, under whom he studied literature. A trusted adviser of the fourth Ashikaga shogun, Yoshimochi, Gyokuen was appointed to the prestigious abbacies of Kenninji (c. 1409) and Nanzenji (1413) in Kyoto. His true wish, however, was to retire from the world, and in 1420, after a disagreement with Yoshimochi, he left Kyoto to lead a life of seclusion. An accomplished poet, Gyokuen also brushed colophons on many shigajiku (poem-painting scrolls) of the period, including Josetsu’s Catching a Catfish with a Gourd (c. 1413–15; Kyoto, Myōshinji). His own painting, which shows the influence of the mid-14th-century Chinese priest–painter Xue Chuang and of Tesshū Tokusai, strongly reflects his literary disposition. He is especially well known for his subdued monochrome ink paintings of orchids (emblems of moral virtue), 30 of which have survived (...



Ken Brown

[Kor. Mun-ch’ŏng]

(fl c. 1450–60).

Zen monk and ink painter, active in Japan. He may have come to Japan from Korea, where his work is also known: a couple of paintings in the National Museum of Korea in Seoul bear his seal. Moreover, some of his extant landscapes in Japan were done in Korean style. His seal, which appears on only a handful of paintings, is similar to that used by Josetsu, with whom until the mid-20th century he was sometimes confused. Bunsei is thought to have worked at Daitokuji in Kyoto.

Bunsei’s extant works suggest the influence of Tenshō Shūbun. They show a range of subjects, including several landscapes (Osaka, Masaki A. Mus.; Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.), a portrait of Abbot Yosō of Daitokuji (1452) and the popular ecumenical subject Three Laughers of the Tiger Ravine (Powers priv. col.). Bunsei’s masterpiece is a painting of the famous Buddhist Layman Yuima (1457...


Junghee Lee


Korean dynasty that ruled the Korean peninsula from 1392 to 1910. The founder of the dynasty, Yi Sŏng-gye, posthumously known as King T’aejo (reg 1392–8), established Neo-Confucianism as the official ideology, encouraging a modest and practical lifestyle. Thus the patronage of extravagant art was discouraged, and the status of the artist was reduced. Buddhism was often zealously suppressed but remained the private religion of the palace women, the common people and even some kings. T’aejo, for example, built Sŏgwang Temple in north-eastern Korea, the area of his origin; King Sejo (reg 1455–68) built the marble pagoda of the Wŏngak Temple in Seoul in 1466; and the Dowager Queen Munjŏng patronized painters (see Korea, §IV, 2, (i), (d)) and supported temple constructions during the reign of King Myŏngjong (reg 1545–67).

With the establishment of the capital at Hanyang (now Seoul), T’aejo built the Kyŏngbok and Ch’angdŏk palaces and city walls in ...



Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in Japan, based on some 20 kiln sites 7 km north-west of the city of Takefu (Fukui Prefect.). Echizen is known as one of Japan’s ‘Six Old Kilns’. It is one of three centres that arose in the area (the others being Kaga and Suzu) in the 12th century in response to increased agricultural production. Ceramics appeared in Fukui Prefecture in the 6th century ad with the manufacture of Sue stoneware, fired in tunnel kilns (anagama; see Japan §IX 2., (ii), (a)). In the 12th century, however, increased agricultural production, coupled with the introduction of new technology, encouraged the development of a higher-fired brown stoneware. The use of a tunnel kiln with a dividing pillar, the manufacture of jars with everted rims and incised horizontal bands and the use of the coil-and-paddle technique in the early Echizen wares point to origins in kilns such as ...



Wang Fu  

Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[zi Mengduan; hao Youshi]

(b Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, 1362; d Beijing, 1416).

Chinese painter, calligrapher and poet. Following early promise as a painter and poet, Wang Fu passed the provincial examinations—the second stage in the civil service examination ladder—to receive his juren degree in 1376. He went to Nanjing soon after to take up a government post, but in 1380 was banished to the northern frontier, near Datong, Shanxi Province, as the result of alleged political activity against the Ming (1368–1644) government. For the next 20 years Wang served as a frontier guard, after which he returned to the south to paint and write. From 1403 to 1412 he worked as a calligrapher in the imperial palace at Nanjing, and in 1414 he went to Beijing to join the Central Draughting Office; he died there two years later.

Accounts of Wang’s character and artistic skill have the ring of conventional formulae. It is said that he painted infrequently, while travelling and often when drunk. In spite of his reputation for eccentricity, his extant works reveal a diligent hand and serious application to his art. In his ...



Barry Till

[rgyal rtse; Gyangzê]

Fourth largest city in Tibet, strategically located between Lhasa and Shigatse along the caravan route to India, Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan. Gyantse is most famous for its fortress citadel, or Dzong, and its lamasery. The 15th-century fortress, situated on a hill overlooking the town, served as an effective buffer against invasions from the south for centuries until 1904, when it was partially destroyed and conquered by British forces led by Francis Younghusband. It suffered further damage by the Chinese in the 1960s. Although in poor condition, the fort still has significant traces of ancient wall paintings.

The complex of buildings within the old walls at Gyantse, often referred to as the Palkhor Choide or Pelkor Chode (dpal ‘khor chos sde) Lamasery, was founded in 1418 by Rabten Kunsang (1389–1442), a follower of Khedrup Je (1385–1438), himself a disciple of Tsong Khapa (1357–1419), the founder of the Gelugpa sect. The monastic complex was formerly much more extensive, but a number of buildings were dismantled during the 1960s. The main buildings have survived relatively intact, however. Chief among these and one of the most impressive buildings in all of Tibet is the ...


Mimi Hall Yiengpruksawan

[Hōryū Gakumonji; Wakakusadera; Ikaruga no Tera]

Buddhist temple complex at Ikaruga, Ikoma District, Nara Prefecture, Japan.

Hōryūji is one of the oldest temples in Japan and is the head temple of the Shōtoku sect. Founded in the late 6th century ad by the regent, Prince Prince Shōtoku, and refounded in the late 7th century, it became a leading centre for Buddhist scholarship and the focus of the cult of its founder. Since the early 8th century Hōryūji has been listed as the most ancient of the Seven Great Temples of Nara (Nanto Shichidaiji). The complex occupies c. 9 ha of flat land south-west of Nara and is divided into two precincts: the Sai’in (Western Precinct), often referred to as ‘Hōryūji proper’, and the Tō’in (Eastern Precinct), known officially as Jōguōden (Halls of the Lord of the Superior Palace).

The buildings at Hōryūji include wooden structures of the late 7th century ad and the early 8th, which are the oldest surviving examples of their kind in Japan and are of prime importance for an understanding of the origins of ...


Gordon Campbell

[Chin.: ‘hidden’]

Term applied to Chinese porcelain where the decoration can only be seen under a clear glaze or through transmitted light. Such decoration is sometimes found in Song dynasty (960–1279) Ding and Xing wares, and becomes very common in the white porcelain of the Yongle period (1403–24) of the Ming dynasty. By the mid-16th century ...


Lü Ji  

James Robinson

[Lü Chi; zi Tingzhen; hao Leyu]

(b Yin xian (modern Ningbo), Zhejiang Province, c. 1440; d c. 1504).

Chinese painter. He was a prolific master of Chinese flower-and-bird painting (see China, People’s Republic of §V 3., (v)). Probably because he and his works had no literary dimensions, little was recorded about his life. One Ming (1368–1644) collection claimed to have included over 100 paintings by Lü; however, later imitations and copies from less talented artists have polluted the true corpus of his extant works.

Lü Ji was from a region of natural beauty and one with a distinguished artistic tradition. Both factors are present in Lü’s work. A prominent collector in the area invited young Lü to live with him and copy his paintings by early masters. Lü’s fame grew, and he was summoned to the imperial court, where he eventually reached the rank of Commander of the Embroidered-uniform Guard during the Hongzhi reign period (1488–1505). While at court the Emperor remarked that Lü used his artistry as an excuse to admonish the throne, perhaps evidence that Lü Ji felt secure in his art and confident of his favour with the Emperor. More importantly, this comment suggests Lü invested his paintings with meanings that elevated them beyond images of nature. Their interpretations are generated by the rich tradition of literary imagery for flowers and birds, which was then already three thousand years old, and because in the Chinese language many different words exist for similar sounds, facilitating visual puns or rebuses....


Dai Jin  

Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[Tai Chin; zi Wenjin; hao Jing’an, Yuquan Shanren]

(b Qiantang, near Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 1388; d Hangzhou, 1462).

Chinese painter. An account by Lang Ying (b 1487) provides the most extensive early biography of Dai Jin. As a young man, probably in the 1410s, Dai travelled to the capital at Nanjing with his father, who presumably worked there in some official capacity. Dai failed to make a name for himself in the capital and returned to Qiantang to resume his study of painting, which he had probably begun with a local Zhejiang master. His reputation grew such that c. 1425 he was recommended to the new emperor, Xuande (reg 1426–35), and he went to Beijing in the hope of securing an academy appointment. His plans were thwarted, however, by the envy of established painters, in particular Xie Huan (fl c. 1368–1435), a favourite artist and adviser to the Emperor, who claimed to detect anti-government bias in Dai’s works. Unrolling a series of Dai’s landscapes representing the four seasons, Xie remarked approvingly on the spring and summer scenes but took severe exception to the autumn scene, in which the artist had depicted a fisherman wearing a red coat, attire thought suitable for gentlemen–officials but not for commoners. Yuan-period (...


Du Jin  

Roderick Whitfield

[Tu Chin; zi Junan; hao Chengju, Gukuang, Chingxia tingzhang]

(b Jiangsu Province; fl 1465–1509).

Chinese painter and scholar. Active in Beijing, he was one of the finest figure painters of the Ming period (1368–1644) and was also known for his landscapes, portraits and paintings of birds and animals and plants (none extant). His classical heritage can be seen in his earliest handscroll of Qu Yuan’s Nine Songs (1473; Beijing Pal. Mus.), in which the elegant figures display a lively ink line with limited use of ink wash, in the baimiao (‘plain-line’) style derived from Li Gonglin. Another handscroll painting in the same collection, Poems by Ancient Worthies (see Levenson, no. 294, pp. 440–42, and Xu Bangda, pl. 311), consists of a series of nine (originally twelve) scenes depicting scholars in landscape or garden settings. It was also executed in the baimiao manner, with handsome calligraphy of Tang (ad 618–907) and Song (960–1279) poems by Li Bai, Han Yu and Du Fu written by Jin Cong (...


Regina Krahl


Town and county seat in north-east Jiangxi Province, China, and the country’s main centre of porcelain production. For most of its existence the town was part of Fouliang, in Raozhou Prefecture, and in historical records its ceramics are generally referred to as Raozhou ware. With a continuous history of manufacturing porcelain from the Tang period (ad 618–907), it is the source of most Chinese porcelain.

The imperial kilns were located at Zhushan in the centre of modern Jingdezhen city; many lesser kilns were situated in Hutian, 4 km to the south-east. The area is supplied with fine-quality porcelain stone, the basic raw material for Chinese porcelain; it is surrounded by forests that provided fuel for the kilns; and it is conveniently connected to the major ports of southern China by rivers. Recent excavations have brought to light several different kiln types, including egg-shaped zhenyao kilns, bread-roll-shaped mantou kilns and dragon kilns (...



Karen L. Brock

(fl c. 1405–23).

Japanese painter and Zen monk. Contemporary biographical information about Josetsu is limited to two references. A brief entry dated 1448 in the diary of the Onryōken, a subtemple of Shōkokuji in Kyoto, mentions that in around 1416 Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimochi consulted with Josetsu about going to the island of Shikoku in search of stone for the carving of a stele in commemoration of Shōkokuji’s founder, Musō Soseki. The entry makes no mention of Josetsu as a painter, but it suggests his acquaintance with Yoshimochi and an association with Shōkokuji, which was an important centre in the development of ink painting in the Muromachi period (1333–1568) (see Japan §VI 4., (iii)). A colophon by the otherwise unknown Kanjōsō on Josetsu’s Sankyōzu (‘The three doctrines’; Kyoto, Ryōsokuin) states that the painting is by ‘[Jo]Setsu’ (clumsy-like), and that the painter was given this name by Zekkai Chūshin (1336–1405...


Liu Jue  

Bent L. Pedersen

[Liu Chüeh; zi Tingmei; hao Wan’an]

(b Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1410; d Suzhou, 1472).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, poet and government official. He mainly painted landscapes inspired by the great painters of the Yuan period (1279–1368). Having obtained the juren provincial degree in 1438, he served at the imperial court in Beijing until he was 50 years old, when he retired to his native city. There he built a house and a garden, in which he held meetings and parties with his learned friends. Shen Zhou, the founder of the Wu school and Liu’s younger contemporary, was greatly influenced by him. In Liu’s later years they often met and travelled together.

Liu successfully blended the styles of the Four Masters of the Yuan period—Ni Zan, Huang Gongwang, Wu Zhen and Wang Meng. Such works were usually executed in ink on paper, often with sparingly applied washes. He did not seek merely to imitate former masterpieces but rather to grasp their mood and incorporate their spirit into his own works. He created a more formal structure in the compositions executed to be mounted in the hanging scroll format than his Yuan predecessors did, by stressing a firm foreground and a closer relationship between the background and foreground. The towering cliffs in the background rise upwards close to the middle ground in a high, massive group with accompanying lower cliffs to the sides. In the mountains, small, rounded boulders are densely covered with ink dots of dark moss and grasses that convey the impression of wild nature. The middle ground is separated from the foreground by an inlet of water, while the trees growing on the rocky ground in the front reach across the water to unite them. By combining thick, dry brushstrokes with wetter strokes in the dotting and finer details, he obtained a rhythmic movement in a bold expressionistic fashion. An example of this is ...


Burglind Jungmann

Korean family of calligraphers and scholar-painters. They were related by marriage to the royal house of the Chosŏn dynasty (1392–1910). (1) Kang Hŭi-an is probably the best known of the group. He and his younger brother, (2) Kang Hŭi-maeng, were cousins of the kings Munjong (reg 1450–52) and Sejo (reg 1455–68) and of Prince Anp’yŏng, also known as Yi Yŏng, famous for his collection of Chinese painting. Kang Hŭi-maeng, like his father Kang Sŏktŏk (1395–1459), established himself as a master of the ‘three perfections’—poetry, calligraphy and painting.

(b 1419; d 1464).

In 1462 he travelled to China, where his talents were admired. The best-known Korean scholars of his day wrote colophons for his works, and these indicate that he painted in several styles. However, when his sons asked him to give them instruction in painting, he rejected the request by telling them that it would damage a scholar’s reputation if he left behind works of the ‘inferior arts’ of calligraphy and painting. ...