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Article

Alchi  

W. A. P. Marr

Buddhist monastery in a small valley on the left bank of the River Indus, c. 64 km west of Leh in Ladakh, India. Tradition attributes the monastery’s origin to the Tibetan scholar and temple-builder Rinchen Sangpo (ad 958–1055), the ‘great translator’, and although its buildings mostly date from the 11th century, the site is replete with his memory, from the ancient tree he planted to his portraits and images in the temples. A treasure-house of art, Alchi has been preserved because of its isolation from trade routes and the decline of its community, the monks of the Dromtön sect of the Kadampa order.

Ringed by a wall and votive chortens (stupas), the religious enclave (Tib. chökhor) comprises three entrance chortens, a number of shrines and temples, the Dukhang (assembly hall) with its courtyard and monastic dwellings (see Tibet §II, and Indian subcontinent §III 6., (i), (a)...

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Joan Stanley-Baker

[ Chao Po-chü ; zi Qianli]

(b Zhuo xian, Hebei Province, before 1123; d 1160–73).

Chinese painter . His paintings of landscapes, figures, flowers, fruit and birds apparently ranged in size and format from large screens to handscrolls, album leaves and fans. The critic Zhao Xigu ( fl 1180–1240) considered Zhao Boju the best of all Southern Song (1127–1279) painters. However, no authentic work by Zhao Boju survives, leaving the question of his style open to interpretation.

Zhao Boju and his younger brother, Zhao Bosu, also a painter, were 7th-generation descendants of the founder of the Song dynasty (960–1279), Emperor Taizu (reg 960–75). When Emperor Gaozong (reg 1127–62) was presented with a fan painting done by Zhao Boju, he was enormously pleased. On meeting Zhao in person and discovering him to be a kinsman, he addressed him as ‘royal cousin’ and assigned him the title of Military Commander of the eastern Zhejiang circuit, an office the short-lived Zhao held until his death. The Emperor commissioned Zhao to paint the screens for the hall called the Jiying dian and is known often to have inscribed Zhao’s works....

Article

Richard Edwards

[ Yang Pu-chih ; zi Wujiu ; hao Taochan Laoren, Qingyi Zhangzhe ]

(b Qingjiang, Jiangxi Province, 1098; d after 1167).

Chinese painter . Although documented primarily as a painter of plum blossom, he is also reported to have specialized in the human figure and to have painted bamboo, pine trees, rocks and narcissus. Xia Wenyan, writing in 1365, noted Yang’s personal integrity in refusing to serve the government of the Song dynasty (960–1279) because of its policy of appeasement towards the Jurchen, a nomadic people who conquered northern China and ruled as the Jin dynasty (1115–1234). Yang was one of the earliest exponents of the tradition of painting plum blossom in monochrome ink, subject-matter approved of by the literati painters whose ideals dominated painting of the following Yuan period (1279–1368). He was preceded by the Chan Buddhist priest Zhongren (d 1123), whose paintings define the shape of the blossoms solely in ink wash. In contrast, Yang created the circled petal (quanban) technique wherein the flexibility of the brush hairs is employed to outline the shape of the whole flower. In placing greater emphasis on control of the brush, Yang brought the genre closer to calligraphy, the most scholarly of the Chinese arts. The only securely attributed example of Yang’s painting that survives is ...

Article

Roderick Whitfield

[ Yen Tz’u-p’ing ]

( fl 1163–89).

Chinese painter . He was the son of an Academy painter, Yan Zhong, originally from Shanxi Province; Yan Zhong served under Emperor Huizong (reg 1101–25) and moved south to serve under Emperor Gaozong (reg 1127–62). Yan Ciping served as daizhao (‘painter in attendance’) under the latter and his successor Xiaozong (reg 1163–90). Together with his brother, Yan Ciyu, he painted landscapes, figures and buffaloes, surpassing his father’s achievement. Towards the end of his career, Emperor Xiaozong rewarded him with distinctions and official positions. Both Yan Ciping and Yan Ciyu (album leaves by whom are in the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, and the National Palace Museum, Taipei) are regarded as having made an important contribution to the transformation of landscape painting begun by Li Tang (see Edwards).

Yan Ciping’s work is known from a few paintings only. One is a signed circular fan painting, Villa by the Pine Path...

Article

Li Di  

Henrik H. Sørensen

[Li Ti]

(b Qiantang, near Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, c. 1125; d c. 1200).

Chinese painter. He was probably born around the time of the fall of the Northern Song dynasty (960–1127), after which the Song court moved to Lin’an (modern Hangzhou). Li Di’s activity as a court painter is documented in a small number of dated works from the period 1174–97. According to the Huaji buyi (‘Supplement to the succession of painters’; 1298), attributed to Zhuang Su (fl late 13th century), he worked in the Imperial Painting Academy under three emperors from 1163 until his death and is said to have served as the assistant director (fushi). Although he is known primarily for his paintings of flowers, bamboo and various animals, including birds, he also painted landscapes with figures in the style of the Northern Song academy. Surviving works ascribed to him include a number of album leaves as well as some painted fans; his favoured media were ink and colours on silk....

Article

Dorothy C. Wang

[Tun-huang.]

Site of Buddhist cave sanctuaries located 25 km south-east of the county town of Dunhuang, Gansu Province, China. In the wider definition Dunhuang also includes the Yulin caves at Anxi and the Xi qianfo dong (Western Cave of the Thousand Buddhas). From the 4th century to the 14th, Buddhist cave sanctuaries were continuously carved out in four or five tiers on the cliff face of an alluvial hill that faces east over the Dang River. At its height as a Buddhist complex in the 8th century ad, the complex is believed to have comprised more than 1000 caves. A total of 492 caves with wall paintings and sculptures survive, the earliest of which date to the early 5th century ad. A hoard of old and rare manuscripts was also found at Dunhuang, including the world’s oldest complete printed book (see China, People’s Republic of, §XIV, 3).

Dunhuang was first established as a garrison town in the ...

Article

Echizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in Japan, based on some 20 kiln sites 7 km north-west of the city of Takefu (Fukui Prefect.). Echizen is known as one of Japan’s ‘Six Old Kilns’. It is one of three centres that arose in the area (the others being Kaga and Suzu) in the 12th century in response to increased agricultural production. Ceramics appeared in Fukui Prefecture in the 6th century ad with the manufacture of Sue stoneware, fired in tunnel kilns (anagama; see Japan §IX 2., (ii), (a)). In the 12th century, however, increased agricultural production, coupled with the introduction of new technology, encouraged the development of a higher-fired brown stoneware. The use of a tunnel kiln with a dividing pillar, the manufacture of jars with everted rims and incised horizontal bands and the use of the coil-and-paddle technique in the early Echizen wares point to origins in kilns such as ...

Article

En  

Samuel C. Morse

School of Japanese sculpture that flourished during the 12th century. It was founded by and named after Ensei (d 1134) and was one of the two major schools of Japanese Buddhist sculpture of the later Heian period (794–1185), the other being the In school (see also Japan, §V, 3, (iii), (c)). Ensei was a pupil of Chōsei (d 1091), the chief disciple of Jōchō, who had developed a refined, elegant style that satisfied both the secular and spiritual pretensions of the 11th-century aristocracy. Sculptors of both the En and In schools were patronized by the most influential figures of the capital of Heian (now Kyoto), at whose behest they rejected innovation in favour of close replication of the formal qualities of Jōchō’s imagery. They worked mainly in wood. Ensei’s only surviving work is a seated Healing Buddha (Jap. Yakushi, Skt Bhaishajyaguru; 1103...

Article

Sadako Ohki, Cecil H. Uyehara, Nicole Fabricand-Person and Joan H. O’Mara

Japanese family of Courtiers, regents (sesshō, kanpaku) and artists. They wielded enormous power during much of the Heian period (ad 794–1185) and played a leading role in the regency government (sekkan seiji; ad 967–1068). The years 894–1185 are often referred to as the Fujiwara period. The Fujiwara clan was founded by Nakatomi no Kamatari (614–69), who had assisted Prince Naka no Oe (later Emperor Tenji, reg 661–72) in the coup of 645 that eliminated the rival Soga family. In 669 Tenji bestowed on Nakatomi the name Fujiwara (‘wisteria field’). The Fujiwara reached the height of their power with the regent Fujiwara no Michinaga (966–1028), after whose time Fujiwara dominance at court began to decline. The family also produced a number of skilled calligraphers who were instrumental in establishing or influencing styles of aristocratic Japanese-style (Wayō) calligraphy, such as those of the ...

Article

(b Bianliang [modern Kaifeng], Henan Province, 1107; reg 1127–62; d Lin’an, now Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 1187).

Chinese calligrapher, art patron and founding emperor of the Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279). He was the ninth son of the Song artist–emperor Huizong and inherited his father’s artistic talent. He played an important role in encouraging the arts, reviving imperial patronage and setting a standard for his royal successors. Gaozong received a thorough classical education, and his artistic interests were not discouraged, for he was not expected ever to rule. When his oldest brother, the Emperor Qinzong (reg 1126–7), was captured by the Jürchen nomads, founders of the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in the north, Gaozong took the throne in order to perpetuate the Song dynasty in the south. He rallied support among the literati and the military by bestowing his calligraphic transcriptions of carefully selected texts on specific individuals. His calligraphy enjoyed widespread familiarity and influence after he started distributing rubbings of his works to successful ...

Article

Xia Gui  

Richard Edwards

[Hsia Kuei; zi Yuyu]

(b Lin’an [modern Hangzhou], Zhejiang Province; fl c. 1195–c. 1235).

Chinese painter. Xia Gui and his close contemporary Ma Yuan are considered the two greatest painters of the Southern Song (1127–1279) Academy (see China, People’s Republic of, §V, 4, (i), (c)). They established the Ma–Xia style, a term that came to describe not merely their own work but an entire aesthetic.

Early writers provide little biographical information about Xia Gui. Zhou Mi, in his account of the Southern Song capital Lin’an (c. 1280), included both Xia and Ma Yuan in a list of ten painters under the heading Yuqian huayuan (‘Art academy in the imperial presence’). Zhuang Su wrote (1298) that Xia was a zhihou (usher) in the Academy under Emperor Lizong (reg 1225–64) and that he painted landscapes and figures. This is partly corroborated by the deciphering of a seal belonging to Lizong’s empress, Xie, on a handscroll of Twelve Views of Landscape...

Article

Richard Edwards

[Su Han-ch’en]

(fl c. Lin’an [modern Hangzhou], Zhejiang Province, 1131–c. 1170).

Chinese painter. Su may originally have come from northern China, for the compiler Xia Wenyan claimed that Su was from Bianliang (modern Kaifeng), in Henan Province, the Northern Song (960–1127) capital, and that he served in Emperor Huizong’s Hanlin Painting Academy there from 1119 to 1125, learning figure painting from a court painter, Liu Zonggu. Xia noted that subsequent to the Jin conquest in 1125 and the removal of the court to the south, sometime after 1131 Su was reinstated at Lin’an, the Southern Song (1127–1279) capital (see China, People’s Republic of §V 4., (i), (c)). In 1163, after painting a Buddha image for Emperor Xiaozong (reg 1163–1190), Su was elevated to the rank of chengxin lang (‘Gentleman of trust’). However, Zhuang Su claimed that Su Hanchen was from Qiantang (the Hangzhou area), mentioned only the position of zhihou (usher) and gave no dates, nor any hint of emperors served. These somewhat contradictory accounts at least concur in suggesting that Su reached full maturity in Hangzhou under Emperor ...

Article

Julia K. Murray

[Ma Ho-chih]

(fl Qiantang, Lin’an [now Hangzhou], Zhejiang Province, c. second half of 12th century).

Chinese painter. A painter of classical themes at the Southern Song (1127–1279) court in Lin’an, modern Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, Ma was known for his distinctive brushwork, marked by variations in hand pressure. However, the details of his life are obscure; sparse and contradictory information appears in different sources. A native of the Hangzhou area, Ma probably came from a humble family and did not interact with prominent men of letters, whose occasional poems and other writings might otherwise have mentioned his name.

Zhuang Su records that Ma studied for the national-level civil service examination to gain the title of jinshi and that he rose to become an executive in the Board of Works. A competing tradition, originating with a list of court painters compiled by the connoisseur Zhou Mi (1232–98), places Ma in the Imperial Academy rather than among educated officials working in the esteemed literati painting tradition (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Chin.: ‘hidden’]

Term applied to Chinese porcelain where the decoration can only be seen under a clear glaze or through transmitted light. Such decoration is sometimes found in Song dynasty (960–1279) Ding and Xing wares, and becomes very common in the white porcelain of the Yongle period (1403–24) of the Ming dynasty. By the mid-16th century ...

Article

Mary S. Lawton

[Hui-tsung]

(b Tianshui, Gansu Province, 1082; reg 1101–26; d Wuguocheng, Yilan, Heilongjiang Province, 1135). Chinese ruler and painter. The last emperor of the Northern Song period (960–1127), he was the 11th son of the emperor Shenzong (reg 1068–85). Huizong is considered to be the only accomplished artist in a line of emperors who all shared an interest in the arts. The fall of the Northern Song dynasty is usually attributed to Huizong’s neglect of his official duties in favour of religious and cultural pursuits. This preoccupation is described in miscellaneous notes of Deng Chun (fl 1127–67) in the Hua ji (‘Painting continued’; 1167) and by Tang Hou (fl 1322) in the Gujin huajian (‘Mirror of past and present painting’; 1320s), as well as in later chronicles such as the Tuhui baojian (‘Precious mirror for examining painting’; preface dated 1365) by Xia Wenyan....

Article

In  

Samuel C. Morse

Major school of Japanese Buddhist sculpture of the late Heian (ad 794–1185) and early Kamakura (1185–1333) periods (see Japan, §V, 3, (iii)). The school took its name from Injō (d 1108), who was the chief disciple of Kakujō (d 1077), son of Jōchō, who had developed a gentle, elegant style of wood sculpture suited to the refined tastes of the mid-Heian aristocracy of the capital (modern Kyoto). Art historians generally consider Kakujō to have been the first-generation master of the school, which specialized in producing for their patrons close formal replicas of Jōchō’s imagery. There were two workshops (bussho) of the In school in Kyoto: the Shichijō–Ōmiya workshop, established by Injō, and the Rokujō–Madenokōji workshop, set up in the mid-12th century. Initially in competition with the other main exponent of Jōchō’s style, the En school, the In was pre-eminent in the second half of the 12th century. After this, the work of the school became increasingly mannered and began to decline in popularity. In the early Kamakura period it was eclipsed by the dynamic realism of the ...

Article

Yi Sŏng-mi

[cha Misu ; childhood name Tŭggok ]

(b Inch-on, Kyŏnggi Province, 1152; d 1220).

Korean literati painter, calligrapher and writer . He wrote the P’ahanjip (Chin. Poxian ji: ‘Breaking the doldrums’), a collection of poems and miscellaneous stories in the sihwa (Chin. shihua) literary genre. Active in the Koryŏ period (918–1392), he was born into a well-to-do family; he became a monk but soon abandoned the religious life, passing the civil service examination in 1180. Because of his literary talent and excellence in calligraphy, he served in the Office of Compilation of History. None of his painting or calligraphy has survived, but he was supposed to have excelled in the cursive and clerical scripts and learned ink bamboo painting from An Ch’i-min, another literati painter of the Koryŏ period. According to a poem written by him on his own ink bamboo painting and recorded in the P’ahanjip, he considered himself an incarnation of Wen Tong , the Chinese ink bamboo painter of the Northern Song period (...

Article

Masayuki Miura

[Jap. Itsukushima jinja]

Japanese Shinto shrine in Miyajima, Saeki Province, Hiroshima Prefecture. It is 15 km south-west of Hiroshima on the island of Itsukushima, one island among many in the Seto Inland Sea. The island has traditionally been included among the three most beautiful sites in Japan. The name Itsukushima (Majestic Island) denotes a place where kami (Shinto deities) are worshipped, and in ancient times the entire island was acknowledged as a sacred site. The shrine is dedicated to the worship of the goddess Ichikishima hime no mikoto, who ensures safety at sea, and her two sisters, as well as to the five male ‘cousin’ deities who are collectively called Marōdo no kami (‘guest gods’). At the shrine, there are two honden (‘main sanctuaries’); Honsha (‘head’ or ‘main shrine’) for the worship of the three goddesses; and the Marōdo Jinja (‘guest shrine’) for the worship of the male guest deities. Many of the buildings of the Itsukushima Shrine, which are constructed of wood, are located on the sandy beach of Itsukushima cove. During high tide the sea-water flows under the floor of the buildings, making the shrine appear to float on water. Itsukushima is the only shrine in Japan sited in such a manner. Conceptually and architecturally, its closest parallels are in Amida Halls such as the Phoenix Hall (Hōōdō) at Byōdōin....