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Richard L. Wilson

Japanese region in Buzen Province (now part of Fukuoka Prefect.), northern Kyushu, where stonewares were manufactured at various sites from c. 1600 (see also Japan, §IX, 3, (i), (d)).

The first potter to make Agano ware was the Korean master Chon’gye (Jap. Sonkai; 1576–1654). Deported to Kyushu during one of the Japanese invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597, he entered the service of Hosokawa Tadaoki (1563–1645), the newly appointed governor of Buzen. On the completion of Tadaoki’s fortress at Kokura (now Kitakyushu), Chon’gye built the Saienba kiln, probably within the castle precincts. A site thought to be Saienba was found beneath Myōkōji, the temple that replaced the castle in 1679, and excavations took place between 1979 and 1983. Sherds of both tea ceremony and everyday wares have been found there; they have transparent glazes made with a wood-ash flux, opaque glazes made with a straw-ash flux or brown-black glazes pigmented with iron oxide. Inscriptions on surviving pieces and entries in contemporary diaries indicate that these early products were also called Buzen or Kokura ware. After a few years the Saienba kiln closed, and ...


James Cahill

[Chin. Xin’an pai]

Term used to refer to a group of painters, mostly landscapists, active in Anhui Province chiefly in the second half of the 17th century, early in the Qing period (1644–1911). The Chinese name refers to the region of Xin’an in south-eastern Anhui, where the artists were mostly concentrated. Anhui was prominent in the production of craft and trade goods, including paper, lacquer, brushes and ink-cakes, before it became a centre for painters. From the early 17th century the finest woodblock cutting and printing were done here, rivalled only by nearby Nanjing. Some Anhui artists of the late Ming (1368–1644), notably Ding Yunpeng, contributed designs for pictorial prints, and the spare, precise linear patterns of Anhui printing must have been a factor behind the popularity of related painting styles among local artists (see also China, People’s Republic of, §XIV, 21).

Another important factor in the formation of the school and the stylistic direction it took was the patronage of the wealthy Huizhou merchants, who by the late Ming period controlled most of the commerce in the lower Yangzi River area. Their passion for collecting antiquities, especially works of calligraphy and painting by prestigious masters of the past, is attested in writings of their time; the prices paid for certain kinds of paintings by respected literati masters of the Yuan (...



Hiroko Nishida

Region in Japan, now part of Saga Prefecture, and the name of a type of porcelain first produced there during the early Edo period (1600–1868). The ware was originally known as Imari yaki (‘Imari ware’) because it was shipped from the port of Imari (Saga Prefect.). During the Meiji period (1868–1912) porcelain was produced throughout the country. The need to distinguish it from other porcelain wares led to the use of the name Arita (Arita yaki). As a result, the names Imari and Arita wares were used interchangeably. In the West, Arita porcelain was known by several names, including Imari, Amari, Old Japan and Kakiemon (see Japan, §IX, 3, (iii)).

Porcelain production is said to have begun in Japan in 1616, when the Korean ceramicist Ri Sanpei [Jap. Kanagae Sanbei] (1579–1655), who had been brought to Japan after Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s invasions of Korea (...


Gordon Campbell

Western name for Chinese porcelain of the Kangxi period (1662–1722) imported by Dutch merchants through the Dutch trading station at Batavia (now Jakarta). This porcelain, which was brown-glazed, decorated with panels and usually painted in blue, was imitated by European manufacturers, notably at Meissen and Leeds, and these imitations are known as Batavia ware....



Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....


Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[Tai Pen-hsiao; zi Wuzhan; hao Ying’a]

(b Hezhou, Anhui Province, 1621; d 1693).

Chinese painter. His father, Dai Zhong (1602–46), a late Ming-dynasty (1368–1644) loyalist, moved his family to Nanjing in 1632. Political unrest forced them to move in 1637 and several times thereafter, always poor and often hungry. In 1645, having heard of the Manchu conquest of Nanjing, Dai Zhong helped organize resistance to the invading army but was later wounded in battle. Dai Benxiao was able to take his father back to Hezhou, but he died the following year. Thirty years later, Dai Benxiao built a commemorative shrine to his father and to Huilan, a Chan Buddhist martyr of the Southern Song period (1127–1279) whom Zhong revered.

Needing money, Dai Benxiao turned to painting. He travelled to view and paint the famous mountains Hua, Lu and Tai. Dai knew a number of contemporary artists, including Hongren, the foremost master of the Anhui school, whom he met in ...


Wu Bin  

Dawn Ho Delbanco

revised by Katharine Burnett

[Wu Pin; zi Wenzhong; hao Zhixian]

(b Putian, Fujian Province, c. 1543; d c. 1626).

Chinese painter. One of the most talented late Ming (c. 1570–1644) professional artists active in Nanjing and Beijing, whose paintings of landscapes and Buddhist figural compositions present an alternative mode to the prevailing style established by 16th-century amateur scholar–painters.

Under the Jiajing (reg 1522–1566), and Wanli (reg 1573–1620) emperors, Wu Bin served in various court appointments as secretary in Nanjing and Beijing. In this capacity, he rose to the position of Drafter in the Secretariat in the Grand Secretariat, the highest division in the Ming imperial bureaucracy. This position would have utilized Wu’s skills as a calligrapher, recording court documents in the requisite seal script. It is likely that it was through this post that Wanli would have come to know Wu and his talent as a painter. And while in the capital cities, Wu Bin would have had the opportunity to meet other artists, notably Mi Wanzhong (...



Sofía Sanabrais

Name used in Mexico and throughout Latin America for a folding screen. The word biombo is a transliteration of the Japanese word for folding screen—byōbu—an acknowledgement of its place of origin. The Japanese byōbu has long been a quintessential example of Japanese art and was a common diplomatic gift to foreign courts in the early modern period (see Screen, §1). Referred to as the ‘face of Japanese diplomacy’, byōbu were presented as ambassadors of Japanese culture to places as far off as London and Mexico City. Byōbu also found their way to New Spain as exports in the Manila Galleon trade. In 17th-century Mexico the Japanese screen was admired by artists and patrons, and was adapted and reinterpreted on a grand scale. The unique format of the biombo provided new ways for artists to depict subject-matter, and locally made biombos began appearing in the archival record in the first years of the 17th century. ...



Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....


William H. Coaldrake

(b 1574; d 1646).

Japanese master builder. He was the hereditary head of the Kōra family, exponents of a graciously curvilinear architectural style known as Zenshūyō (‘Zen sect style’) or Karayō (‘Chinese style’, influenced by the architecture of Song-period China). He was chief master builder to the Tokugawa shogunate of the Edo period (1600–1868) during the most prolific era of official state projects in the first half of the 17th century, and was in charge of the most important architectural projects of the age, for which he was rewarded with the court title of Bungo no Kami. From the Sangedatsumon (‘Salvation gatehouse’) of Zōjōji, Edo (now Tokyo; destr., rebuilt after World War II), built in 1605 under the supervision of Nakai Masakiyo, Munehiro went on to work on daimyo palaces in the city of Edo. In 1632 the family practice under Munehiro was given the privilege of building the main hall (...


Hong Sŏn-p’yo

(fl 17th century).

Korean painter. He was born into a family of hereditary painters (hwawŏn) at the Bureau of Painting (Tohwasŏ). After he, in turn, entered the Bureau, he became an instructor. It is known that in 1682 he travelled with Korean envoys to Japan, with the job of recording the mission. In its characteristics Ham’s Dark Bamboo Drawing, held in Japan, confirms him as an artist active in the mid-Chosŏn period (...


Celia Carrington Riely

[Ch’en Chi-ju; zi Zhongshun; hao Meigong, Meidaoren, Migong]

(b Huating, Jiangsu Province [modern Songjiang, Shanghai Municipality], 16 Dec 1558; d 19 Oct 1639). Chinese editor, writer, calligrapher and painter. He exemplified the literati ideal of the accomplished gentleman–scholar who rejected the sordid world of political involvement and devoted himself to a life of literary, artistic and philosophical pursuit. At the age of 28, having passed the prefectural examination, the first important step leading to a career in government office, Chen renounced official life in a dramatic gesture, by burning his Confucian cap and gown. Thereafter he lived at country retreats at Kunshan and then Mt She, near Huating in Jiangsu Province: entertaining guests; writing and editing; composing the poems, prefaces, epitaphs and biographies for which he was in constant demand; and travelling to places of scenic beauty in the company of friends.

Chen followed the lead of his close friend Dong Qichang, the foremost painter, calligrapher and connoisseur of the late Ming period (...


Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

Term derived from chinois (Fr.: ‘Chinese’) denoting a type of European art dominated by Chinese or pseudo-Chinese ornamental motifs. The term is most often applied to decorative arts produced from the second half of the 17th century to the early 19th, when trading contacts between Europe and East Asia were at their height.

Although overland and sea routes had brought a steady supply of Asian spices, silk, furs, ivory and other commodities to the ancient world, it was Marco Polo who first fired the imagination of the West with his description of his travels and experiences at Kublai Khan’s court that he published after his return to Venice in 1295. Other travellers also recorded their tales, the most famous being the pseudonymous ‘Sir John Mandeville’ whose Travels was published in Lyons in 1480. Its fairy-tale evocation of the Near East and East Asia was translated into every European language and fuelled a longing for ‘Cathay’. This romantic vision, taking the various forms of Chinoiserie, ...


Burglind Jungmann

[cha Konggan ; ho Naong, among others]

(b 1578; d 1607).

Korean painter . Active during the middle of the Chosŏn period, he came from a family of painters extending back to his great-grandfather. His grandfather, Yi Pae-ryŏn, is nowadays commonly identified with the court painter Yi Sang-chwa, while landscape paintings survive from both his father, Yi Sung-hyo (b 1536), who died at an early age, and his uncle, Yi Hŭng-hyo (1537–93), who brought him up. Yi Chŏng’s talent for painting manifested itself in his childhood. In 1589 he went to the Kumgang Mountains in central Korea, where he painted landscapes and heavenly kings on the walls of Changan Temple two years later. A farewell poem written by his teacher Ch’oe Ip (1539–1612) indicates that Yi Chŏng had also travelled to China. The painter died after a heavy drinking session before he had reached the age of thirty.

A small Landscape (album leaf, ink on paper, 345×230 mm; Seoul, N. Mus.) bears the seal ‘...


[cha Chungsǒp ; ho T’anun ]

(b 1541; d after 1625).

Korean painter. Active during the middle of the Chosŏn period, he was a great-great-grandson of King Sejong and bore the noble title Sŏgyang-jŏng. His work consists primarily of monochrome bamboo paintings. This genre was cultivated fairly early in Korea, mainly under the influence of the Chinese literati painters of the Northern Song period ( see China, People’s Republic of, §V, 4, (ii) ). From the beginning of the Chosŏn period bamboo constituted the most important examination subject for the Bureau of Painting (Tohwasŏ). Yi Chŏng’s early paintings display the influence of painters of the Chinese Yuan period (1279–1368), such as Li Kan. Soon, however, elements of contemporary Ming (1368–1644) painting, especially in the style of the Zhe school, as exemplified by Zhu Duan, also appeared in his work. For instance, Yi Chŏng moved the subject in a similar way from the centre to the side of his painting and combined the bamboo motif with freely drawn sketches of boulders. In contrast to his Chinese models, he joined the bamboo leaves into bundles, which he spread out rhythmically over the entire surface of the picture. Consequently, the stems in the background with light ink tones were strongly set off from the darker ones in the foreground, making them appear as shadows and producing an effective expansion in depth (...


Junghee Lee


Korean dynasty that ruled the Korean peninsula from 1392 to 1910. The founder of the dynasty, Yi Sŏng-gye, posthumously known as King T’aejo (reg 1392–8), established Neo-Confucianism as the official ideology, encouraging a modest and practical lifestyle. Thus the patronage of extravagant art was discouraged, and the status of the artist was reduced. Buddhism was often zealously suppressed but remained the private religion of the palace women, the common people and even some kings. T’aejo, for example, built Sŏgwang Temple in north-eastern Korea, the area of his origin; King Sejo (reg 1455–68) built the marble pagoda of the Wŏngak Temple in Seoul in 1466; and the Dowager Queen Munjŏng patronized painters (see Korea, §IV, 2, (i), (d)) and supported temple constructions during the reign of King Myŏngjong (reg 1545–67).

With the establishment of the capital at Hanyang (now Seoul), T’aejo built the Kyŏngbok and Ch’angdŏk palaces and city walls in ...


Zhu Da  

Wen Fong

[ Chu Ta ; Chuanqi ; hao Bada Shanren, Pa-ta Shan-jen ]

(b 1626, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province; d 1705).

Chinese painter and poet . A descendant of the imperial Zhu family of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) and a leading artist of the early Qing period (1644–1911), Zhu Da painted flowers, birds and landscapes in a distinctive and highly dramatic calligraphic style ( see fig. ). His connections with the previous dynasty led him to flee Nanchang after the Manchu conquest of China in 1644. Adopting the sobriquet Chuanqi, Zhu Da became a Buddhist priest and soon a respected Buddhist master, quickly attaining the position of abbot. He also became an accomplished poet and painter; his earliest extant work is an album of 15 leaves (1659; Taipei, N. Pal. Mus.). In 1672, after the death of his Buddhist master, Abbot Hong min, Zhu Da reliquished his solitary monastic existence to pursue his fortune as an itinerant monk-artist. He joined the coterie of Hu Yitang, magistrate of Linchuan County, and participated in the splendid poetry parties held in ...


J. Hardy

(b Spa, Belgium, 1657; d Bensberg, 1715).

Belgian Japanner, active in Berlin. He practised as a decorative artist in Spa before moving in the 1680s to Berlin, where he became famous for his painted furniture. By 1687 his proficiency in gilding and decorative painting, particularly japanning, which imitated lacquerwork from East Asia (see Lacquer, §I, 2), gained him the post of Kammerkünstler to Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg. On the accession in 1688 of Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg (after 1701, Frederick I of Prussia) he retained responsibility for interior decoration and furnishings at the court and in 1696 was appointed Intendant des Ornements. His brother Jacques Dagly (1665–1729) joined him in the management of the firm, which provided gilded, polychromed and japanned cabinets as well as such other furnishings as treen painted to imitate porcelain for the royal palaces. Their clients included harpsichord manufacturers as well as the nobility, and such was their fame that in Paris their cabinets became known as ‘Berlin’ cabinets. They embellished snuff-boxes, cane knobs, sword guards and tin wares and invented methods of applying ...



Wen Fong

[Tao-chi; zi Shitao, Shih-t’ao]

(b Guilin, Guangxi Province, 1642; d Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1707).

Chinese painter and calligrapher. In modern Western writing he is most commonly referred to as Daoji or Shitao, although he himself preferred the name Yuanji. He was a descendant of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) imperial Zhu family. In 1645, in the face of invading Manchu troops, a family servant fled with Daoji to nearby Quanzhou, Guangxi Province, and in 1647 they found refuge in Buddhist monastic life. A large number of the many sobriquets Daoji adopted sprang from his connection with Buddhism.

Around 1650 Daoji and his servant left Quanzhou, travelling by boat and on foot around Hubei, Hunan, northern Jiangxi, Anhui and Zhejiang. At this time, c. 1655, Daoji began to paint, beginning with subjects such as orchids. In 1664, at Mt Kun, Songjiang, Jiangsu Province, he became the disciple of a powerful Chan Buddhist priest, Lüan Benyue, who in 1665 instructed him to resume his wandering life. After a visit to Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, Daoji visited Mt Huang, Anhui Province, in ...


Norihisa Mizuta

[Ippō; Shiin; San’unsuigetsu Shujin; Ryūkōkaku; Gyokujundō; Seishūken]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1665; d Edo, 1737).

Japanese seal-carver and calligrapher. The Ikenaga were a powerful provincial family in Odawara, Sagami Province (now Kanagawa Prefect.). In 1593 they moved to Edo, where they ran a pharmacy as well as being the head family of their residential district. Dōun was adopted into the Ikenaga family and became its fifth-generation head. He enjoyed learning from an early age and studied with Sakakibara Kōshū (1655–1706); his close friends included such seal-carvers as Hosoi Kōtaku (also a distinguished calligrapher) and Imai Junsai (1658–1718). His seal album Ittō banshō (‘One blade, a myriad images’; 1713; Japan, N. Mizuta priv. col.; see Japan, §XVII, 20) was the forerunner of artistic seal albums in Japan. It is in four volumes, the first two showing 328 seals carved in different styles, based on the Senjimon (the ‘Thousand-character’ Chinese classic); the third is a collection of the impressions of 170 private seals in Dōun’s own collection. Prefaces from major scholars and Koreans and Chinese resident in Japan, as well as Dōun’s own prefatory remarks, are bound together in another volume. Only 100 copies of the ...