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Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Viipuri (now Vyborg, Russia) 1911; d Santorini, Greece, 1989).

Finnish ceramic and glass designer. In 1945 he joined Arabia porcelain factory, where he dispensed with the notion of the china set in favour of mix and match tableware. His best known series was ‘Kilta’ (designed in 1948, sold from 1953 and relaunched in 1981 as ‘Teema’), which was available in several colours and was enormously practical: he dispensed with decorative rims and shaped the surfaces so that they could be easily stacked. He also worked for the Nuutajärvi glassworks, for whom he produced both functional glass and decorative pieces. In both ceramics and glass, Kaj was probably the most influential designer of the 20th century....

Article

Phylis Floyd

French term used to describe a range of European borrowings from Japanese art. It was coined in 1872 by the French critic, collector and printmaker Philippe Burty ‘to designate a new field of study—artistic, historic and ethnographic’, encompassing decorative objects with Japanese designs (similar to 18th-century Chinoiserie), paintings of scenes set in Japan, and Western paintings, prints and decorative arts influenced by Japanese aesthetics. Scholars in the 20th century have distinguished japonaiserie, the depiction of Japanese subjects or objects in a Western style, from Japonisme, the more profound influence of Japanese aesthetics on Western art.

There has been wide debate over who was the first artist in the West to discover Japanese art and over the date of this discovery. According to Bénédite, Félix Bracquemond first came under the influence of Japanese art after seeing the first volume of Katsushika Hokusai’s Hokusai manga (‘Hokusai’s ten thousand sketches’, 1814) at the printshop of ...

Article

Jincun  

Bent Nielsen

[Chin-ts’un; Kin-ts’un]

Site in Henan Province, China, c. 115 km north-east of Luoyang. Eight tombs of the late Warring States period (403–221 bc) were discovered there. Lavishly furnished with objects of jade, glass, gold, silver, bronze and similar materials, the tombs were looted by local people from 1928 to 1931. Some 300 items (Toronto, Royal Ont. Mus.) were collected and described by Bishop William Charles White, a Canadian who was stationed at nearby Kaifeng at the time. A selection of about 200 objects from private and public collections all over the world was subsequently published (see Umehara). Several of the artefacts contained in the graves were inscribed and thus can be ascribed to specific centuries and feudal states of the Warring States period, leading to some disagreement as to the origin of the tombs: they are considered either to have been constructed by the House of Zhou and to contain presents and tributary objects from the feudal states, or to have been constructed by the state of Qin and to contain war booty....

Article

Frances Wood

Hollow brick platform constructed against the interior façade wall of houses in northern China, beneath the lattice windows (see China, People’s Republic of §II 5., (ii)). Heated from the inside by small, free-standing braziers or flues connected to cooking stoves, kang are usually used as sleeping areas at night and seats during the day. They are usually the width of one bay (see China, People’s Republic of §II 1., (i)) and about 1 m high and 1.5 m deep. Kang are not found in the warmer areas of southern China, south of the Yangzi River. Evidence from pottery models of houses found in tombs suggests that kang existed during the Han period (206 bcad 220); they are still found in the countryside, though they are rare in cities. The decline of kang in urban areas probably began with the introduction of movable Western-style furniture in the 1920s....

Article

Gordon Campbell

[from Fr. potiche: ‘glass vase’]

The mid-19th-century fashion for imitating Japanese or other porcelain by covering the inner surface of glass vessels with designs on paper or sheet gelatine. Those who adopted the craze were called potichomanists.

A Handbook to Potishomachia, or the Art of Ornamenting and Decorating Glass, Giving to it the Appearance of Porcelain...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1827; d 1891).

French glassmaker and ceramicist . He was an early advocate of Japonisme, commissioning Bracquemond family, §1 ’s ‘Japanese’ service (1866) and from 1867 running a studio in Paris, where he imitated Chinese carved jade in glass and applied the decorative techniques of Japanese pottery to glass.

K. Schneck: François Eugene Rousseau: Keramik und Glas an der Schwelle zum Jugendstil...

Article

Spoilum  

Patrick Conner

[Spilem; Spillem]

(fl Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 1770–1810).

Chinese painter for the Western export market. The artist known to Westerners as Spoilum – his Chinese name is uncertain – is first recorded in 1774, as the painter of a ‘reverse-glass’ portrait of a Western merchant. By the following decade he was painting in oils on canvas. Oil paint was an unfamiliar medium in the context of the Chinese pictorial tradition, and its use stemmed from Western influences. However, the Cantonese export painters of the late 18th century rapidly acquired a facility in this medium and, in the case of Spoilum, an individuality that could be regarded, in Western terms, as evidence of original genius.

Spoilum’s portraits, of Chinese and Western sitters alike, share certain idiosyncrasies: a sharply defined outline, a direct, almost quizzical expression, carefully observed costume details and, in the background, a markedly pale passage above the right shoulder. Typical examples are the portraits of the Cantonese silk merchant Eshing (before ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1915).

Japanese industrial designer , active in the USA. He worked in Charlotte Perriand ’s Japanese office, and in the 1950s emigated to the USA, where he designed two stools that have since become famous: the fibreglass ‘Elephant’ stool (1954), which was the first all-plastic stool, and the ‘Butterfly’ stool (...