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Hiroko Nishida

Region in Japan, now part of Saga Prefecture, and the name of a type of porcelain first produced there during the early Edo period (1600–1868). The ware was originally known as Imari yaki (‘Imari ware’) because it was shipped from the port of Imari (Saga Prefect.). During the Meiji period (1868–1912) porcelain was produced throughout the country. The need to distinguish it from other porcelain wares led to the use of the name Arita (Arita yaki). As a result, the names Imari and Arita wares were used interchangeably. In the West, Arita porcelain was known by several names, including Imari, Amari, Old Japan and Kakiemon (see Japan, §IX, 3, (iii)).

Porcelain production is said to have begun in Japan in 1616, when the Korean ceramicist Ri Sanpei [Jap. Kanagae Sanbei] (1579–1655), who had been brought to Japan after Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s invasions of Korea (...


Philip Stott, Ian Glover, John Guy, Michael Hitchcock, Ian Brown and Hiram W. Woodward jr

Region comprising the south-eastern portion of the Asian mainland and many thousands of islands to the south and east of it lying between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea (see fig.). At the end of the 20th century it consisted of ten independent states. Of these, five—Burma (Myanmar), Thailand, Kingdom of, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, Socialist Republic of—constitute mainland South-east Asia, and five—Malaysia, Singapore, Republic of, Indonesia, Republic of, Brunei and the Philippines, Republic of the—constitute insular or maritime South-east Asia. The different historical development and cultural evolution of these ten states and their predecessors in the region (e.g. Angkor, Champa, Pagan), and the ethnic diversity of their populations are reflected in their arts, which are therefore discussed in detail in separate country surveys. However, they share a number of important elements of their culture and certain basic art forms and techniques, many of them already apparent in the prehistoric period, and these are considered here, together with certain general issues that are also common to the whole region....



Heather Stoddard-Karmay, Gilles Béguin, Deborah E. Klimburg-Salter, N. G. Ronge, Veronika Ronge, Paola Mortari Vergara Caffarelli, Chandra L. Reedy, Jane Casey Singer, Günter Grönbold, Philip Denwood, Joe Cribb, John Clarke, Mireille Helffer, Yoshiro Imaeda, David Jones and Amy Heller

[Tib. Bod; Chin. Xizang Zizhiqu; Tibetan Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China]

Himalayan region bordered by India, Nepal, Bhutan and Burma to the west and south and by China to the north and east. An independent country until 1951, it is presently controlled by China. With a historical cultural relevance extending far beyond the borders of the present Tibetan Autonomous Region, Tibet and its art—largely based on Vajrayana Buddhism—are becoming increasingly better known worldwide. The activities of an articulate Tibetan community in exile since the late 1950s and a growing international interest in Tibetan Buddhism have given impetus to the appreciation of Tibetan culture, as have spectacular special exhibitions of its art (see §VIII below).

D. L. Snell and H. E. Richardson: A Cultural History of Tibet (London, 1968/R London and Boulder, 1980) R. A. Stein: Tibetan Civilisation (London, 1972, 2/Paris, 1981) G. Tucci: Tibet (Geneva, 1975) S. Batchelor: The Tibet Guide (London, 1987)

The Tibetan language belongs to the Tibeto-Burman group of languages; the ...