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Marco Livingstone

(b London, Jan 29, 1936; d London, Sept 29, 2005).

English painter and printmaker. He began his studies in 1956 at Chelsea School of Art, London, continuing at the Royal College of Art (1960–63), one year below the students identified as originators of Pop art. A reticent man, he remained wary of being identified with any movement but came to be associated with Pop art chiefly through his participation in the New Generation exhibition at the Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, in 1964.

In the early 1960s Caulfield’s painting was characterized by flat images of objects paired with angular geometric devices or isolated against unmodulated areas of colour. In Portrait of Juan Gris (1963; priv. col., see Livingstone, 1981 exh. cat., no. 5) Caulfield paid tribute to the Cubist painter, whose work, with that of other early modernists such as Léger and Magritte, set the terms for the stylization and formal rigour of his own still-lifes, landscapes and interiors. He adopted the anonymous technique of the sign painter, dispensing with visible brushwork and distracting detail and simplifying the representation of objects to a basic black outline in order to present ordinary images as emblems of a mysterious reality. He deliberately chose subjects that seemed hackneyed or ambiguous in time: not only traditional genres (e.g. ...

Article

(b Monroe, WA, July 5, 1940).

American painter and printmaker. He studied (1960–65) at the University of Washington, Seattle, at Yale University, and at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna. During this period he painted biomorphic abstract works, influenced by the avant-garde American art of the previous two decades. After a brief experiment with figurative constructions, he began copying black-and-white photographs of a female nude in colour on to canvas. After abandoning this approach he used a black-and-white palette, which resulted in the 6.7 m long Big Nude (1967–8; artist’s col., see Lyons and Storr, p. 14). Finding this subject too ‘interesting’, he turned to neutral, black-and-white head-and-shoulder photographs as models, which he again reproduced in large scale on canvas, as in Self-portrait (1968; Minneapolis, MN, Walker A. Cent.). He incorporated every detail of the photograph and allowed himself no interpretative freedom. Working from photographs enabled him to realize the variations in focus due to changing depth of field, something impossible when working from life. He continued in the black-and-white style until ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Hartlepool, Cleveland, Oct 8, 1936).

English painter, draughtsman and printmaker. His childhood was spent in South Wales and from 1942 to 1960 in North Wales, near Wrexham. After studying at Wrexham School of Art (1960–61) and (as a Fine Art student) at the University of Reading (1961–4), he moved immediately to Liverpool, where he remained until 1982. During those years he taught at St Helens School of Art (1964–6) and in the Faculty of Art at Liverpool Polytechnic (1967–82). From 1970 to 1975 he painted in a Photorealist style, as in Scillonian Pumps (acrylic on canvas, 2.56×3.06 m, 1974; Southport, Atkinson A.G.), an uncannily still and empty view of a petrol station with overtones of the work of Edward Hopper. In 1978 he painted seven enormous portraits, all the same size (3.04×2.02 m), on commission from the Arts Council of Great Britain; shown together suspended in the concourse of Lime Street Station, Liverpool, as a single work entitled ...

Article

Mark W. Sullivan

(b Long Beach, CA, Nov 4, 1944).

American painter and printmaker. Eddy studied at the University of Hawaii in Honolulu (BFA, 1967, MFA, 1969) and came to prominence in the early 1970s as an exponent of Photorealism, producing airbrushed paintings based on photographs of automobiles (e.g. Untitled, 1971; Aachen, Neue Gal.), the displays in shop windows or still-lifes, as in New Shoes for H (1973; Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.). He treated similar subjects in screenprints and in colour lithographs such as Red Mercedes (1972; see 1973 exh. cat., p. 35). Rather than basing a painting or print on a single photograph, as was the case with other photorealists, Eddy would work from as many as 40 photographs to ensure a consistently sharp focus for his often spatially complex images.

From the 1980s Eddy’s focus shifted away from photorealism towards metaphysics, with images placed in porteic relationships to one another; describing his art as ‘echoing ecosystems’....

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b Mörigen, Switzerland, Mar 8, 1930).

Swiss painter and printmaker. From 1947 to 1950 Gertsch studied at the Max von Mühlenen School of Painting in Bern. During this time he had his first solo exhibition (Galerie Simmen, Bern, 1949). His early works were influenced by Pop art. In 1969 he made his first realist painting, Huaa …! (1969; dispersion on unprimed canvas, 1.70 × 2.61 m; see Ronte and Ammann, 1986, p. 89), taken from a magazine picture of David Hemmings on horseback in the anti-war film Sergeant in the Light Brigade. He quickly developed a photo-realist style with single and group portraits. These were very large paintings taken from photographs, predominantly of children and young people enjoying free time, painted from slides projected on the canvas. The series was concluded with the painting Patti Smith V (1979; acrylic on unprimed canvas, 2.57 × 3.91 m; see Mason and Ronte, 1989), one of five large paintings of the poet and rock musician, each painted with a meticulous photo-realism....