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Bojan Ivanov

(b Skopje, Feb 25, 1935).

Macedonian painter. In 1962 he graduated from the Academy of Arts in Belgrade, where he studied under the painter Ljubica Sokićh (b 1914). After returning to Skopje, Anastasov began to work in the field of non-figurative art. In the 1960s he focused on the structural qualities of the painting’s surface, which he rendered with layers of red and black impasto. By the end of the 1960s, stimulated by Photorealism, he abandoned crude brushwork and the traditional colours of Macedonian embroideries in favour of an urban sensibility. During the 1970s he exhibited works from his series Man and Skies (1974–6) and Man and Time (1977–9). In the 1980s he produced the series Man and Space, a statement on the human condition (e.g. Man and Space XXVI, 1981; Skopje, Mus. Contemp. A.), with numerous tiny, alienated human silhouettes populating immense interiors and empty spaces rendered in pale, attenuated colours. Between ...


Milan Ivelić

(b Valparaíso, Nov 8, 1936; d Taroudant, June 4, 2011).

Chilean painter and draughtsman. He studied painting in Santiago in 1947–8 with the Chilean painter Miguel Venegas, then lived in Spain from 1961 to 1972 before moving to Tangiers. His entire artistic career has been conducted outside his native country.

Bravo initially worked as a portrait painter, supporting himself in Spain through commissions, which also introduced him into Spanish high society. His sitters included General Franco and his family. Later, while still in Spain, he began painting packages and wrapped objects in a polished, highly detailed realist style bordering on Photorealism but consciously related to the Spanish still-life tradition represented by Zurbarán and Velázquez, whose work he greatly admired. He remarked that he hoped to be regarded as one of the few 20th-century painters to have respected the work of the Old Masters and learnt from it.

Working with both oil paints and pastels, after moving to Morocco, Bravo combined objects with human figures in interior spaces, displaying perfect control of the luminous atmosphere and the strict perspective. While his technical facility was undeniable, the ambiguity of his subject-matter and the mysteriousness of his settings, tempering the clarity of the figures and objects, led him beyond the mere reproduction of appearances. Unlike the Photorealists, who tended to present their images as straightforward visual evidence, Bravo used his motifs as a way of dealing with obsessions such as narcissism or the random meeting of figures unconnected in time. An illusory and confusing interplay between reality and representation is central to Bravo’s work, leaving the spectator unsure whether what he is seeing lies inside or outside the painting....


Marco Livingstone

(b London, Jan 29, 1936; d London, Sept 29, 2005).

English painter and printmaker. He began his studies in 1956 at Chelsea School of Art, London, continuing at the Royal College of Art (1960–63), one year below the students identified as originators of Pop art. A reticent man, he remained wary of being identified with any movement but came to be associated with Pop art chiefly through his participation in the New Generation exhibition at the Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, in 1964.

In the early 1960s Caulfield’s painting was characterized by flat images of objects paired with angular geometric devices or isolated against unmodulated areas of colour. In Portrait of Juan Gris (1963; priv. col., see Livingstone, 1981 exh. cat., no. 5) Caulfield paid tribute to the Cubist painter, whose work, with that of other early modernists such as Léger and Magritte, set the terms for the stylization and formal rigour of his own still-lifes, landscapes and interiors. He adopted the anonymous technique of the sign painter, dispensing with visible brushwork and distracting detail and simplifying the representation of objects to a basic black outline in order to present ordinary images as emblems of a mysterious reality. He deliberately chose subjects that seemed hackneyed or ambiguous in time: not only traditional genres (e.g. ...


Marco Livingstone

(b Hartlepool, Cleveland, Oct 8, 1936).

English painter, draughtsman and printmaker. His childhood was spent in South Wales and from 1942 to 1960 in North Wales, near Wrexham. After studying at Wrexham School of Art (1960–61) and (as a Fine Art student) at the University of Reading (1961–4), he moved immediately to Liverpool, where he remained until 1982. During those years he taught at St Helens School of Art (1964–6) and in the Faculty of Art at Liverpool Polytechnic (1967–82). From 1970 to 1975 he painted in a Photorealist style, as in Scillonian Pumps (acrylic on canvas, 2.56×3.06 m, 1974; Southport, Atkinson A.G.), an uncannily still and empty view of a petrol station with overtones of the work of Edward Hopper. In 1978 he painted seven enormous portraits, all the same size (3.04×2.02 m), on commission from the Arts Council of Great Britain; shown together suspended in the concourse of Lime Street Station, Liverpool, as a single work entitled ...


Francis Summers

(b Cheshire, 1946).

English sculptor and draughtsman. He studied painting at Hull and Manchester College of Art (1963–7), and then moved to London, where he studied at the Slade School of Art (1967–9). Davis’s early work, similar to some of the photorealist sculptors in America, such as Duane Hanson, involved casting figures and dressing them in clothes, for example Young Man (1969–71, London, Tate). He often made group scenarios that suggest of ritual, a suggestion enhanced by the formal clothes the figures wore and also by the masks or hats that Davies placed on them. In works such as Three Figures (1971; see 1985 exh. cat.) there is a dynamic of dominance and submission between the figures, with one kneeling on the floor, another standing on a chair in front of him. Davies subsequently moved away from the extreme realism of these works and began to make work that was more obviously sculpted, such as ...


John-Paul Stonard

(b Mörigen, Switzerland, Mar 8, 1930).

Swiss painter and printmaker. From 1947 to 1950 Gertsch studied at the Max von Mühlenen School of Painting in Bern. During this time he had his first solo exhibition (Galerie Simmen, Bern, 1949). His early works were influenced by Pop art. In 1969 he made his first realist painting, Huaa …! (1969; dispersion on unprimed canvas, 1.70 × 2.61 m; see Ronte and Ammann, 1986, p. 89), taken from a magazine picture of David Hemmings on horseback in the anti-war film Sergeant in the Light Brigade. He quickly developed a photo-realist style with single and group portraits. These were very large paintings taken from photographs, predominantly of children and young people enjoying free time, painted from slides projected on the canvas. The series was concluded with the painting Patti Smith V (1979; acrylic on unprimed canvas, 2.57 × 3.91 m; see Mason and Ronte, 1989), one of five large paintings of the poet and rock musician, each painted with a meticulous photo-realism....


José Corredor-Matheos

(b Tomelloso, La Mancha, Jan 6, 1936).

Spanish painter, draughtsman and sculptor. He lived in Madrid from 1949 and studied painting there from 1950 to 1955 at the Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. He came from a prosperous farming family and continued to reflect the cycles of nature in his work even after his move to the capital. His art evolved from primitivist and Surrealist influences to a strict realism that hinted at profound truths beyond surface appearances, for example in drawings such as Remainder from a Meal (1971; Baltimore, MD, Mus. A.) and in oil paintings such as Death Mask of César Vallejo (1962; Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.). He also occasionally produced sculptures, which he sometimes worked on over a long period, including life-size human figures in painted wood (e.g. Man and Woman, 1968–86; see 1986 exh. cat., pp. 10–11), editioned bronzes of heads and figures, and bronze reliefs cast from plaster originals (e.g. the ...


Style of painting popular in Europe and the USA mainly from the 1920s to 1940s, with some followers in the 1950s. It occupies a position between Surrealism and Photorealism, whereby the subject is rendered with a photographic naturalism, but where the use of flat tones, ambiguous perspectives, and strange juxtapositions suggest an imagined or dreamed reality. The term was introduced by art historian Frank Roh in his book Nach-Expressionismus: Magischer Realismus (1925) to describe a style deriving from Neue Sachlichkeit, but rooted in late 19th-century German Romantic fantasy. It had strong connections with the Italian Pittura Metafisica of which the work of Giorgio De Chirico was exemplary in its quest to express the mysterious. The work of Giuseppe Capogrossi and the Scuola Romana of the 1930s is also closely related to the visionary elements of Magic Realism. In Belgium its surreal strand was exemplified by René(-François-Ghislain) Magritte, with his ‘fantasies of the commonplace’, and in the USA by ...


Meyer Raphael Rubinstein

Movement of French and other European artists announced by the publication in Paris of a short manifesto of 27 October 1960, drawn up by the French critic Pierre Restany (b 1930) and signed by the original Nouveaux Réalistes. These were Arman, the French artist François Dufrêne (1930–82), Raymond Hains, Yves Klein, Martial Raysse, Daniel Spoerri, Jean Tinguely and the French artist Jacques de la Villeglé (b 1926).

The Nouveaux Réalistes were a loosely organized band of artists, working in a variety of media, but chiefly distinguished by their reaction against the prevailing aesthetic of Lyrical Abstraction or Art informel. In contrast to the abstract painters of the late 1940s and 1950s, the Nouveaux Réalistes favoured materials taken from everyday urban life. Their work can be seen as a response to the rise of an American-style, consumer society in post-war Europe, and as a reaction against abstraction it had much in common with that of Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg, while their embrace of popular culture foreshadowed ...