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(b Boulogne-sur-Seine, May 3, 1870; d Paris, Aug 14, 1935).

French architect. He trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Paul-René-Léon Ginain and Louis-Henri-Georges Scellier de Gisors, receiving his architectural diploma in 1892. His early work included S. Bing’s Art Nouveau pavilion (destr.) at the Exposition Universelle of 1900 (inspired by Louis Bonnier’s initial project), blocks of flats in Paris in ashlar work, for example 236–238 Boulevard Raspail, 105 Rue Raymond Poincaré (both 1906) and the corner site of the Avenues du Bois de Boulogne et Malakoff (c. 1908), as well as regionalist constructions (garage in Neuilly and rural buildings in Herqueville and Heilly). He participated regularly in the competitions organized by the City of Paris, building low-cost housing schemes in the Rue Brillat-Savarin (1914–30) and the garden city at Chatenay-Malabry (1920–32) in collaboration with Joseph Bassompierre and Paul de Rutté. Following World War I he was named architect for the reconstruction schemes for the districts of Aisne and Pas-de-Calais....


Marie-Laure Crosnier Leconte


(b The Hague, 1834; d Jouy-en-Josas, Sept 13, 1907).

French architect of Dutch birth. He moved to France about 1840, when his mother, who was divorced, married the French architect Léon Vaudoyer, who, like her, was a Protestant. In 1868 he adopted French nationality. Bouwens studied architecture (1853–7) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in the ateliers of Henri Labrouste and Vaudoyer. Thanks to the influence of his stepfather he then joined the administration of the City of Paris, first as deputy inspector to his stepfather at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers and from 1860 as chief architect for the 16e arrondissement. Through his involvement in the development of Auteuil he gained the confidence of its backer, Baron Erlanger, a businessman of German origin who had made his fortune in France under the Second Empire, and this led to some private commissions. In 1861 Bouwens also married into a German family with connections in international finance. The resulting network of family connections and private patronage enabled him to give up his administrative posts and devote himself entirely to a wealthy and cosmopolitan clientele, many of whose members were Jewish or Protestant, for which he produced work in an eclectic and refined style that was rooted in the Second Empire. This clientele expanded from the financial world to include collectors, authors and foreign aristocrats....


Gordon Campbell


(b San Francisco, Jan 8, 1873; d New York, April 21, 1954).

American architect, teacher and writer. He studied engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, graduating in 1895, and then went to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris (1896), where he entered the atelier of Jean-Louis Pascal and received his diploma in 1900. In 1901 he joined the New York office of Cass Gilbert as a draughtsman, later going into partnership (1903–12) with F. Livingston Pell and, until 1922, with Frank J. Helmle. His earliest major commissions were won in competitions, including those for the Maryland Institute (1908–13) in Baltimore, a variation on a Florentine palazzo, and the classical Municipal Group building (1916–17) in Springfield, MA. From 1907 to the mid-1930s he lectured at the Columbia School of Architecture, which followed the Beaux-Arts educational system. The vertically expressive Bush Terminal Tower (1920–24) on 42nd Street, New York, with its prominent position and slight setbacks in buff, white and black brick, marked his début as an influential skyscraper designer and he maintained his leading position through the 1920s and 1930s. Both in his work and writing for the media, Corbett explored the creative potential of the ‘setback’ restrictions of the New York zoning laws of ...


Jean-François Lejeune

(b Live Oak, FL, Feb 16, 1901; d Long Island, 1949).

American architect. Dixon studied at Georgia School of Technology in Atlanta (1918–20) and joined the firm of New York architects Schultze & Weaver in 1923, where he learned the practice of hotel architecture as “total design,” worked on projects such as the Roney Plaza Hotel on Miami Beach, and was introduced to the discipline of the Art Deco language by Lloyd Morgan. Returning to Florida in 1929, Dixon worked for George Fink, Phineas Paist, and Harold D. Steward before opening his office and building his first apartment-hotel (the Ester) on Miami Beach in 1933. Until 1942 Dixon was the foremost architectural innovator in Miami Beach where, along with colleagues such as Henry Hohauser, Albert Anis, and Roy France, he adapted the architectural innovations coming from Europe and New York to the middle-class programs of the southern resort; employing inexpensive construction techniques, Dixon created a its unique “vernacular modern” architectural fabric. Until Igor Polevitzky in the 1950s, Dixon was the most published Florida architect in such periodicals as ...


Gordon Campbell

(b 1876; d 1955).

French designer of furniture, glass, metal, ceramics and interiors. He was a pioneering exponent of Art Deco and a detractor of Art Nouveau, which in practice meant that he aspired to a style that was neither historical nor mannered. Dufrène was a founder-member in 1901 of the Société des Artistes-Décorateurs (SAD). He inaugurated a range of furniture in very dark native wood and defended functionalism and the use of mechanical processes and mass production. In ...



(b Millemont, Seine-et-Oise, Nov 23, 1876; d La Seyne, Var, Aug 8, 1938).

French painter. He left school at the age of 11 and worked for an industrial engraver, studying drawing at night classes. He later entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris and studied under Hubert Ponscarme. There he met Charles Despiau, and, to support himself financially, he worked in the studio of Alexandre Charpentier. He first exhibited in 1905 at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris with a number of works in pastels. The following year he travelled extensively around Italy with the American engraver Herbert Lespinasse (b 1884). In 1910 he won the Prix de l’Afrique Nord with a pastel and therefore spent the years from 1910 to 1912 at the Villa Abd El Tif in Algiers, travelling all over the country and absorbing the local culture. His work up to 1910 had been mainly of Parisian theatres and cafés, executed in pastels or occasionally in tempera on canvas. In Algiers he abandoned pastels and began to work in oils, producing a number of brilliantly coloured works such as ...


Anne Winter-Jensen

[Jules, John]

(b Lancy, May 20, 1877; d Paris, June 7, 1947).

French sculptor, metalworker, painter and designer, of Swiss birth. He trained as a sculptor from 1891 to 1896 at the Ecole des Arts Industriels in Geneva and in 1897 was awarded a scholarship by the city of Geneva that enabled him to continue his studies in Paris, where Jean Dampt, a sculptor from Burgundy, introduced him to the idea of producing designs for interior decoration and furnishing. Dunand worked on the winged horses on the bridge of Alexandre III in Paris (in situ), while simultaneously continuing his research into the use of metal in the decorative arts. His first pieces of dinanderie (decorative brassware) were exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts of 1904 in Paris. In 1906 he gave up sculpture in order to devote his time to making dinanderie and later to lacquering. His first vases (e.g. ‘Wisteria’ vase, gilt brass with cloisonné enamels, ...


Claire Brisby

(b Paris, July 17, 1877; d Sainte-Maxime, nr St Tropez, 1941).

French designer. He was a leading designer of furniture and interiors in the transition from Art Nouveau to Art Deco before World War I and in the subsequent popularization of the Art Deco style. He was a pupil of Eugène-Samuel Grasset in Paris, and his earliest designs, in the Gothic style, were published in Art et Décoration, the journal of design reform founded in 1887. From 1899 Follot was designing bronzes, jewellery and textiles for La Maison Moderne, the commercial outlet for Art Nouveau objects, and his interior design for a study, shown in 1904 at the first Salon of the Société des Artistes-Décorateurs, of which he was a founder-member, demonstrated his affinity with the prevailing curvilinear characteristics of Art Nouveau. Follot’s design for a study shown at the same Salon in 1909 revealed a change towards simpler, more rectilinear forms inspired by the revival of Neo-classicism, which became characteristic of his style. He employed light woods, ornamented with carved and gilded fruits, garlands and cornucopias (e.g. chair, ...


Hervé Paindaveine

(b Brussels, April 7, 1877; d Brussels, Feb 22, 1956).

Belgian interior designer and architect. He was the son of the painter Adolphe Hamesse (1849–1925) and studied architecture at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. He then worked successively in the offices of Paul Hankar and Alban Chambon. With the latter he found his true vocation in interior design using numerous ornamental components, manufactured industrially, which he excelled at combining in Art Nouveau compositions. Assisted by his two brothers, the painters Georges Hamesse (b 1874) and Léon Hamesse (b 1883), he responded to the eclectic tastes of the period by exploiting a very broad range of styles in such commissions as the Cohn-Donnay house (1904), the Ameke department store (1905), a masonic lodge (1909) and the Théâtre des Variétés (1909), all in Brussels. He also worked on a number of cinemas in Brussels, including the Artistic Palace (...


Leland M. Roth

American architectural partnership formed after 1881 by William Holabird (b American Union, NY, 11 Sept 1854; d Evanston, IL, 19 July 1923) and Martin Roche (b Cleveland, OH, 1 Aug 1853; d Chicago, IL, 6 June 1927). Holabird was the son of an army general. He became a cadet at the US Military Academy, West Point, but left in 1873 after two years. With this brief introduction to engineering he moved to Chicago and entered the office of architect William Le Baron Jenney. There he met Martin Roche, who had moved as a boy to Chicago, where he attended the Art Institute, which he left in 1867 to begin an apprenticeship as a cabinetmaker. In 1872 Roche entered Jenney’s office, where the approach to architectural design was highly functional, with concern for economy of means, the opening up of interior space and the maximum use of natural light. Both Holabird and Roche probably served as draughtsmen on Jenney’s First Leiter Building (...


Elizabeth Lunning


(b Rådvad, nr Copenhagen, Aug 31, 1866; d Copenhagen, Oct 2, 1935).

Danish silversmith and sculptor. He was the son of a blacksmith, and at the age of 14 he was apprenticed to the goldsmith A. Andersen in Copenhagen. In 1884 he became a journeyman and in 1887 he enrolled at the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi, where he studied sculpture with Theobald Stein (1829–1901), Bertel Thorvaldsen’s successor; a bronze cast of his Harvester of 1891 is in the courtyard of the Georg Jensen silversmithy in Copenhagen. After graduating in 1892 Jensen took up ceramics, working with Joachim Petersen (1870–1943), and in 1900 his work was awarded an honourable mention at the Exposition Universelle in Paris. In the same year he received a grant to travel in France and Italy; it was during this trip that he became interested in the applied arts. On his return to Copenhagen, Jensen worked for the silversmith Mogens Ballin, and in 1904 he opened his own workshop, primarily making jewellery. His brooch of ...


Catherine Brisac


(b Ay, Marne, April 6, 1860; d Paris, 1945).

French jeweller, glassmaker and designer. He began his studies at the Lycée Turgot near Vincennes and after his father’s death (1876) he was apprenticed to the Parisian jeweller Louis Aucoq, where he learnt to mount precious stones. Unable to further his training in France, he went to London to study at Sydenham College, which specialized in the graphic arts. On his return to Paris in 1880, he found employment as a jewellery designer creating models for such firms as Cartier and Boucheron. His compositions began to acquire a reputation and in 1885 he took over the workshop of Jules d’Estape in the Rue du 4 Septembre, Paris. He rejected the current trend for diamonds in grand settings and instead used such gemstones as bloodstones, tourmalines, cornelians and chrysoberyls together with plique à jour enamelling and inexpensive metals for his creations. His jewellery, which was in the Art Nouveau style, included hair-combs, collars, brooches, necklaces and buckles (e.g. water-nymph buckle, ...



(b Amsterdam, May 26, 1878; d Dachau, April 2, 1945).

Dutch painter, designer and applied artist. He trained in design and decorative painting at the Quellinus school and the Rijksschool voor Kunstnijverheid (National School of the Applied Arts) in Amsterdam from 1892 to 1899. He was assigned to assist with the decoration of the Dutch pavilion at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900. A number of his designs for the pavilion were executed in batik, a Javanese technique that had been recently introduced in the Netherlands. In subsequent years Lebeau developed a very personal approach to batiking and within a short time became the leading Dutch artist in this field. His batiked screens in particular were widely acclaimed (examples in Assen, Prov. Mus. Drenthe) and are considered masterpieces of Dutch Jugendstil.

Lebeau is one of the most important representatives of the severe, geometrical trend in Dutch applied arts of the early 20th century. From 1903 he designed damask tablecloths and household linen for the ...


Sarah Scaturro

(b Paris, 1889; d Anglet, 1958).

French fashion designer. From 1918 to 1948, Lelong was a couturier and pioneering ready-to-wear designer, known for his modern designs executed with understated elegance and fine workmanship. As president of the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture Parisienne (Association of Paris Couturiers) during World War II, Lelong is also remembered for helping to ensure the survival of the industry during the German Occupation of Paris.

Lelong’s parents, Arthur and Eleanore Lelong, owned a small couture house in Paris. Lelong joined his parents’ business after graduating from an élite French business school, but enlisted in the French Army during World War I. Wounded during the war, he returned in 1918 to take over his parents’ fashion house, continuing their tradition of luxury materials and quality workmanship. Lelong’s business expertise, strong leadership skills, impeccable taste and network of artistic and wealthy acquaintances ensured that the house of Lelong became one of the most successful in Paris....


Raquel Henriques da Silva

(b Lisbon, June 1874; d Lisbon, 1944).

Portuguese architect. After completing his studies in architecture (1897) at the Academia de Belas Artes in Lisbon, where he was a pupil of José Luís Monteiro, Machado began his career working as an assistant to Rosendo Carvalheira on Parede Sanatorium (1901), Lisbon. This experience exposed Machado to contemporary styles, particularly the ornamental use of Art Nouveau as expressed in the fine azulejos (glazed tiles) that decorated the sanatorium. His own designs, however, adopted a Romanesque Revival style, for example the mausoleum of the Visconde de Valmôr (1900), Cemitério do Alto S João, Lisbon, which was his first work in this style and showed his preference for compact masses and heavy mouldings. He used similar features in the Colégio Academico (1904), 13 Avenida da Republica, which is one of the most important Romanesque Revival buildings in Lisbon, designed as a heavy circular structure on a corner site, set between two lateral blocks at right angles to each other. The suggestion of Romanesque weight is not, therefore, confined to a superficial application of motifs but is produced by the fundamental organization of the building’s masses. In the Sociedade Nacional de Belas Artes building (...


Dora Pérez-Tibi

revised by Kristen E. Stewart

(b Paris, April 20, 1879; d Paris, April 28, 1944).

French costume designer, dress designer and painter. Despite paternal opposition to his precocious artistic gifts, Poiret attracted attention with his first fashion drawings for Mme Chéruit at the Maison Raudnitz, 21, Place Vendôme, Paris. From 1898 to 1900 he worked for Jacques(-Antoine) Doucet and distinguished himself by creating the famous costume ‘Aiglon’ (Fr.: ‘eaglet’; the nickname of Napoleon II; untraced) for Sarah Bernhardt. From 1901 he worked for the fashion house Worth, where he designed the Eastern-influenced cloak, ‘Confucius’ (1901–2; Paris, Mus. Mode & Cost.). Poiret opened his first fashion house in 1902 on the Rue Auber in Paris. There he produced innovative designs such as the kimono coat and the ‘Révérend’ (1905; Paris, Mus. Mode & Cost.) and enlarged his clientele of famous customers. In 1910 he opened new salons in a large 18th-century house, in the Avenue d’Antin, where he created his famous ‘hobble-skirted’ dresses, drawn in at the hem. Dubbed the ‘Prophet of Simplicity’ in a ...


Lucinda Lubbock

(b Villa d’Alme, nr Bergamo, 1867; d Milan, Feb 4, 1929).

Italian cabinetmaker and interior designer. He was born into a family of carpenters and at 14 was apprenticed to a cabinetmaker in Paris; when he returned to his own country in the late 1880s he was already a highly skilled craftsman. He spent a few weeks in Milan at the studio of Carlo Bugatti, whose exotic and extravagant designs had a lasting influence on him, and after a few months Quarti had established himself in a small workshop in Via Donizetti. He became immersed in the thriving artistic life of late 19th-century Milan, encouraged by the enlightened teaching at the school of the Società Umanitaria, where design courses were based on social issues, and where he himself later taught. In 1888 Quarti met Vittore Grubicy de Dragon, a painter and enthusiastic supporter of the avant-garde, whose views on beauty and taste influenced the young designer. Quarti’s earliest works, several of which were exhibited to much acclaim at the Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa in Turin in ...


James D. Kornwolf

[Róth Imre]

(b Galszecs, Hungary [now in Slovakia], 1871; d New York, Aug 20, 1948).

American architect of Hungarian birth. He emigrated to Chicago when he was 13 and soon entered the office of Burnham & Root. There he did work for the World’s Columbian Exposition (1893), which brought him to the attention of Richard Morris Hunt, whose office in New York he joined in 1895. He developed his planning and interior design skills working for Ogden Codman jr, before establishing his own office in 1898. His first real opportunity came in 1903 when he was employed by Leo and Alexander Bing, then New York’s leading property developers. The major influence on him was not the Chicago style of Burnham & Root, but rather the classicism of the Columbian Exposition, as well as the Aesthetic Movement and architecture associated with Arts and Crafts. A certain stylization in some of his buildings suggests the Art Nouveau idiom helped to produce Art Deco.

Roth’s reputation rests on the very large number of high-rise buildings that he built between the World Wars in New York, many of them flats or hotels, often situated on or within a few blocks of Central Park, for example the Hotel Dorset, 30 West 54th Street or the San Remo Apartments, 74th Street and Central Park West. His unique style, characterized by tower-like compositions (his response to the city’s setback requirements) and traditionally detailed with combinations of Italian and Spanish Renaissance detail, had a notable impact on the skyline of Manhattan. The formally more elaborate higher storeys of his buildings are functionally justified by their more spectacular views and by the fact that penthouse units are larger and cost more. In the 1930s Roth made a foray into Art Deco with the Ardsley Apartments (...


Jacques-Grégoire Watelet

(b Liège, July 27, 1858; d Liège, Nov 10, 1910).

Belgian architect and designer. He studied architecture at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Liège from 1874. He was mainly interested in the theories of John Ruskin and William Morris, but above all in those of Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, particularly those expressed in Entretiens sur l’architecture (1863–72), which Serrurier-Bovy enthusiastically discussed with his fellow students. From 1882 he practised as an architect with his father, Louis Serrurier, a contractor, and built the Gothic Revival chapel (1882) at the Château de Chaityfontaine (between Liège and Verviers). Soon, however, he was devoting all his time to furniture design. In 1884 he went to London to visit the Schools of Handicrafts, Fine and Applied Arts, and to see the work of A. H. Mackmurdo and C. F. A. Voysey; he also signed agreements with Liberty’s. In the same year he married Maria Bovy, an invaluable assistant, whose name he added to his own. The Serrurier-Bovy firm opened in Liège, selling imported objects and designing unique pieces of furniture. Its first important public showing was (probably due to the intervention of Serrurier-Bovy’s friend Henry Van de Velde) at the first salon of the ...