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Jean E. Feinberg

(b Cincinnati, OH, June 6, 1935).

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, illustrator, performance artist, stage designer and poet. He studied art at the Cincinnati Arts Academy (1951–3) and later at the Boston Museum School and Ohio University (1954–7). In 1957 he married Nancy Minto and the following year they moved to New York. Dine’s first involvement with the art world was in his Happenings of 1959–60. These historic theatrical events, for example The Smiling Workman (performed at the Judson Gallery, New York, 1959), took place in chaotic, makeshift environments built by the artist–performer. During the same period he created his first assemblages, which incorporated found materials. Simultaneously he developed the method by which he produced his best known work—paintings, drawings, prints and sculptures that depict and expressively interpret common images and objects.

Clothing and domestic objects featured prominently in Dine’s paintings of the 1960s, with a range of favoured motifs including ties, shoes and bathroom items such as basins, showers and toothbrushes (e.g. ...

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Jasmina Tumbas

(b Sümeg, Hungary, Nov 5, 1937).

Hungarian painter, author of artist books, filmmaker, mail artist, conceptual and action artist, and participant in the Fluxus movement. Tót began his studies at the Hungarian Art Academy in 1958, but was forced out of the program because his artworks diverged from Socialist Realism, which was institutionalized in socialist Hungary at the time. He continued his studies at the Budapest College of Applied Arts from 1959–65, and soon distinguished himself with his informel and abstract expressionist painting style. In the late 1960s Tót began to exhibit with the Hungarian experimental group Iparterv (1968–69). By 1970, he abandoned painting and pronounced that his work had arrived at a ‘ZERO (0)’ point, a concept that signified his deliberate turn towards conceptualism, action, Fluxus, and Correspondence art. ‘Nothing ain’t nothing’, the use of 0s, and a declaration of ‘TÓTalJOYS’ became leitmotifs for his conceptual artworks, poster actions, telegrams, postcards, rubber stamps, T-shirts, and artist books. Tót frequently used a photograph of himself smiling or doing everyday things (standing, walking) in combination with proclamations of joy about such seemingly mundane actions, such as ...