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Article

Gordon Campbell

(d 1896).

French glass-maker. In the 1850s Brocard began to study the Islamic tradition of glass-making and to experiment with Islamic decorative techniques, such as staining and enamelling. He made reproduction 14th- and 15th-century Syrian glass which he first exhibited at the 1867 Exposition Universelle. Brocard could not read Arabic, but nonetheless used Arabic calligraphy to decorate his glassware; he sold to Europeans to whom the numerous errors in the Arabic were not apparent. Some of his best-known designs were based on mosque lamps in the Musée de Cluny, Paris....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Product of a technique first used in ancient Egypt and later developed in ancient Rome. The outer of two superimposed layers of glass was ground away to leave a pattern consisting of a pattern standing in relief on a contrasting ground, usually white on dark blue. The finest surviving example is the Portland Vase (early 1st cent. ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b Ehden, Lebanon, Sept 14, 1912; d 1994).

American painter and stained-glass artist, of Lebanese birth. After an apprenticeship with the Lebanese painter Habib Srour (1860–1938) in Beirut, he studied from 1932 to 1936 at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. In 1934 he received the top award for drawing at the school and later exhibited his work at the Salon des Artistes Français. After graduating in 1936, he returned to Lebanon, opening a studio in Beirut, and becoming well known in the early 1940s for his frescoes in the Maronite church at Diman. At the same time his paintings of Lebanese life and the countryside came to public notice when he exhibited at the gallery of the Hotel St–Georges, Beirut, though by the late 1940s he had begun to simplify the style of his work. In 1950 he moved to New York, where his paintings became increasingly abstract, consisting of flat forms of brilliant colour with hard straight edges. Although he was influenced by the artistic life around him, and by his acquaintance with Rothko, Hans Hofmann and Ad Reinhardt, he did not join any group or movement. He became an American citizen in ...

Article

Muller  

Rupert Featherstone

Stone or glass implement with a flat base, used to grind paints by hand on a hard flat surface or slab. Mullers and slabs of hard stone are first recorded in ancient Egypt. Large glass mullers were used for the commercial preparation of paints until the 19th century. Pigments could be ground on their own for use in fresco or aqueous media or ground in oil for later use....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Glass that resembles semi-precious stones; made by firing a paste of crushed glass bound with water and an organic gum. The process originated in ancient Egypt, and was revived in the 1880s by the French sculptor (César-Isidore-)Henri Cros, who in 1891 was provided with a studio at the Sèvres Porcelain Factory for the production of pâte de verre. The technique was subsequently used for the production of glass vessels by Albert-Louis Dammouse and François-Emile Décorchemont.

J. Bloch-Dermant and Y. Delaborde: G. Argy-Rousseau: Glassware as Art: With a Catalogue Raisonné of the Pâtes de Verre (London and New York, 1991) The Art and Technique of Pâte de Verre (Kanagawa, 1998) J. Kervin and D. Fenton: Pâte de Verre and Kiln Casting of Glass (Livermore, CA, 2/2000) Important Pâte-de-verre by G. Argy-Rousseau (sale cat., New York, Sotheby’s, 2003) Particle Theories: International Pâte de Verre and Other Cast Glass Granulations (exh. cat. by ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Trendelburg, May 12, 1920).

German glass painter. After military service and imprisonment by the British in Egypt, he trained in Stuttgart as a glass painter and mosaicist. Thereafter he specialized in architectural stained glass. His glass, which is usually figurative and narratorial, has been installed in more than 100 churches around the world and in secular buildings (e.g. the library extension of Pembroke College, Cambridge, ...

Article

Bruce Tattersall

The Ceramics, Cutlery and Glass on a dining-table, sometimes supplemented by decorative materials, including ornamental foodstuffs. The Western world’s earliest pictorial evidence of table settings is from the tombs of Egyptian pharaohs, in which food and its implements were among the goods deposited for use by the deceased in the afterlife (see Egypt, ancient, §XII, 3). Tableware made of pottery, and some silver, has survived from ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome, and descriptive accounts of table settings, especially those for banquets, can be found in Roman literature, notably the Satyricon of Petronius (fl 1st century ad). The Roman and Byzantine practice of creating decorative effects by ornamentation of the food itself was revived in the Middle Ages, mainly in the work of confectioners and in the presentation of meat and fowl restored to a lifelike appearance after cooking. From the later Middle Ages, as banquets became a means of displaying wealth and status, the aristocracy feasted at tables elaborately decorated, as is shown in the ...