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Dominique Collon, Donald F. Easton, Jeanny Vorys Canby, J. D. Hawkins, K. Aslihan Yener, Oscar White Muscarella and A. Nunn

Region roughly equivalent to the modern state of Turkey. The name Anatolia was first used by Byzantine writers in the 10th century ad, as an alternative to Asia Minor, and is now often used in its Turkish form, ‘Anadolu’, to describe Turkey in Asia. In this article the term ancient Anatolia covers the cultures and civilizations that flourished in the region from possibly as early as the 14th millennium bc to the 6th century bc. A wealth of remains from the Neolithic period (c. 8000–c. 5800 bc) to the Early Bronze Age (c. 3400–c. 2000 bc) testifies to the advanced prehistoric culture of Anatolia. During the 2nd millennium bc this was succeeded by the civilization of the Hittites (see Hittite), the demise of which was followed by a Dark Age lasting some two centuries. Eastern and south-eastern Anatolia were dominated from the ...

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Lyn Rodley and Nicole Thierry

Region of central Anatolia, now in Turkey.

The region known in ancient times as Greater Cappadocia extends from Lake Tatta eastwards to the River Euphrates. It was bordered to the south by Cilicia, and to the north lay Pontus, which before the late 4th century bc had also formed part of Cappadocia. The region consists largely of a plateau divided by the Taurus and Antitaurus mountains, with volcanic areas in the west and around Erciyas Dağı (anc. Mt Argaeus) in the centre. Cappadocia has been continuously inhabited since prehistoric times, and during the 2nd millennium bc it was part of the Hittite empire. Conquered by the Persians in 585 bc, it was ruled during the 4th–1st centuries bc by the descendants of the satrap Ariarathes (b c. 404 bc). In ad 17 Cappadocia became a Roman province, with its capital at Caesarea (now Kayseri).

Material from the Greco-Roman period is mostly limited to funerary stelae of poor quality found at various sites, but an inventory of Greco-Roman necropoleis has revealed that there was continuity between the pagan and Christian population. The medieval development of ...

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Seton Lloyd

[Arab. Diyālá.]

Region of ancient Mesopotamia, south of modern Ba‛quba and north-east of Baghdad, Iraq. The area incorporates five major cities that flourished first during the Jemdet Nasr and Early Dynastic periods (c. 3100–c. 2340 bc) and has provided numerous examples of Sumerian architecture and sculpture. The region was also important during the Isin–Larsa period (c. 2000–c. 1760 bc).

Until the middle of the 1st millennium bc, the main stream of the Tigris River below Samarra’ followed a line some distance to the east of its present course. In Abbasid times this ancient bed formed part of the Nahrawan canal, which, together with the tributary waters of the River Diyala, created a wide basin of cultivatable land. Later, with the Nahrawan fallen into disrepair and the Diyala deflected by a weir, the whole province became a wilderness strewn with abandoned city-mounds.

There has been much excavation since ...

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Dominique Collon

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Dominique Collon

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Dominique Collon

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Dominique Collon, Judith Pullar, Pierre Amiet, Michael Roaf, Eric de Waele, David Stronach, Guitty Azarpay and E. Haerinck

[Persia]

Region in which several cultures and civilizations flourished from the Palaeolithic period until the Arab conquest in ad 651. There is evidence that ancient Iran was inhabited from c. 100,000 bc, but the earliest named inhabitants were Elamite (c. 3000–mid-6th century bc), whose language, insofar as it has been deciphered, bears no relation to any known group. The ancestors of the present Indo-European or Indo-Aryan inhabitants of Iran, including the Medes and Persians, entered the country only in the second half of the 2nd millennium bc. Besides the Elamites, the three major Iranian dynasties of the pre-Islamic period are the Achaemenid or Persian (550–331 bc), the Parthian (250 bcad 224) and the Sasanian (c. ad 224–651).

This article covers the major art forms in pre-Islamic Iran. Each major bold subsection has cross-references to individual sites that have made a particular contribution at a certain period or in a given field. The development of some types of object, such as seals or jewellery, and the use of some materials (e.g. faience, glass and ivory) are best seen in the wider context of the ...

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John Curtis

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Article

Eric de Waele

[Pers. Luristăn]

Region of Iran, near the border with Iraq, which has given its name to a remarkable series of ancient bronze objects, especially those produced between c. 1200 and 600 bc .

Luristan is situated in the central part of the Zagros mountain range, which runs north-west to south-east along Iran’s frontier with Iraq. The region can be divided into two parts: to the west is the Pusht-i Kuh (‘behind the mountain’), which descends towards the plains of Mesopotamia and Susiana, while to the east, at a higher altitude, lies the Pish-i Kuh (‘before the mountain’). Nomadic Lurs inhabit its high, fertile valleys.

The nomads who lived in the valleys of Luristan in antiquity were shepherds, horse-breeders, hunters and warriors. It is not known what they were called, for they have left no written sources, and suggestions that they might have been Kassites or Cimmerians must be rejected. They should perhaps be equated with the Ellipi, whose kingdom was overthrown by the Medes in ...

Article

Lydia  

Crawford H. Greenewalt jr

Region in western Asia Minor (now Turkey) that formed an independent kingdom ruled from Sardis during the 7th century bc and earlier 6th, but later fell under Persian, Greek and Roman control. It covered an area of 24,000–25,000 sq. km consisting of mountain ranges and fertile valleys (of the rivers Hermos, Kayster and Maeander, now respectively Gediz, Kücük Menderes and Menderes), which created natural corridors, and thus trade routes, between the Aegean and the central Anatolian plateau.

The history of Lydia before the 7th century bc is shrouded in legend. In the Iliad Lydian heroes were allies of the Trojans, while the early Lydian kings Meles and Kambles have the same semi-mythological status as Tantalos, Niobe, Omphale and Arachne, whose stories were also set in Lydia. During its period of independence (c. 680–546 bc) Lydia controlled an empire that extended over most of western Asia Minor, as far east as the River Halys (now Kızıl ırmak), and was ruled by a dynasty of native kings, of whom the most celebrated are the first and last, Gyges and Croesus. After its conquest by Persia in ...

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Dominique Collon, Joan Oates, Harriet Crawford, Anthony Green, David Oates, John M. Russell, Michael Roaf, E. J. Keall, Pierre Amiet, John Curtis, Jane Moon and A. Nunn

Region of the ancient world corresponding roughly to modern Iraq, north-east Syria and parts of south-east Turkey. The name Mesopotamia (anc. Gr.: ‘between the rivers’) was coined by ancient Greek historians and originally applied to the land between the River Euphrates and its tributary the Khabur. It later came to mean the land between two of the great rivers of antiquity, the Tigris and the Euphrates, and by extension includes the surrounding regions. Modern political boundaries, however, do not reflect the fluctuating cultural patterns of antiquity, nor did the ancient inhabitants of the Tigris and Euphrates valleys have one name to describe the area, and the term Mesopotamian is therefore used in this article to define various cultures that grew up in the Land of the Twin Rivers. It was here and in Egypt, ancient that two of the earliest civilizations evolved.

This article covers the major art forms in Mesopotamia before the Islamic conquest (...

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Nubia  

William Y. Adams, R. G. Morkot, Timothy Kendall, L. Török and Khalid J. Deemer

Region in the Nile Valley, immediately to the south of Egypt, in which several cultures flourished, from the Khartoum Mesolithic period (c. 10,000–c. 5000 bc) to the establishment of the Islamic Funj sultanate c. ad 1505. Ancient Nubia corresponds essentially to the ‘Aethiopia’ of Herodotus and other Classical writers and the ‘Kush’ of the ancient Egyptians and Hebrews. It extends approximately from Aswan in southern Egypt to Khartoum in Sudan (see fig. 1 and fig. 2). The most northerly part, Lower Nubia, has always been regarded as an Egyptian sphere of influence, and it is included within the borders of the modern Arab Republic of Egypt. Egyptian control of the larger, southerly region, ‘Upper Nubia’, was much more sporadic.

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Region between the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian desert, containing sites holy to Jews, Christians and Muslims. The exact borders have varied in different periods, but the term has come to be applied to the area now covered by Israel and Jordan, Hashemite Kingdom of. Artistic development in this region between the 13th millennium and the 1st bc is discussed in the survey on Syria-Palestine, and development of some specific types of art is also discussed in the wider context of the Ancient Near East. The first permanent agricultural settlements were established in 8000 bc at Jericho. After c. 1200 bc the coastal zone of Palestine was settled by the Peleset, later known as the Philistines (see Philistine), from whom the name of the region is derived. By 1000 bc the area was dominated by Hebrew tribes, who made Jerusalem their capital. The Kingdom of Palestine became divided into the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah, but these were destroyed, the former by Assyria in ...

Article

Shusha  

E. R. Salmanov

Regional centre in the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan. The town was founded in 1756–7 when the Karabakh potentate Panah ‛Ali Khan built a fortress on a rocky area surrounded by the mountain streams Dashalty and Khalfali-chay. The eponymous fortress Panakhabad was later renamed Kala or Shusha-qalasy and finally Shusha. Situated in the strategic and economic centre of Karabakh, it became the capital of the Karabakh khanate. The town was surrounded by stone walls with round towers protecting the gates. The khān and his court lived in a rectangular citadel surrounded by bazaars, a Friday Mosque and residential quarters. The first nine residential quarters, known as Ashagy Mekhelle, were built in the 1760s. Another eight were added under Khan Ibrahim Khalil (reg 1759–1806), and another twelve after the khanate was absorbed into the Russian empire in 1805. Each quarter was centred around a mosque surrounded by small squares containing a source of drinking water set in a stone façade sometimes decorated with blind arches. Town estates incorporating a garden and vegetable plot were separated from the street by stone walls. A typical example is the Mehmandarov House (...

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Dominique Collon, A. R. Millard, Lorraine Copeland, J. B. Hennessy, Rupert L. Chapman, G. R. H. Wright, Pierre Amiet, Ora Negbi, Vronwy Hankey and A. Nunn

Region of the Ancient Near East. The term describes the area now occupied, from north to south, by Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Israel (see fig.). Syria-Palestine has always been fragmented politically: there has never been a unified name for the area and its boundaries have constantly fluctuated. The etymology of the word Syria is uncertain: it may originally have denoted the hinterland of the coastal city of Tyre (Ṣur), or it could have entered the Greek language when Syria was under Assyrian control in the 8th–7th centuries bc. Palestine was originally the coastal zone settled after c. 1200 bc by the Peleset, later known as the Philistines, but this term came to be applied to the whole area until it was divided between Israel and Jordan in 1948.

This article covers the artistic development of Syria-Palestine from the 13th millennium bc to the 1st, when the region fell under the control, successively, of the ...

Article

Troad  

Donald F. Easton and Reynold Higgins

Region in north-west Anatolia, now part of Turkey, named after the ancient city of Troy.

Donald F. Easton

The Troad is largely mountainous, and most of its sites are therefore situated on the coast. Stray finds of stone tools indicate the presence of palaeolithic occupation, and a neolithic site has been identified at Coşkuntepe towards the south-west tip of the Troad. The earliest traces of occupation in the region are Late Chalcolithic and were revealed by soundings at the coastal sites of Kumtepe (level Ia) and Beşik-Sivritepe, where pattern-burnished ware is characteristic. Early Bronze Age deposits of Kumtepe (level Ib), Beşik-Yassıtepe and Early Troy I, again on the coast, produced finds partly paralleled at Poliochni on Lemnos. Beşik-Yassıtepe was a fortified site with megara and apsidal structures. Clay model axes found there are paralleled at Ezero. Bronze Age Troadic culture is most fully represented at Troy (c. 3000–1050 bc...

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Dominique Collon

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Dominique Collon

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