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Malcolm Reading

(b Tbilisi, Georgia, Dec 14, 1901; d Bristol, Oct 23, 1990).

British architect, planner and critic of Georgian birth. He was born into a prosperous Georgian family: his father was an admiral, and the family enjoyed numerous vacations throughout Europe. Lubetkin was in Moscow during the revolutionary year of 1917 and enrolled in the Vkhutemas, the school of art and architecture. He was taught by leading innovators of 20th-century art, including Kasimir Malevich, Aleksandr Rodchenko and Vladimir Tatlin. In 1922 Lubetkin went to Berlin as assistant to El Lissitsky and David Shterenberg, who were preparing the first exhibition of progressive Soviet art outside the USSR at the Van Diemen Gallery. For the next two years he studied at the Textilakadamie and at the Baukunstschule, Charlottenburg, Berlin; he also worked for the architect Bruno Taut. After further study in Vienna and Warsaw, in 1924 he worked briefly for Ernst May in Frankfurt am Main. During this period he became committed to the Modernist ideals of a socially responsible architecture and the search for new forms to express this....

Article

Uriel M. Adiv

(b Jaroslaw, Poland, May 28, 1900; d Tel Aviv, July 26, 1984).

Israeli architect, urban planner and writer, of Polish birth. He settled originally in Palestine in 1920 with a group of young pioneers who were intent on reviving Jewish nationhood. He joined the kibbutz at Gan Shemuel, later taking charge of the planning and execution of the farm buildings and dwelling units. He studied architecture and building construction in Germany from 1926 to 1929 at the Bauhaus, Dessau. Under the overall leadership of Walter Gropius and from 1928 Hannes Meyer, he took the basic design course of Josef Albers, Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky and the architectural course under Meyer and Hans Wittwer. In 1929 he married Gunta Stölzl, artistic director (1927–31) of the weaving workshop at the Bauhaus. In 1929–31 he directed Meyer’s office in Berlin, where he helped to execute the latter’s design for the Allgemeiner Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund school, Bernau.

Sharon returned to Palestine in 1931, strongly imbued with the Functionalist approach of the Bauhaus, and particularly of Meyer. He set up a private practice in Tel Aviv and began designing a wide variety of projects, including public buildings, cooperative housing estates, urban plans and rural ...

Article

Mark Allen Svede

(b nr Cēsis, April 28, 1896; d Tbilisi, Georgia, July 14, 1944).

Latvian painter, printmaker, ceramicist, interior designer, tage and film set designer and theorist. He was the foremost ideologue for modernism in Latvia and was one of its greatest innovators. His militant defence of avant-garde principles befitted his experience as a soldier and as one of the artists who, after World War I, was denied a studio by the city officials and staged an armed occupation of the former premises of the Riga Art School. At the end of the war he painted in an Expressionist manner: In Church (1917; Riga, priv. col., see Suta, 1975, p. 19), for example, is an exaltation of Gothic form and primitivist rendering. Unlike his peers Jāzeps Grosvalds and Jēkabs Kazaks, he was extremely interested in Cubism and Constructivism, the theories of which informed his paintings, drawings, prints and occasional architectural projects of the 1920s. At this time he and his wife, the painter ...