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Article

Jan Jaap Heij

(b The Hague, Aug 18, 1871; d Amsterdam, Oct 19, 1934).

Dutch printmaker and painter. He trained at the Academie voor Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague, where he subsequently taught graphic art (1893–1911). In 1911 he succeeded Pieter Dupont as professor in graphics at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam under the directorship of Antoon Derkinderen. In the early years of his career Aarts produced some paintings using the pointillist technique, mostly landscapes (The Hague, Gemeentemus.); he also carved some sculptures in wood. He is, however, best known for his graphic work. In technique and subject-matter, his prints have a great deal in common with those of Dupont. As the latter’s successor he devoted himself to the revival of engraving, which his predecessor had reintroduced; his own experiments in this medium (in particular his scenes with diggers and beggars, all c. 1900) are considered milestones in early 20th-century Dutch printmaking. He also applied his skills to etching, lithography, woodcutting and wood-engraving; of the latter his ...

Article

Chr. Will

[Augustus]

(b Amsterdam, April 19, 1838; d Amsterdam, Jan 10, 1927).

Dutch painter and lithographer. He attended evening classes in drawing at the Felix Meritis School in Amsterdam and on 27 May 1854 sat the entrance exam at the city’s Koninklijke Academie. Lodewijk Royer, the director, gave him lessons in figure drawing and taught him about Greek art. As a student at the Academie he won several prizes. In 1855 he took up lithography under the influence of the French lithographer Adolphe Mouilleron (1820–81), whom he had seen at work in Amsterdam in 1854. He wanted to become a professional lithographer, and from 1858 to 1859 he was in Paris in order to learn the art at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Mouilleron’s direction. He made copies after paintings in the Louvre and the Musée du Luxembourg and visited Barbizon. In Paris he met Fantin-Latour and Courbet, but his special admiration was reserved for Ingres, Delacroix and Decamps. In the 1850s and 1860s Allebé frequently sought inspiration in the countryside, staying at ...

Article

Monica E. Kupfer

(b Santiago de Veraguas, Mar 25, 1869; d Panama City, Nov 12, 1952).

Panamanian painter, draftsman, and printmaker. He is known chiefly as the designer of the national flag (1903) of Panama. He studied business administration and had a long career in public office. When Panama became independent in 1903, he became Secretario de Hacienda and in 1904 Consul-General ad honorem to Hamburg. In 1908 he moved to New York, where he studied with Robert Henri, who strongly influenced his style of vigorous drawing, loose brushwork, distorted expressionist images, and somber colors, as in Head Study (1910; Panama City, R. Miró priv. col.; see Miró 1966). He produced most of his work between 1910 and 1914 and again after the late 1930s; his main subject was the human figure, but he also painted portraits, landscapes, and still lifes. On his return to Panama in the 1930s he worked as an auditor in the Contraloría General. After his retirement he resumed painting and produced some of his most passionate works, such as ...

Article

(b Chevry-Cossigny, Seine-et-Marne, Nov 13, 1858; d ?Paris, 1935–6).

French painter, pastellist and printmaker. He studied from 1880 under the academic painter Henri Lehmann at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris; there he befriended Georges Seurat with whom he shared a studio for several years. He also studied under Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, working as his assistant on the Sacred Grove (1884; Lyon, Mus. B.-A.). In 1886 he obtained a travel scholarship to Rome and on his return befriended Symbolist poets such as Stéphane Mallarmé, Paul Verlaine and Philippe-Auguste Villiers de l’Isle Adam. While the poets sought to subvert language in order to express new sensations, Aman-Jean relied on pictorial and iconographic traditions. He specialized in pictures of languid young women turned in profile to the left or gazing into space, as in Girl with Peacock (1895; Paris, Mus. A. Déc.), using broken brushstrokes and colour contrasts that by then had largely shed their avant-garde connotations. Typical works such as the colour lithograph ...

Article

R. W. A. Bionda

[Flor; Pieter Florentius Nicolaas Jacobus]

(b Surabaya, Java, June 9, 1864; d The Hague, June 9, 1925).

Dutch painter, illustrator and printmaker. He moved to the Netherlands c. 1875, and was taught first by Johan Hendrik Frederik Conrad Nachtweh (1857–1941). He attended the Rijksacademie van Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam from 1883 to 1888, studying under August Allebé and Barend Wijnveld (1820–1902). He then spent a year studying life drawing at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp under Charles Verlat before returning to Amsterdam, where he initially applied himself to painting landscapes in the countryside around The Hague and in Nunspeet in Gelderland in the style of the Hague school.

Arntzenius settled in The Hague in 1892. He was particularly active as a painter of Impressionist townscapes in both oil and watercolour from c. 1890 to 1910. His crowded street scenes with their misty, rainy atmosphere, such as The Spuistraat (The Hague, Gemeentemus.), were particularly successful and despite their greater emphasis on intimacy and tonality are reminiscent of the work of George Hendrik Breitner and Isaac Israëls. Arntzenius may have collaborated with ...

Article

Mark Castro

[Murillo, Gerardo]

(b Guadalajara, Oct 3, 1875; d Mexico City, Aug 14, 1964).

Mexican painter, printmaker, writer, theorist, volcanologist, and politician. Murillo first studied art in his native Guadalajara with the painter Félix Bernardelli (1866–1905). Murillo relocated to Mexico City in 1896, studying briefly at the Academia de San Carlos, before securing support from the government to continue his education in Europe. He stopped briefly in Paris in 1897 before moving on to Rome and beginning his studies at the Accademia di Belle Arti and the Real Academia de España. Murillo’s encounters with European art had a profound impact on him, particularly Impressionism. He also achieved a measure of success on the European art scene, and his Self-portrait (1899; priv. col.) was awarded the silver medal at the Paris Salon. During his six-year stay Murillo also became absorbed by French and Italian socialist political theory.

Murillo returned to Mexico in 1904, joining the staff of the Academia de San Carlos, where he became an agitator for reform, clashing with the school’s administration over teaching methods and becoming a hero to students, among them José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros. The debates culminated in the student strike of ...

Article

Danielle Derrey-Capon

(b Ghent, Jan 9, 1866; d Ghent, June 9, 1922).

Belgian painter and etcher . The son of a successful mill-owner and an excellent musician, he was a pupil and friend of Gustave Den Duyts (1850–97), and later, at the Ghent Académie, of Jean Delvin (1853–1922). He was involved in the exhibiting society L’Essor in Brussels as well as the triennial salons held in Brussels, Antwerp and Ghent in rotation. Among his earliest important works are The Scheldt at Dendermonde (1887; Ghent, Mus. S. Kst.), which he painted beside Isidore Meyers (1836–1917) and Franz Courtens in a Realist style characteristic of the Dendermonde school. In 1889–90 he attended the studio of Alfred Roll in Paris, where he met Jacques-Emile Blanche and Charles Cottet, and became particularly closely associated with Frits Thaulow, Emile-René Ménard and Edmond Aman-Jean. He exhibited regularly at the Salon in Paris. Although Baertsoen is considered to be one of the first Belgian ...

Article

Blanca García Vega

(b Minas de Ríotinto, Huelva, Jan 12, 1871; d Vera de Bidasoa, Navarra, 1953).

Spanish printmaker, painter and writer . He was self-taught. He belonged to the Generación del 98 and the modernist literary movement. He began engraving in 1901 and won second prize at the Exposición Nacional, Madrid (1906), going on to win first prize in 1908. He also began etching c. 1908, and it became his favourite technique, although he also made lithographs. Both his prints and paintings have a literary content and focus thematically on life’s human aspects in a way reminiscent of the work of Toulouse-Lautrec. He illustrated Rubén Darío’s Coloquio de los centauros. Despite their lack of fine detail, his prints are realistic, for example Bar Types (etching and aquatint, c. 1906–9; Madrid, Bib. N.) and Beggars (etching and aquatint, c. 1910; Madrid, Bib. N.). His impressionistic painting style of the 1920s became more roughly worked later, possibly due to the loss of an eye in 1931. In ...

Article

(b Swansea, Oct 22, 1864; d Southwell, Notts, July 14, 1944).

English painter and lithographer. He began his career as an artist at the age of 19, when he entered the studio of Carolus-Duran in Paris. A meeting with John Singer Sargent led to a lasting friendship, and they shared various studios in London and Paris. Belleroche also introduced Sargent to lithographic techniques. Confusion often arises in identifying Belleroche’s work of the 1880s since he frequently signed his work with the surname of his stepfather, Millbank. In 1894 he joined the New English Art Club, and he exhibited with them regularly until he resigned in dispute with the committee in 1899. Throughout his career his work was characterized by his superb draughtsmanship, the use of rich colour combinations and the loose, yet always controlled handling of paint. In 1903 he was the only English founder-member of the Salon d’Automne, which in 1904 awarded him the honour of devoting a whole room to his work. Until his marriage in ...

Article

Bailey Van Hook

(b Salem, MA, March 24, 1862; d Salem, Nov 15, 1951).

American painter, etcher and teacher. Benson attended the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, from 1880 to 1883 as a student of Otto Grundmann (1844–90) and Frederick Crowninshield (1845–1918). In 1883 he travelled with his fellow student and lifelong friend Edmund C(harles) Tarbell to Paris, where they both studied at the Académie Julian for three years with Gustave(-Clarence-Rodolphe) Boulanger and Jules(-Joseph) Lefebvre. Benson travelled with Tarbell to Italy in 1884 and to Italy, Belgium, Germany and Brittany the following year. When he returned home, Benson became an instructor at the Portland (ME) School of Art, and after his marriage to Ellen Perry Peirson in 1888 he settled in Salem, MA. Benson taught with Tarbell at the Museum School in Boston from 1889 until their resignation over policy differences in 1913. Benson rejoined the staff the next year and taught intermittently as a visiting instructor until ...

Article

Taube G. Greenspan

(b Paris, June 2, 1849; d Paris, Dec 4, 1936).

French painter, printmaker and designer. He was born to an artistic family and was precociously talented. In 1866 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, where he studied under Jean François Brémond (1807–68) and Alexandre Cabanel. His Salon début in 1868 and his subsequent entries were well received, and in 1874 he won the Prix de Rome with the Death of Timophanes, Tyrant of Corinth (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). Remaining in Italy for five years, Besnard worked in an academic style influenced by Pietro da Cortona and Michelangelo.

Besnard spent three years in London (1879–81), which were crucial to the development of his mature painterly style. In a climate favourable for the development of individuality, and far removed from academic circles in Paris, Besnard experimented with vibrant colour and spontaneous brushwork. With the opportunity in London to study Turner and British 18th-century portraits, Besnard recognized that ‘their colourists are more painters than ours, they draw with colour’. His successful assimilation of this painterly tradition brought him many portrait commissions from aristocratic patrons such as ...

Article

Justine Hopkins

(Polhill)

(b Hove, Aug 5, 1865; d London, July 8, 1925).

English painter and lithographer. He studied at the Westminster School of Art and in Paris. In 1890–91, having encountered Paul Sérusier at the Académie Julian in Paris, he made his first visit to Brittany, where he worked with the Pont-Aven group; he also developed an interest in lithography. After contact with Renoir, Bevan made a second visit to Brittany in 1893–4, when he met and was influenced by Gauguin. From the early 1900s Bevan adopted a divisionist or pointillist style in paintings that often depicted London street scenes and horse trading, as in Horse Sale at the Barbican (1913; London, Tate), and landscapes painted on summer holidays in Devon and Cornwall, of which Green Devon (1919; Plymouth, City Mus. & A.G.) is a striking example. In the last years of his life his style changed, the paint becoming thicker and more textural, with a new attention to the juxtaposition of masses. At times he approached a Cubist geometry of form, for example in rural scenes such as ...

Article

Dieuwertje Dekkers

(Johannes)

(b The Hague, Jan 31, 1845; d The Hague, Dec 15, 1914).

Dutch painter and printmaker. He was already an accomplished lithographer when he went to study with Christoffel Bisschop (1828–1904) in The Hague. Until 1868 he was taught by Johan Philip Koelman at the Hague Academie where he met Willem Maris. In 1870 he visited Paris and stayed with Jacob Maris. His work from this period—interiors of fishermen’s cottages, usually with two figures, such as the Fisherman’s Breakfast (1872; The Hague, Gemeentemus.)—is strongly reminiscent of the early work of Jozef Israëls. Critics thought it showed a search for truth and colour. In the early 1870s Blommers constructed a Scheveningen fisherman’s interior in his studio in which he painted half-length figures of muscular fishermen’s wives, presumably based on his own wife, who came from Scheveningen. His Where Are the Little Doves? (c. 1875; untraced), which shows a mother lifting up her child to look at the doves, was particularly successful. The critic Jacobus van Santen Kolff (...

Article

Fransje Kuyvenhoven and Geert-Jan Koot

(b The Hague, Jan 14, 1851; d Haarlem, Nov 22, 1904).

Dutch painter and printmaker. He began his career as a clerk for the Dutch Railway Company, but he was dismissed for devoting too much time to his hobbies of painting and drawing. He trained with J. W. van Borselen (1825–92) and later with Jan Hendrik Weissenbruch and Jacob Maris. He worked first in Bergen op Zoom, then Delft, The Hague, Barbizon (1878–80; 1904) and Paris (1880–83), again in The Hague, then Renkum and finally in Haarlem, where he remained until his death.

De Bock painted primarily landscapes, mostly views of forests and wooded countryside, for example View in the Woods (Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). During his stay in Paris and Barbizon he was influenced by the style of Corot; other artists he admired greatly were Millet and Rousseau (he copied a painting by the latter). De Bock’s work stands halfway between Romanticism and Realism and is generally thought to be decorative, but lacking in substance. Besides oil paintings—characterized by broad brushstrokes and restrained colour—this minor master of the ...

Article

Efrem Gisella Calingaert

(b Ferrara, Dec 31, 1842; d Paris, Jan 11, 1931).

Italian painter and printmaker. He received his earliest training from his father, the painter Antonio Boldini (1799–1872). From 1858 he may have attended courses given by Girolamo Domenichini (1813–91) and Giovanni Pagliarini (?1809–78) at the Civico Ateneo di Palazzo dei Diamanti, where he assiduously copied Old Masters. At 18 he was already known in Ferrara as an accomplished portrait painter. In 1862 he went to Florence, where he sporadically attended the Scuola del Nudo at the Accademia di Belle Arti. He frequented the Caffè Michelangiolo, a meeting-place of progressive artists, where he came into contact with the Macchiaioli group of artists.

Boldini’s taste for wealth and elegance brought him into association with the established portrait painter Michele Gordigiani (1830–1909), who gave him a share of his numerous commissions; with the sophisticated Telemaco Signorini; and especially with the wealthy Cristiano Banti (1824–1904...

Article

Antoine Terrasse

(b Fontenay-aux-Roses, nr Paris, Oct 3, 1867; d Le Cannet, Jan 27, 1947).

French painter, printmaker and photographer. He is known particularly for the decorative qualities of his paintings and his individual use of colour. During his life he was associated with other artists, Edouard Vuillard being a good friend, and he was a member of the Nabis.

Bonnard spent some of his childhood at Grand-Lemps in the Isère, where his family owned a house surrounded by a large park. There was a farm adjoining the house, and from an early age he developed a love of nature and animals. After obtaining the baccalauréat at 18, he enrolled in the Law faculty in order to please his father, who wanted him to have a steady job. He graduated when he was 21, and he was sworn in as a barrister in 1889. In the meantime he was already drawing and painting, having enrolled at the Académie Julian, Paris, in 1887. In an attractive ...

Article

Edna Carter Southard

(Alfred )

(b Paris, Feb 1, 1874; d Villejuif, nr Paris, Dec 16, 1907).

French painter and printmaker. The son of an Italian hairdresser who sold antiques, Bottini always lived in the Montmartre area of Paris except for two years of military service from 1895. He favoured the English fashions, bars, and language (as in the titles of his pictures and the spelling of his first name). Apprenticed with Annibale Gatti (1828–1909) from 1889 to 1891, he studied at Fernand Cormon’s studio and first showed at Edouard Kleinmann’s gallery in 1894. From 1897 he showed large oil paintings at the Salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. He collaborated on woodcuts with Harry van der Zee from 1896 in compositions influenced by Japanese prints, for example Arrival at the Masked Ball (1897; Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Est.). His woodcuts, lithographs, and etchings sold quickly after publication by Edmond D. Sagot. Bottini illustrated for Le Rire in 1897, made several posters, and from ...

Article

Clare A. P. Willsdon

(b Bruges, May 12, 1867; d Ditchling, Sussex, June 11, 1956).

English painter and graphic artist. Largely self-taught, he helped his father, William Brangwyn, who was an ecclesiastical architect and textile designer in Bruges. After his family moved to England in 1875 Brangwyn entered the South Kensington Art Schools and from 1882 to 1884 worked for William Morris. Harold Rathbone and Arthur Mackmurdo encouraged him to copy Raphael and Donatello in the Victoria and Albert Museum, complementing his already broad knowledge of Dutch and Flemish art.

Brangwyn’s plein-air work in Cornwall from 1884 to 1888 resulted in a series of oils, exhibited at the Royal Academy and the Royal Society of British Artists, London, in which the subdued tones indicate the influences of Whistler and the Newlyn school. Journeys to the Near East, South Africa and Europe in the early 1890s, and contact with Arthur Melville, encouraged the use of a brighter palette in exotic subjects such as the Slave Market...

Article

(b Prague, April 9, 1858; d Prague, May 23, 1934).

Bohemian etcher, illustrator, painter and writer. As the daughter of František Augustín Braun, a prominent Bohemian politician, she was able to play a significant role in Bohemia’s cultural life at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, especially in the area of Czech–French cultural relations. She was a frequent visitor to Paris, where her elder sister, who was married to the writer Elémir Bourges, lived. She was instrumental in familiarizing Bohemian artists with French culture and introduced them to such prominent artists as Rodin, Redon and others. In Bohemia she was much to the fore in bringing writers and artists together and in discovering such artists as František Bílek. She painted landscapes and together with her teacher Antonín Chittussi established contacts in France with members of the Barbizon school. She was, however, primarily an etcher and illustrator and she specialized in etchings of Old Prague, for example ...

Article

(b Marion, AR, July 14, 1865; d Pasadena, CA, Jan 19, 1942).

American painter, draughtsman and etcher. He studied at the St Louis School of Fine Arts. In 1886 he travelled to California with his parents, who were considering moving to Pasadena. While in California, he made numerous pencil sketches of landmarks. He returned to St Louis, where he continued his studies and then opened his own art school in Little Rock, AR, while specializing in portrait painting. In 1890 he went to Europe with his friends and fellow artists William A. Griffith (1866–1940) and Edmund H. Wuerpel (1866–1958). In Paris, Brown studied at the Académie Julian for one year. After returning to the USA, he moved to Pasadena in 1896. He continued to do portraiture but, finding few patrons for his works, began also to paint the landscape. He was also an etcher and, along with his brother, Howell Brown (1880–1954), founded the Print Makers Society of California. A prolific and well-respected artist, Benjamin Brown received numerous awards, including a bronze medal at the Portland World’s Fair in ...