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Article

R. W. A. Bionda

[Flor; Pieter Florentius Nicolaas Jacobus]

(b Surabaya, Java, June 9, 1864; d The Hague, June 9, 1925).

Dutch painter, illustrator and printmaker. He moved to the Netherlands c. 1875, and was taught first by Johan Hendrik Frederik Conrad Nachtweh (1857–1941). He attended the Rijksacademie van Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam from 1883 to 1888, studying under August Allebé and Barend Wijnveld (1820–1902). He then spent a year studying life drawing at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp under Charles Verlat before returning to Amsterdam, where he initially applied himself to painting landscapes in the countryside around The Hague and in Nunspeet in Gelderland in the style of the Hague school.

Arntzenius settled in The Hague in 1892. He was particularly active as a painter of Impressionist townscapes in both oil and watercolour from c. 1890 to 1910. His crowded street scenes with their misty, rainy atmosphere, such as The Spuistraat (The Hague, Gemeentemus.), were particularly successful and despite their greater emphasis on intimacy and tonality are reminiscent of the work of George Hendrik Breitner and Isaac Israëls. Arntzenius may have collaborated with ...

Article

(b Prague, April 9, 1858; d Prague, May 23, 1934).

Bohemian etcher, illustrator, painter and writer. As the daughter of František Augustín Braun, a prominent Bohemian politician, she was able to play a significant role in Bohemia’s cultural life at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, especially in the area of Czech–French cultural relations. She was a frequent visitor to Paris, where her elder sister, who was married to the writer Elémir Bourges, lived. She was instrumental in familiarizing Bohemian artists with French culture and introduced them to such prominent artists as Rodin, Redon and others. In Bohemia she was much to the fore in bringing writers and artists together and in discovering such artists as František Bílek. She painted landscapes and together with her teacher Antonín Chittussi established contacts in France with members of the Barbizon school. She was, however, primarily an etcher and illustrator and she specialized in etchings of Old Prague, for example ...

Article

Colette E. Bidon

(b Cuisery, Saône-et-Loire, April 24, 1862; d Saulieu, Côte d’Or, Oct 29, 1928).

French painter, illustrator and printmaker. He was taught by his father, Victor Bussière, a decorative painter in Mâcon. He went to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon and then to Paris, where he studied in the atelier of Alexandre Cabanel. During further studies under Puvis de Chavannes, he came into contact with Gustave Moreau. Symbolist paintings followed, drawing on French legend, as in the Song of Roland (exh. Salon 1892), and Nordic myth (Valkyries, exh. Salon 1894); he exhibited at the Symbolist Salon de la Rose+Croix, 1893–5. In 1905 he rented a studio at Grez-sur-Loing on the edge of the Forest of Fontainebleau. Paintings such as the Rhine Maidens (1906; Mâcon, Mus. Mun. Ursulines) drew on observations of the forest, populating its streams with adolescent water nymphs. Such studies of the female nude—a lifelong speciality of Bussière’s—uphold a rigorous draughtsmanship that is yet not devoid of sensuality....

Article

Paul Nicholls

(b Milan, May 20, 1852; d Milan, Jan 23, 1917).

Italian painter, printmaker, illustrator and architect. Although he was the nephew of the painter Mauro Conconi (1815–60), he studied architecture at the Accademia di Brera and the Scuola Politecnica in Milan. His pictorially imaginative approach reflected the artistic ideals of the contemporary Italian writer Giuseppe Rovani. Despite having failed in his first competition, Conconi embarked in 1876 on an architectural project for Palazzo Marino, Milan, together with the architect Guido Pisani Dossi. Courtyard of the Palazzo Marino, an evocative etching conceived as part of the project (untraced; see Giolli, pl. xxxv), was shown in 1877 at the Brera exhibition in Milan and also at the Salon in Paris, through the architect Luca Beltrami, who was resident there at that time. After collaborating briefly in the construction of the Palazzo Turati in Milan, Conconi entered two competitions for public monuments: the first, in 1880, to commemorate the Milanese anti-Austrian uprising of ...

Article

Philip Attwood

(b Munich, Feb 28, 1865; d Oberammergau, Aug 17, 1954).

German painter, medallist, designer and illustrator. He trained as a painter in the Munich Akademie from 1884, and initially won fame in this art with large decorative schemes on mythological or religious themes (e.g. Bacchanal, c. 1888; Munich, Villa Schülein) and portraits painted in a broad, realistic manner (e.g. Elise Meier-Siel, 1889; Munich, Schack-Gal.). He taught at the Munich Kunstgewerbeschule from 1902 to 1910. In 1905 he taught himself die-engraving and began making struck and cast medals, producing in all some 200, which combine his decorative abilities with the harsher style of his younger contemporaries (e.g. the bronze medal of Anton von Knoezinger, 1907; see 1985 exh. cat., no. 23). In 1907 and 1927 he produced models for coinage. Dasio also worked as a poster designer and book illustrator, as well as designing for stained glass and jewellery. The decorative symbolism of his earlier work in black and white (e.g. the cover for ...

Article

Christopher Masters

(b Montefiore Dell’Aso, nr Ascoli Piceno, Jan 6, 1874; d Rome, Feb 7, 1928).

Italian painter, illustrator and wood-engraver. He studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Bologna (1888–92) and at the Scuola di Decorazione Pittorica at the Museo Artistica Industriale in Rome (1892–5). De Carolis began painting en plein-air in the Roman Campagna under the influence of Nino Costa’s group, In Arte Libertas, with whom he exhibited in 1897. At the Venice Biennale of 1899 he exhibited allegorical paintings inspired by the Pre-Raphaelites. De Carolis became a distinguished wood-engraver and illustrator, working with such writers as Giovanni Pascoli and Gabriele D’Annunzio (for whom he also created stage designs). He himself wrote essays on art for various periodicals, including Hermes and Rinascimento. His greatest achievements, however, were in decorative painting. While creating mythological frescoes at the Salone del Consiglio Provinciale at Ascoli Piceno (1907–9), De Carolis, together with the architect Alfredo Brizzi, won the competition (1908...

Article

Dora Pérez-Tibi

(b Le Havre, June 3, 1877; d Forcalquier, Basses-Alpes, March 23, 1953).

French painter, printmaker and decorative artist. From the age of 14 he was employed as a book-keeper, but at the same time he developed his innate gift for drawing at evening classes at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Le Havre,given by the Neo-classical painter Charles Lhuillier (?1824–98). He discovered the work of Eugène Boudin, Poussin and Delacroix, whose Justice of Trajan (1840; Rouen, Mus. B.-A.) was ‘a revelation and certainly one of the most violent impressions’ of his life (Lassaigne, Eng. trans., p. 16). In 1900, with a grant from Le Havre, he joined his friend Othon Friesz in Paris and enrolled at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in the studio of Léon Bonnat. At the Musée du Louvre he studied the art of Claude Lorrain, to whom he painted several Homages between 1927 and 1947 (e.g. 1927; Nice, Mus. Masséna). His encounter with works by van Gogh at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune and with Impressionism at Durand-Ruel is reflected in such early works as ...

Article

Laurie A. Stein

(b Hamburg, Nov 19, 1865; d Badenweiler, June 11, 1902).

German designer, illustrator and painter. He trained as a businessman before entering the Kunst- und Gewerbeschule in Hamburg. He studied at the Kunst- und Gewerbeschule in Nuremberg and from 1885 attended the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich. His early paintings are naturalistic landscapes but around 1890 he shifted towards Symbolism (e.g. the Four Ages of Life, 1893–4; untraced). In 1894 he decided to devote himself to the decorative arts. Encouraged by Justus Brinckmann, a collector and museum director, and Friedrich Deneken (later Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, Krefeld), Eckmann studied the Japanese woodcut collection at the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg. Using traditional Japanese techniques, he began producing his own woodcut designs in 1895. Three Swans on Dark Water (1895; Hamburg, Mus. Kst & Gew.) reflects a general preoccupation with late 19th-century music, art and literature with swans as symbolic images, and they were a frequent motif in many of his subsequent works. Eckmann’s woodcuts, as well as ornamental borders, vignettes, bookplates and other graphic designs, were illustrated in such periodicals as ...

Article

Aimo Reitala

(Gustaf Aristides)

(b Kiiala Estate, nr Porvoo [Swed. Borgå], July 21, 1854; d Haikko, nr Porvoo, Aug 18, 1905).

Finnish painter, illustrator and etcher. He was Finland’s leading artist in the late 19th century, introducing French influences into Finnish art but also helping to gain a broader international interest in his country’s culture. He was not a great innovator, however, and although his reputation in Finland remained firm, international recognition dwindled after his death until the renewal of interest in realism that took place in the late 20th century.

Edelfelt’s father, Carl Albert Edelfelt, was a member of the Swedish aristocracy who had moved to Finland as a young man, eventually rising to the position of General Director in the Department of Housing, while his mother, Alexandra Edelfelt, was an acquaintance of Finland’s national poet, J. L. Runeberg. She played an important role in instilling in Edelfelt the romantic idealism that became the guiding principle of his life and art. In 1869, while still at school, Edelfelt began taking classes at the School of Drawing established by the Finnish Arts Association in Helsinki, and from ...

Article

Article

Theo Cowdell

(b Edinburgh, April 4, 1880; d London, Dec 30, 1969).

Scottish painter, printmaker and illustrator. After studying at Daniel Stewart’s College, Edinburgh, he was apprenticed as a lithographic draughtsman and designer from 1894 to 1900 and studied part-time at the Royal Institute of Art, Edinburgh. He worked in London as a medical illustrator from 1900 to 1902, and then as a commercial artist, joining the staff of the Illustrated London News (1903–7). He illustrated limited editions of the classics, including Thomas Malory’s Morte d’Arthur (London, 1910), Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales (London, 1912) and Homer’s The Odyssey (London, 1924).

Flint established his reputation with watercolour landscapes of Scotland, France, Italy and Spain, many of them containing references to local customs, as in Ascension Day, Catalonia (Eton, Berks, Coll.). Having produced landscapes of Spain from 1921, he became particularly associated with figure studies of girls either nude or in Spanish costume. His delight in the female form also found expression in a book of caprices, ...

Article

Alicia Craig Faxon

(b Reims, Oct 23, 1852; d Paris, July 11, 1931).

French painter, printmaker and illustrator. Around 1860 he moved with his family to Paris, where he was taught by Jacquesson de la Chevreuse (1839–1903), Jean Baptiste Carpeaux and André Gill. He participated in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71) and was a friend of the poets Paul Verlaine and Arthur Rimbaud; the latter is the presumed subject of a portrait (1874; priv. col., see 1982 exh. cat., no. 1) that may have influenced Manet’s late portrait of Mallarmé (1876; Paris, Louvre). Forain first met Manet through his friendship with Degas in the early 1870s at the salon of Nina de Callias. He continued to associate with Manet, meeting the group of young Impressionists at the Café Guerbois and the Café de la Nouvelle Athènes. In 1878 Forain painted a small gouache, Café Scene (New York, Brooklyn Mus.), which probably influenced Manet’s Bar at the Folies-Bergère (...

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Sibylle Einholz

In 

Article

(b Birmingham, March 15, 1863; d Waverley, Oct 1, 1930).

Australian painter, etcher and illustrator, also active in England. In his formative years he undertook illustrative commissions for the Picturesque Atlas of Australasia, as well as for the Australian Town and Country Journal and other publications. For a time he painted with his friends Tom Roberts, Arthur Streeton and Charles Conder at their camps around Mosman, or on trips to Richmond and along the Hawkesbury River. In his best paintings of this period he achieved a lyricism and sure handling of paint that resembles the work of Conder. During this period he also became interested in etching. In 1900 he moved to New York and the following year he travelled to London, where he continued to work as a black-and-white artist with the London Graphic and Black and White. He painted landscapes depicting picturesque sights and developed an interest in monotypes, using the delicacy of this medium to create soft, low-key images of atmospheric subjects. He worked in the tradition of English landscape painters, such as John Constable and John Sell Cotman, producing calm, quiet, understated images....

Article

Sepp Kern

(b Leipzig, Feb 28, 1867; d Stockholm, Jan 26, 1948).

German painter, printmaker and illustrator. Having established a reputation as a caricaturist while still a schoolboy through drawings contributed to his school magazine (a satirical weekly), he entered the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf in 1885. Expelled a year later because of his irreverent treatment of the image of the Laocoön, he studied briefly at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich before being allowed to return. He then studied under Peter Janssen until 1889. He moved again to Munich and in the nearby artists’ colony of Dachau produced around 30 impressionist landscape paintings, for example The Angler (1892; Munich, Lenbachhaus). In 1892 he worked on the bourgeois family magazine Fliegende Blätter. He began to work with the publisher Albert Langen in 1895, designing covers for brochures and books. Drawings by Heine appeared in the art magazine Pan, and he rose to sudden fame in 1896 with the first issue of the magazine ...

Article

Lee M. Edwards

(b Waal, Bavaria, May 26, 1849; d Budleigh Salterton, Devon, March 31, 1914).

English painter, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, writer and teacher of German birth. He was the only child of Lorenz Herkomer (d 1887), a wood-carver, and Josephine (née Niggl), an accomplished pianist and music teacher. They left Bavaria for the USA in 1851 and lived briefly in Cleveland, OH, before settling in Southampton, England, in 1857.

Herkomer received his first art instruction from his father and from 1864 to 1865 he attended the Southampton School of Art. Later he often criticized the crippling academic methods to which he was exposed as a student. In 1865 he briefly attended the Munich Academy and spent the summer terms of 1866 and 1867 at the South Kensington Art School in London, where he found the teaching ‘aimless and undirected’. With the encouragement of his fellow student Luke Fildes, Herkomer took up black-and-white illustration; his first wood-engraving appeared in Good Words...

Article

[Paul, Georges Hermann René]

(b Paris, Dec 27, 1864; d Les Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, Bouches-du-Rhône, June 23, 1940).

French illustrator, printmaker and painter. After briefly studying sciences to please his father, he entered the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Paris and then studied painting under Henry Lerolle and Gustave Colin. He soon made a reputation through his lithographs and drawings for a number of journals. He worked in 1894 on the Courrier français and on Le Rire, in 1897 on Cri de Paris, in 1898 on the anarchist periodical La Feuille, in 1901 on Assiette au beurre, in 1904 on Temps nouveaux and in 1906 on La Guerre sociale. During the Dreyfus affair in 1899 he acquired some notoriety through his pro-Dreyfus drawings for Le Figaro.

From 1894 to 1931 Hermann-Paul illustrated a number of books, such as Laurent Tailhade’s Au pays du mufle (1894), Emile Zola’s L’Assommoir (1920), François Rabelais’s Gargantua (1921), Colette’s Mitsou and Henri de Montherlant’s Les Bestiaires (...

Article

(b Amsterdam, Dec 4, 1868; d Bloemendaal, Dec 31, 1938).

Dutch painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer and stained-glass artist. He trained at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam (1886–90), under the directorship of August Allebé. Having initially painted and drawn Impressionistic landscapes, he started working in the ’t Gooi region in 1892, where, influenced by Vincent van Gogh and Jan Toorop, he made a number of Symbolist drawings and lithographs. In 1896 he married the Dutch writer Henriette van der Schalk. They both devoted themselves to the recently founded Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij. In the years up to c. 1900 Holst produced among other things a series of lithographs of political cartoons with socialist content, as well as serene landscapes and paintings of girls from the village of Huizen. His allegorical murals (1902; in situ), on topics such as ‘Industry’ or ‘Commerce’, in the new Koopmansbeurs in Amsterdam by H. P. Berlage (1876–1903), marked an important point in his career as his first opportunity to construct a monumental piece of work. Partly inspired by the murals in the town hall at ’s Hertogenbosch by Antoon Derkinderen, he developed a tight, stylized type of design, which he believed to be ideal for visually representing idealistic and exalted thoughts. In his murals (...

Article

Helen A. Cooper

(b Boston, MA, Feb 24, 1836; d Prout’s Neck, ME, Sept 29, 1910).

American painter, illustrator and etcher. He was one of the two most admired American late 19th-century artists (the other being Thomas Eakins) and is considered to be the greatest pictorial poet of outdoor life in the USA and its greatest watercolourist (see fig.). Nominally a landscape painter, in a sense carrying on Hudson River school attitudes, Homer was an artist of power and individuality whose images are metaphors for the relationship of Man and Nature. A careful observer of visual reality, he was at the same time alive to the purely physical properties of pigment and colour, of line and form, and of the patterns they create. His work is characterized by bold, fluid brushwork, strong draughtsmanship and composition, and particularly by a lack of sentimentality.

Homer was the second of three sons of Charles Savage Homer, a hardware importer, and Henrietta Benson Homer, a gifted amateur watercolourist. Brought up in Cambridge, MA, where he attended school, he had an active outdoor boyhood that left a lifelong liking for the country. An independent, strong-willed young man, he showed an early preference for art and was encouraged in his interest by both parents. Like a number of self-educated American artists, Homer was first known as an illustrator. At 19 he became an apprentice at the lithographic firm of ...

Article

Belinda Thomson

(b Paris, Nov 30, 1867; d Paris, Feb 1936).

French printmaker, illustrator and painter. He became one of the original members of the Nabis as an art student at the Académie Julian, Paris, in 1888–9. He joined in the early group ventures such as printmaking, puppet plays and theatre design, but he was never involved with the more esoteric Symbolist aspirations of some of the group’s leading members. He first exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants in 1891 and participated in the Nabis’s group shows at Louis Le Barc de Boutteville’s gallery. With Edouard Vuillard and Maurice Denis, he was quick to attract public attention, the nature of his work earning him the sobriquet ‘le Nabi journaliste’. His art was inspired by contemporary life, with subjects drawn from the spectacle of modern Paris, particularly from the café, circus and boxing ring. Both in subject and technique he can be likened to such artists as Adolphe Willette, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen, and his work shares many characteristics with theirs, notably an economy of line and a simplicity of shapes and colours. Such features derived in Ibels’s case from the art of Honoré Daumier, Japanese printmakers and Paul Gauguin and the Pont-Aven group....