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Article

Lucília Verdelho da Costa and Sandro Callerio

(b Lisbon, Aug 26, 1839; d Genoa, Nov 30, 1915).

Portuguese painter, architect and restorer, active in Italy. He came from a middle-class family with trading interests in Italy. In 1854 Andrade went to Genoa, and friendships there with such artists as Tammar Luxoro (1824–99) led him to study painting with Alexandre Calame and later to study architecture at the Accademia Ligustica di Belle Arti. He travelled widely, and in Italy he came into contact with Antonio Fontanesi and Carlo Pittura (1835/6–91), with whom he became one of the most active painters of the Scuola di Rivara. According to Telamaro Signorini, Andrade was among the painters who frequented the Caffè Michelangiolo in Florence. The influence of the macchiaioli painters is also evident from 1863 in his paintings, especially in Return from the Woods at Dusk (1869; Genoa, Mus. Accad. Ligustica B.A.)

Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Andrade’s work represents a transition from the Romantic school of Calame to the Naturalism of the Barbizon school. His landscapes show careful observation of nature. The locations in northern Italy seem to have been chosen for their melancholy and serenity, as in the landscapes of Fontanesi. Andrade’s pastoral scenes at dawn or dusk are seen through morning mists or against sunsets, or they depict uninhabited countryside. Most of these works, for example ...

Article

Alexandru Beldiman

(b Bucharest, Oct 27, 1902; d 1994).

Romanian restorer, architect and architectural historian . He studied (1922–8) at the High School of Architecture, Bucharest, under Petre Antonescu and Paul Smărăndescu. In 1928 he obtained a two-year bursary to study at the Accademia di Romania, Rome, where he specialized in architectural restoration. He attended the courses of Gustavo Giovannoni at the faculty of architecture at the Università La Sapienza, Rome, and studied Italian restoration projects. From 1930 he worked for the Historical Monuments Commission in Bucharest. Among his early restoration projects were the 18th-century churches of Kretzulescu (1932–9) and Antim (1945), Bucharest, and during this period he also designed a number of original works, such as the Gordon Hayward Villa (1936–7) in Cîmpina, the church in Balcic, and the Pherekyde and Constantinescu houses (1938), also in Balcic. Notable later restorations include the 17th-century monastery church (1943–4) at Iası, the church (...

Article

(b Pieve Santo Stefano, nr Arezzo, May 13, 1836; d Florence, Sept 12, 1922).

Italian dealer, restorer, collector and painter . From 1854 he trained as a painter at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, executing such works as France Succouring Italy during the War of 1859 (1859–60; Impruneta, Villa Triboli). During the 1870s he began acquiring important works of art and became known as a notable dealer in Italian Old Master paintings, sculpture and objets d’art. He often obtained works of impeccable provenance, such as Arnolfo di Cambio’s marble figures for the ancient façade of Florence Cathedral, which included the Nativity, Pope Boniface VIII (both c. 1296–1300; Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo) and Death of the Virgin (c. 1296–1300; destr., fragments in Berlin, Bodemus.; plaster copy, executed by Bardini before the sale to Berlin, in Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo). An extensive range of significant works dating from approximately the 12th century to the 16th passed through his possession, entering major museums and private collections, including numerous Italian bronze statuettes, many of which were acquired by ...

Article

(b Sarrebourg [now Saarburg, Germany], Oct 14, 1834; d Paris, Feb 28, 1915).

French architect, restorer, teacher and writer. His architectural training began in 1854 in the studio of Henri Labrouste and then, when it was disbanded in 1856, in that of Viollet-le-Duc, which had been opened largely at Baudot’s request. His academic training was limited to a brief period (1856–7) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. From 1856 until the death of Viollet-le-Duc in 1879 Baudot’s life was that of a disciple, first as a student and later as a collaborator on restoration work (especially at Notre-Dame in Paris and the cathedral of Clermont-Ferrand). This patronage, while provoking strong antagonism from certain quarters, made it easy for him to enter professional life. Between 1869 and 1872 Baudot, possibly supported by Viollet-le-Duc who sat on the panel of judges, won first prize in three competitions for new churches: at Rambouillet (built in 1869), Levallois (1870; unexecuted) and Grenoble (...

Article

Amedeo Bellini

(b Milan, Nov 13, 1854; d Rome, Aug 8, 1933).

Italian architect, teacher, restorer and writer. He attended both the Politecnico in Milan and the Accademia di Brera, studying as a pupil of Camillo Boito. He graduated in 1875 and the following year enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, where he attended Jean-Louis Pascal’s atelier, and came into contact with Charles Garnier, Gabriel-Jean-Antoine Davioud and Théodore Ballu. He also cultivated the interest in engraving that he had acquired under the painter Luigi Conconi and exhibited at the Salon of 1877. In 1880 Beltrami won the competition organized by the municipality of Milan for a monument (unexecuted) to the anti-Austrian uprising of 1848 and was appointed to the chair in architecture at the Accademia di Brera. The following year he also shared first prize with Carlo Ferrario (1833–1907) in a competition organized by the Accademia di Brera for a new façade for the cathedral. Between 1880 and 1886...

Article

Frank Arneil Walker

(b Cologne, Oct 18, 1845; d Zagreb, April 17, 1926).

German architect, active in Croatia. He was educated in Cologne, then continued his architectural studies in Vienna, where he entered the studio of Friedrich von Schmidt, and was later in Rome. Under Schmidt he worked on the restoration of the Stephansdom in Vienna, and in 1876 he was put in charge of similar work in Croatia, implementing Schmidt’s designs (1875–82) for the cathedral at Đakovo and his project (1876–82) to restore St Mark’s, Zagreb. His most notable restorations were at the church of Marija Bistrica (1878–83) and at Zagreb Cathedral (1879–1902), but his rather purist approach often failed to respect the organic accretions of later periods, and he destroyed many provincial Baroque buildings, for example in the Gornji Grad and Kaptol districts of Zagreb (and elsewhere). An earthquake in Zagreb in 1880 gave Bollé his greatest opportunities in terms of both architecture and urban planning. In addition to further restoration work and a number of new neo-Gothic and neo-classical churches he built several urban housing blocks and public buildings in a Renaissance Revival style reminiscent of works in Vienna. Of these the city’s Crafts School (...

Article

Ye. I. Kirichenko

(Yevgrafovich)

(b Ufa, 1870; d Moscow, Jan 29, 1946).

Russian architect, architectural historian, restorer and exhibition organizer. He studied (1887–91) at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, Moscow, and then at the Technische Hochschule, Zurich, where he completed his studies in 1894. He designed the Russian craft pavilion at the Exposition Universelle (1900) in Paris with A. Ya Golovin and with the painter Konstantin Korovin. The work largely reflected the search for a distinct national style, particularly the revival of Russian timber architecture and tent-roofed churches (for illustration see Mir Iskusstva). His own churches, built for the Old Believers community, are in Bogorodsk (now Noginsk; 1900–02), Tokmakov Lane, Moscow, Gavrilov Lane, Moscow, and in Orekhovo-Zuyevo and Kuznetsy near Moscow, all built in 1906–9. Two later examples are at Kuznetsov (1911) near Kashin, near Moscow, and in Riga (1913–14). They are picturesque compositions, complex in form with expressive contrasts in texture and colour. Similar in approach are his country houses, including those for ...

Article

Alessandro Conti

(b Venice, April 25, 1859; d Rome, July 10, 1925).

Italian archaeologist. He was educated in Venice at a time when there was great controversy over the conservation of original works of art, especially in connection with the restorations (1875) in S Marco. In 1888 he moved to Rome, where he became an inspector of monuments and advocated the establishment of a photographic archive and a catalogue of monuments as a basis for restoration programmes. Having collaborated on excavations inside the Pantheon in 1892, from 1895 he superintended new excavations in the Forum Romanum (see Rome, §V, 1); the latter uncovered fundamental evidence concerning the origins of Rome, including the Lapis Niger (1st century bc; in situ), an archaic Latin inscription (c. 500 bc; Corpus inscriptionum latinarum, Academia Litterarum Borussicae, Berlin, 1863–, vi, 36840) and ‘pre-Romulan’ burial grounds. He was influenced by John Ruskin’s philosophy of art and argued that the prime function of restoration is to preserve original materials. In ...

Article

V. P. Tsel’tner

[Mikhail]

(b Romanivka, nr Ternopil, Oct 30, 1882; d 1939).

Ukrainian painter, teacher, theorist and restorer. From 1899 to 1905 he studied as the Matejka Academy of Art in Kraków and from 1905 at the Akademien der Bildenden Künste in Munich and Vienna. He lived and worked in Paris from 1908 to 1911 and visited Italy in 1910–11. He then moved to Lemberg (now L’viv), where he restored medieval paintings, and from 1917 settled in Kiev. After the Russian Revolution he emerged as one of the major artists who called for the revival of the Ukrainian national artistic tradition, regarding monumental painting as the most appropriate form. His paintings combine such timeless motifs as labour, motherhood, and man’s relationship to the soil with an acute sense of the great dramas of his time and are produced in a highly distinctive continuation of the Ukrainian Art Nouveau style. He drew on the traditions of Byzantine mural painting, Italian early Renaissance art and the medieval art of Ukraine, as well as on the stylistic features of folk art. He was an outstanding teacher and theorist who defended his ideas vigorously and skilfully in public appearances, uniting around him a set of like-minded young artists and creating a tendency that became known as ‘Boychukism’. From ...

Article

Alexandru Beldiman

(b Vienna, May 23, 1899; d Iaşı Nov 1, 1960).

Romanian architect, urban planner, painter, theorist and restorer. Descended from a Wallachian family of statesmen and scholars, he studied (1920–29) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, with Gustave Umbdenstock and G. Gromort. His work consistently showed Neo-classical and Renaissance influences, from the Palladian-style Chrissoveloni Bank (1928; with A. Schmiedigen), Bucharest, to the substantial number of buildings he completed in Romania during the 1930s. In many of these the classicist forms overlaid a sophisticated functionality in the planning, for example the IAR aeroplane factory (1933), Braşov. He also designed houses (e.g. in Amza Square, Bucharest, 1935), hotels (e.g. the Hotel Bellona on the Black Sea coast, 1934) and churches, such as those at Tetcani and Flǎmânda (1939), and he participated in the production of the master plan of 1935 for Bucharest. He was commissioned to design the Romanian Pavilion for the World’s Fair, New York (...

Article

Jaynie Anderson

(b Caravaggio, Aug 8, 1844; d Milan, Dec 7, 1918).

Italian restorer and painter. He studied painting and restoration under Giuseppe Bertini and Giuseppe Molteni at the Accademia di Brera, Milan, and, after Molteni’s death in 1867, inherited his studio at the Brera and his private clientele. Cavenaghi was closely associated with Giovanni Morelli and his circle, most notably the collectors Gian Giacomo Poldi-Pezzoli in Milan, Sir Austen Henry Layard and Prince Giuseppe Giovanelli in Venice, as well as Morelli’s pupils, Gustavo Frizzoni and Jean Paul Richter. From the early 1870s most of the important pictures from north Italian collections in need of conservation were sent to Cavenaghi. Among his most famous restorations were the frescoes by Francesco Francia and Lorenzo Costa (i) (rest. 1874) in S Cecilia, Bologna, Donato Bramante’s frescoes (Milan, Brera) formerly in the Casa Panigarola, Milan, and Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper (Milan, S Maria delle Grazie; rest. 1908). As revealed in letters between Richter and Morelli, Cavenaghi’s studio became a laboratory for testing restoration techniques and for the re-attribution of paintings and was frequented by the most important international museum directors and connoisseurs. From ...

Article

Jean-Pierre de Bruyn

(b Lille, Feb 8, 1861; d Ghent, Jan 7, 1938).

Belgian painter, sculptor, illustrator, and stage designer. He studied music at the Koninklijk Muziekconservatorium and sculpture at the Gewerbeschule, Ghent (after 1877). He visited Paris in 1887 and Italy in 1890, with a grant from the city of Ghent. He was deeply impressed by the masters of the Quattrocento, and was encouraged to take up painting after meeting Constantin Meunier (1891). He painted Symbolist scenes and was influenced by Art Nouveau. After exhibiting his work with Les XX in Brussels (1893), he made decorative panels for Oostakker Castle.

As an illustrator Doudelet worked on Pol De Mont’s Van Jezus (Antwerp, 1897) and books by Maurice Maeterlinck, for example Douze chansons (Paris, 1896) and Pelléas et Mélisande (Brussels, 1892 or 1922). He illustrated the periodicals Réveil (1895–1896), De Vlaamsche school, Mercure de France, Pan, L’Eroica, Nuovo Convito, De Vlaamsche School, Woord en beeld...

Article

J. M. Richards

(Melchior)

(b London, Sept 11, 1919).

English architect and conservator. He studied at the Bartlett School of Architecture, University of London (1938), and the Architectural Association School, London (1946–9). After working in architects’ offices in London and Norwich (1949–54), he entered private practice in Norwich and, in partnership (1954–77) with David Mawson, designed several buildings in the area such as Trinity Presbyterian Church (1954), some warehouses, housing and educational buildings including a group (1969) for the University of East Anglia, Norwich. Feilden was more widely known for his conservation and restoration work on historic buildings. In 1955 he took charge of a restoration programme for Norwich Cathedral and was subsequently appointed Cathedral Architect (1963–77). He also served as Surveyor to York Minster (1965–77), carrying out a major restoration programme, and as Surveyor to St Paul’s Cathedral, London (1969–77), where he planned and supervised repair and restoration work at a time when the fabric of the cathedral was in increasing danger from ground settlement, pollution and traffic vibration. His conservation work was notable both for its technical expertise and its scholarship. A member of the Ancient Monuments Board from ...

Article

Alberto Villar Movellán

(b Barcelona, 1845; d Barcelona, 1924).

Spanish Catalan architect, restorer and teacher. He studied at the Escuela Superior de Arquitectura in Madrid and then continued his preparation in Barcelona under Elías Rogent before becoming a professor in the city’s newly created Escuela de Arquitectura (1871), teaching art history and design. With Rogent he specialized in the restoration of such great architectural ensembles as Tarragona Cathedral (1883), frequently using brick and generally adopting a historicist approach influenced by the rationalist theories of Viollet-le-Duc. Other noteworthy achievements include the reinforcement of the cupola of the basilica del Pilar in Saragossa and the construction of the cimborio of Barcelona Cathedral, in a perfect neo-Gothic style. Font i Carreras also built numerous mansions for the aristocracy and wealthy bourgeoisie of Catalonia and was responsible for the Palace of Fine Arts in the Exposició Universal (1888) in Barcelona. In the course of his successful career he also became an associate member of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando, Madrid, and in Barcelona was elected to membership of the Academia de S Jorge and the Academia de Ciencias y Artes; he was also President of the Asociacíon de Arquitectos de Cataluña and of the Comisión Provincial de Monumentos....

Article

Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Boussat, Gironde, July 24, 1845; d Montfermeil, Aug 27, 1926).

French architect. He studied (1865–9) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and had an important career in the Service des Edifices Diocésains, which he joined in 1876. He succeeded Charles Laisné as diocesan architect of Auch in 1879 and subsequently became architect of Meaux, Poitiers and Laval. He finally became inspecteur général adjoint in 1901. At the same time he worked for the Commission des Monuments Historiques. The various buildings he restored included the ancient abbey of Conques (begun 1878) and, in Poitiers, the churches of Notre-Dame-La-Grande, Ste Radegonde and St Hilaire Le Grand, as well as the Palais de Justice. He helped with the excavation (1881–2) of the ruins of Sanxay and restored the abbey of St-Savin-sur-Gartempe, the castle at Chauvigny (all Vienne) and the church at Poissy (Yvelines). Most of his work in the South of France involved the restoration or conservation of Romano-Gallic remains. He became a member of the Monuments Historiques in ...

Article

Oldest and largest photography museum in the United States, located in Rochester, NY. Since it opened its doors to the public in November 1949, George Eastman House has played a pivotal role in shaping and expanding the field of American photography. George Eastman, founder of Eastman Kodak Company, never knew his home would become a museum; he bequeathed the mansion where he lived from 1905 until 1932 to the University of Rochester to serve as the residence of its president. In 1946 a board of trustees was formed to establish George Eastman House as an independent, non-profit museum, a memorial to Eastman and his advancements in photographic technology.

Working under director Oscar Solbert, a retired US Army general and former Kodak executive, was the museum’s first curator, Beaumont Newhall. Newhall transformed the museum from one primarily concerned with the technical applications of photography to one emphasizing its artistic development. The museum became an international centre of scholarship, and in ...

Article

Codruţa Cruceanu

(b Iaşi, Dec 12, 1869; d Bucharest, Dec 16, 1943).

Romanian architect, restorer, architectural historian and teacher. He studied engineering (1889–93) at the School of Roads and Bridges, Bucharest, and later studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in the studio of Victor Laloux, where he obtained a diploma in 1901. After 1906 he was active in the Romanian Historical Monuments Commission, researching the ancient historical architecture of Romania. He was among the promoters of the ‘neo-Romanian’ style, along with Ion Mincu, Petre Antonescu, Constantin Iotzu (1884–1962) and Grigore Cerchez (1850–1927). Ghika-Budeşti’s most significant building is the Museum of National Art (1912–38; now the Romanian Peasant Museum), Bucharest. Built of traditional stone, brick and tiles, it is remarkable both for a compositional balance characteristic of traditional Romanian architecture and for its monumental dimensions. At the same time the human scale is retained by the incorporation of various decorative elements: dogtooth motifs, mouldings, niches, balustrades and ornamental tendrils reminiscent of the Brâncoveanu period (...

Article

W. Iain Mackay

(b Ica, 1914; d Lima, July 21, 1961).

Peruvian painter, potter and sculptor. He had little formal education, but after training as a boxer in Lima he settled in Buenos Aires, where his interest in pottery led him to set up a workshop for the conservation of Pre-Columbian pottery and for the manufacture of pottery in the style of this period. He learnt to sculpt and studied painting under Emilio Pettoruti (1892–1971). In 1938 he went to Paris, where he studied the work of the French masters and relaxed his style, rejecting academic canons. Returning to Peru in 1942, he adopted a rather Expressionist style of painting, with clear lines, suggestive of sculpted forms. He avoided the other avant-garde European styles of the period, opting for a while for elements of the Indigenist style (see Peru, Republic of, §IV, 2). Under Pettoruti he developed a great interest in sculpture. His activity in this field was limited to a few works, culminating in ...

Article

Achim Sommer

(b Euskirchen, April 22, 1924; d Cologne, April 5, 1987).

German collector and restorer. After World War II he trained as a restorer of paintings in Cologne, Munich and Vienna. He worked in the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum in Cologne from 1949 and took charge of the restoration department in 1963. He started his collection with paintings by Cologne painters such as Peter Abelen (1884–1962), Joseph Fassbender, Peter Herkenrath (1900–93) and Ludwig Egidius Ronig (1885–1959). Under the stimulus of avant-garde exhibitions in Cologne and Düsseldorf, a keen interest in current events in the world of art and his friendships with artists and gallery owners, Hahn widened the scope of his collection. His advice as a connoisseur of contemporary art was valued not only by his museum colleagues but also by collectors such as Peter Ludwig.

Hahn assembled a remarkably complete collection of works by many artists closely connected with Nouveau Réalisme, including Arman, Christo, César, Jean Tinguely, ...

Article

Ronald J. Onorato

(Morrison)

(b Hartford, CT, Nov 12, 1864; d Wickford, RI, Jan 1, 1943).

American architect, preservationist, and author. Isham was one of the earliest American architects to specialize in the restoration of colonial American structures. He worked on a large number of 17th- and 18th-century structures in New England, wrote several major works on American architecture, conducted archaeological site work, and also designed new, mostly residential buildings.

Most of his private and professional life was spent in Rhode Island with its large number of existing colonial buildings. The state’s extensive collection of early structures influenced his career, as did other Rhode Island architects who helped generate the Colonial Revival style nationally such as Edmund R. Willson (1856–1906), of the prominent Providence firm of Stone, Carpenter & Willson, with whom Isham trained in the late 1880s. About the same time, he received Bachelor and Master degrees from Brown University, and he married Elizabeth Barbour Ormsbee in 1895.

It is impossible to study colonial American architecture without encountering buildings that Isham restored. While some of his preservation methods and decisions have been superceded by more modern approaches and technologies, he notably produced scores of carefully measured drawings, which are still used by preservationists and historians today. His projects included such significant 17th- and 18th-century structures as Newport’s Colony House, Trinity Church, Redwood Library, and Wanton-Lyman-Allen house (all restored in the 1920s), the Stephen Hopkins House and University Hall at Brown University in Providence, Bishop Berkeley’s Whitehall in Middletown, the Eleazar Arnold House in Lincoln, and the Gilbert Stuart Birthplace in North Kingstown, all Rhode Island. His bibliography encompasses surveys of early Rhode Island and Connecticut homes, scholarly studies on specific buildings, such as the First Baptist Meeting House, Providence, and St Paul’s in Wickford and papers on individual architects such as John Holden Greene....