1-20 of 41 results  for:

  • Renaissance/Baroque Art x
  • Interior Design and Furniture x
  • Renaissance and Mannerism x
Clear all

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Antonio di Neri]

(b 1453; d 1516).

Italian intarsia designer, civil engineer, architect and engraver, was a native of Siena. From 1483 to 1502 he worked in Siena Cathedral, providing carving and intarsia for the choir-stalls in the chapel of San Giovanni (1483–1502; seven panels survive in La Collegiata in San Quirico d’Orcia and one in the Kunstgewerbemuseum in Vienna) and building the benches for the Piccolomini library (...

Article

(b Modena, c. 1490; d London, ?Feb 15, 1569).

Italian stuccoist, sculptor, painter and costume designer, active in France and England. He worked in France as a painter (1515–22), probably under Jean Perréal and Jean Bourdichon, then in Mantua, possibly under Giulio Romano, possibly calling himself ‘da Milano’. By 1532 he was at Fontainebleau and in 1533 was engaged with Francesco Primaticcio on the stuccoes and painting of the Chambre du Roi and was one of the highest paid of his collaborators. He may also have worked on the Galerie François I. He was described in 1534 as sculpteur et faiseur de masques and in 1535 made masquerade costumes for the wedding of the Comte de Saint-Pol. He was later involved in a fraud and by August 1537 was in England, where he settled. By 1540 Bellin was employed at Whitehall Palace, probably on making stucco chimneypieces, including that in the privy chamber. The following year he and his company of six were working on the slate carvings at ...

Article

Darius Sikorski

(b Urbino, c. 1524–5; d Urbino, Sept 20, 1575).

Italian stuccoist and sculptor. He enjoyed extensive patronage from the court of Guidobaldo II della Rovere, Duke of Urbino, for whom he modelled fireplaces and entire ceilings representing allegories of princely prerogative and aristocratic supremacy. This practice, unusual in Italy (where stucco was generally a decorative adjunct to fresco), may be partly explained by the fact that Guidobaldo did not retain a permanent court painter.

Between 1538 and 1541 Brandani was apprenticed in Urbino to Giovanni Maria di Casteldurante, a maiolica artist, but his earliest known work (c. 1551) is the luxuriant and overcrowded stucco ceiling, modelled with five relief scenes from the Life of St Peter, in the chapel of the Palazzo Corte Rossa, Fossombrone, near Urbino, for Cardinal Giulio della Rovere (1533–78). In 1552–3 Brandani made contributions to the stucco decoration at the Villa Giulia, Rome, modelling friezes, small roundels and grotesques in the rooms left and right of the entrance....

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Joost, Jobst]

(b Lichtensteig, now in Switzerland, Feb 28, 1552; d Kassel, Jan 31, 1632),

Swiss clockmaker, instrument maker and mathematician, who served in Kassel from 1579 to 1592 as maker of clocks, mechanical globes and astronomical instruments to William IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. On the Landgrave’s death in 1592, Bürgi moved to Prague to take up a similar post in the service of Rudolf II, where he was regarded as the leading clockmaker of his day. Bürgi’s technical innovations included a device which directed a constant driving force to the escapement; he was one of the first horologists to fit his clocks with sweep hands to measure seconds....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

(fl 1511–1542),

Italian painter, active in England. He is named as ‘Alex of myllen’ and thereafter described as a ‘myllyner’, so it seems likely that he came from Milan; the persistent notion that he was a woman has been discredited by a record of tiles ‘by him delivered’. From 1511 to 1542...

Article

Cassone  

Ellen Callmann and J. W. Taylor

[It.: ‘chest’]

Term used for large, lavishly decorated chests made in Italy from the 14th century to the end of the 16th. The word is an anachronism, taken from Vasari (2/1568, ed. G. Milanesi, 1878–85, ii, p. 148), the 15th-century term being forziero. Wealthy households needed many chests, but the ornate cassoni, painted and often combined with pastiglia decoration, were usually commissioned in pairs when a house was renovated for a newly married couple and were ordered, together with other furnishings, by the groom. Florence was the main centre of production, though cassoni were also produced in Siena and occasionally in the Veneto and elsewhere.

The earliest cassoni were simple structures with rounded lids, probably painted in solid colours, such as the red cassone in Giotto’s Annunciation to St Anne (c. 1305; Padua, Arena Chapel). The earliest known chests with painted designs are all from the same shop (e.g. Florence, Pal. Davanzati, inv. mob. 162). Like the much more numerous contemporary chests with gilded low-relief in pastiglia (...

Article

Kathryn A. Charles

[Silvio da Fiesole; Silvio di fu Giovanni di Neri de’ Ceparelli]

(b Poggibonsi, c. 1495; d Milan, after 1547).

Italian sculptor and stuccoist. Noted for his decorative work, trophies, masks and stucco ornaments, he was trained in the style of Michelangelo by Andrea Ferrucci in Florence. His first independent commission, the tomb of Raffaelle Maffei (il Volterrano) in S Lino at Volterra (1522), was arranged by Ferrucci. He usually worked with other artists, including his brother Vincenzo (b c. 1505). In 1524 Ferrucci was commissioned to execute the monument to Antonio Strozzi in S Maria Novella, Florence, for which Cosini carved a relief of the Virgin and Child. His execution of the face recalls Ferrucci’s technique, derived from Leonardo da Vinci. Also in this period Cosini executed the monument to Ruggero Minerbetti for the same church, in which Michelangelo’s influence is especially apparent. Cosini’s approach was elegant as well as humorous, and his skill as a carver enabled him to give marble a tender, flesh-like quality. His ability was recognized by ...

Article

[Nanni, Giovanni; Ricamatori, Giovanni dei]

(b Udine, Oct 27, 1487; d Rome, 1564).

Italian stuccoist, painter, draughtsman and architect. In 1502 he was apprenticed to Giovanni Martini (also called Giovanni da Udine; d 1535), a painter in Udine, and subsequently he may have studied with Giorgione in Venice. According to Vasari, armed with a letter of introduction to Baldassare Castiglione, he decided to go to Rome to seek work with Raphael. He joined Raphael’s workshop, where he may have learnt techniques of still-life painting from a Netherlandish colleague. The musical instruments in Raphael’s St Cecilia altarpiece (1516; Bologna, Pin. N.) are often attributed to Giovanni.

In Rome, Giovanni da Udine was particularly inspired by the decoration of ancient buildings. Excavations revealed rooms then underground (thus called grotte) with a style of painted and plastered decoration incorporating foliated scrolls, naturalistic animals and plants and fantastic figures and architecture (hence called grotteschi; see Grotesque). Such motifs had been copied before in Rome (notably by Bernardino Pinturicchio), but it was ...

Article

Paul Barolsky

[Ricciarelli, Daniele]

(b Volterra, 1509; d Rome, April 4, 1566).

Italian painter, stuccoist and sculptor. Much of the fascination of his career resides in the development of his style from provincial origins to a highly sophisticated manner, combining the most accomplished elements of the art of Michelangelo, Raphael and their Mannerist followers in a distinctive and highly original way. He provided an influential model for numerous later artists in Rome.

The only work to survive from Daniele’s early career is a fresco, a political allegory of Justice, painted shortly after 1530 for the Palazzo dei Priori in Volterra (now detached, Volterra, Pin. Com.). It reflects the pervasive influence of Sodoma, with whom he is presumed to have studied in Siena. Badly damaged and overpainted, it is a generally clumsy work, demonstrating an inadequate grasp of foreshortening; it exhibits the difficultà of manner noted by Vasari.

It is not known exactly when Daniele travelled to Rome, but it is now generally assumed that his initial work there on the ...

Article

Dorothea Diemer

(b Augsburg, c. 1535; d Augsburg, Nov 1621–April 1622).

German cabinetmaker and architect. His name first appears on the tax registers for Augsburg in 1557 and continues to appear regularly until 1621. He married c. 1558 and bought a house in 1561, by which time he probably already had his master’s certificate. Although there is little mention of his work in the 1560s, his reputation was such that he was employed by Hans Fugger (see Fugger family, §3) in 1569 to work on the new state apartments in the Fuggerhaus on the Weinmarkt in Augsburg. Here he came into contact with such artists as Friedrich Sustris, Alessandro Paduano and Carlo Pallago, whose Grotesque style clearly influenced his later work. By 1573 he had provided tables, chairs, wood panelling and vaults for Fugger’s house. Other commissions from the Fugger family followed: there is documentary evidence of a sizeable commission for Marx Fugger, probably for his burial chapel (the Andreaskapelle) in the abbey of SS Ulrich and Afra at Augsburg. Its decoration and furnishings made between ...

Article

(b Thurgau, 1485–96; d Nuremberg, Nov 23, 1546).

German sculptor, medallist, cabinetmaker, woodcutter and designer. It has been conjectured on stylistic grounds that between 1515 and 1518 he was active in Augsburg and worked in Hans Daucher’s workshop on the sculptural decoration (destr.) of the Fugger funerary chapel in St Anna. His early style was formed by the Italianism of Daucher and of Hans Burgkmair I and also by a journey to Italy in 1520–21. He was briefly active in Ansbach before arriving in 1522 in Nuremberg; there he was documented as master sculptor when receiving citizenship in August 1523. His earliest sculptural work in Nuremberg is thought to have been 22 capitals (early 1520s) for the renovated Rathaus (destr. 1945). The use of Italian Renaissance ornament, such as volutes decorated with acanthus leaves and fluting, represented a progressive development, in contrast to Albrecht Dürer’s Gothic-inspired architectural design of the Ehrenpforte. Flötner’s first-hand study of Italian Renaissance architectural vocabulary is apparent in the ornamentation of the pilasters of the triangular fountain (...

Article

Henri Zerner

[Fr. Ecole de Fontainebleau]

Term that encompasses work in a wide variety of media, including painting, sculpture, stuccowork and printmaking, produced from the 1530s to the first decade of the 17th century in France (e.g. The Nymph of Fontainebleau). It evokes an unreal and poetic world of elegant, elongated figures, often in mythological settings, as well as incorporating rich, intricate ornamentation with a characteristic type of strapwork. The phrase was first used by Adam von Bartsch in Le Peintre-graveur (21 vols, Vienna, 1803–21), referring to a group of etchings and engravings, some of which were undoubtedly made at Fontainebleau in France (see Fontainebleau, §1). More generally, it designates the art made to decorate the château of Fontainebleau, built from 1528 by Francis I and his successors (see Valois, House of family, §14), and by extension it covers all works that reflect the art of Fontainebleau. The principal artists of the school were ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French family of cabinetmakers. Alexandre-Georges Fourdinois (1799–1871) established his Paris workshop in 1835. He became cabinetmaker to the Empress Eugénie, for whom he made furniture in the Renaissance Revival style, and, until 1848, he often worked in collaboration with the sculptor Jules Fossey (1806–58). In 1867...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

French term derived from the Italian grottesco, describing a type of European ornament composed of small, loosely connected motifs, including scrollwork, architectural elements, whimsical human figures and fantastic beasts, often organized vertically around a central axis.

Grotesque ornament was inspired by the archaeological discovery at the end of the 15th century, of the ancient Roman interiors of the Domus Aurea of Nero in Rome, and by subsequent finds of other palaces, tombs and villas in and around Rome and Naples. The interior walls and ceilings of these underground rooms, known as grotte, were painted in a light and playful manner previously unknown to those familiar only with the formal grammar of Classical ornament derived from more accessible antique ruins. A ceiling in such a room might be covered with an interlocking arrangement of compartments containing mythological or allegorical scenes depicted as trompe l’oeil cameos, or it might be subdivided into areas dominated by a single such compartment with the remaining space filled with a variety of motifs, symmetrically organized but otherwise unrelated either by scale or subject-matter. ...

Article

Kai Budde

(b Cologne; fl Strasbourg, 1590s).

German cabinetmaker, writer and engraver. He is recorded as a cabinetmaker and citizen of Strasbourg from 1596. He appears to have been a pupil of the architect Johann Schoch, who designed Schloss Gottesau, near Karlsruhe (c. 1587), and the Friedrichsbau of the Heidelberg Schloss (c. 1601–7). Guckeisen, in collaboration with Veit Eck (fl Strasbourg, 1587), wrote a Kunstbüchlein (Strasbourg, 1596) dedicated to masons and cabinetmakers. He also wrote a similar work, Etlicher Architectischer Portalen, Epitapien, Caminen Und Schweyffen, published in the same year in Cologne. They were followed in 1599 by a series of engraved designs for six chests, also published in Cologne. In collaboration with the cabinetmaker and etcher Hans Jakob Ebelmann, Guckeisen also produced the Schränke (1598), Seilenbuch (1598), Architectura Kunstbuch Darinnen Alerhand Portalen Reisbetten Undt Epitaphien (1599) and Schweyfbuch (1599), the last dedicated to the cabinetmaker Jacob Riedel in Strasbourg. As a designer of ornament, Guckeisen was familiar with the whole repertory of Renaissance decoration, using it in varied combinations....

Article

Elisabeth Gurock

(b before 1541; d before 1597).

German cabinetmaker and wood-carver. Although in the high quality of his craftsmanship he was an important representative of South German cabinetmaking and is thought to have produced an extensive oeuvre in Upper Swabia and Switzerland, little evidence of it has survived. Probably in collaboration with the Augsburg cabinetmaker Hans Kels (fl 1537–65/6) and commissioned by the monastery of Ottobeuren, he produced an organ case and choir-stalls with rich inlaid ornamentation; their remains were later incorporated into a sacristy cupboard. Again collaborating with Kels, in 1583–5 he produced five portals (four in situ; one, Stuttgart, Württemberg. Landesmus.), the architectural structure of which was accentuated by lavish figural and ornamental carving and supplemented by inlays and reliefs, together with a coffered ceiling, for the Benedictine abbey at Ochsenhausen. Through his extensive use of contemporary pattern books while designing, Heidelberger combined delicate decorative elements from the early Renaissance with the more robust forms of the later 16th century....