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(b Cologne, 1552; d Prague, March 4, 1615).

German painter and draughtsman, active also in Italy and Bohemia. One of the foremost painters of the circle gathered at the Prague court of Emperor Rudolf II (see Habsburg, House of family, §I, (10)), he synthesized Italian and Netherlandish influences in his portraits and erudite allegories.

Hans’s surname is derived from his father’s native town. According to Karel van Mander, he probably studied c. 1567–73 with the portrait painter Georg Jerrigh, who had trained in Antwerp. Von Aachen subsequently became a member of the Cologne guild of painters. He travelled to Italy c. 1574, first working in Venice as a copyist and for the painter Gaspar Rem (1542–1615/17), before going in 1575 to Rome, where he copied antique sculptures and the works of Italian masters; he also painted an Adoration of the Shepherds for the church of Il Gesù in Rome (1580s; untraced, but known from an engraving (...



(b ?Roveredo, nr Bellinzona, 1575–80; d Pressburg, Hungary [now Bratislava, Slovakia], 1657).

Swiss-Italian architect. He was probably the most important member of a large family group of masons originating from the Swiss canton of Grisons and resident from c. 1600 at Dillingen on the River Danube; Alberthal’s presence there is recorded until 1623. The Protestant parish church at Haunsheim (Swabia, Germany) was built by Alberthal (from 1603) to a design by Heintz family §(2). From c. 1610 he was Master Builder to the bishops of Augsburg and Eichstätt, while continuing to accept commissions from other patrons and erecting a series of buildings over a wide area. For example, at Eichstätt he erected a bishop’s palace, the Willibaldsburg (from 1609), to another architect’s plan, and the Jesuit church (1617–20), also following another architect’s plan. At Dillingen itself he built the Jesuit church of the Ascension (from 1610) to a design by another architect, as well as a hall church, the parish church of St Peter (...


Luciana Arbace

Italian centre of ceramic production. The town, situated near Savona in Liguria, was a flourishing centre of maiolica production during the Renaissance. It was, however, only during the 17th and 18th centuries that a distinctive style developed. Important families in the pottery business included the Grosso, Chiodo, Corrado, Salomone, Pescio, Seitone, Seirullo, Levantino and Siccardi, all of whom produced large quantities of polychrome plates (e.g. by the Corrado, mid-17th century; Nino Ferrari priv. col., see Morazzoni, pl. 43), albarelli and vases, which were sometimes inspired by silverware and contemporary delftware. In some cases, yellow and an olive green were used on a turquoise ground. Wares were decorated in a calligraphic style with an emphasis on naturalistic motifs including such animals as leverets; this style later evolved into Baroque forms painted with soft, loose brushstrokes.

In the 1920s the Futurist potter Tullio Mazzotti (1899–1971), who took the name Tullio d’Albisola, revived Albisola’s reputation as a pottery centre. The town continued to produce pottery throughout the 20th century, especially the blue-and-white pottery known as Antico Savona. The Museo della Ceramica Manlio Trucco houses a collection of Albisola pottery from every period....


Joseph Connors

(Alta Emps, Hohenems)

Italian family of patrons, of German origin. The Hohenems family from Salzburg Italianized their name when Cardinal Marcus Sitticus Altemps (1533–95) brought the dynasty to Rome. A soldier by training, he pursued an ecclesiastical career under the patronage of his uncle, Pope Pius IV (reg 1559–65). Marcus was made Bishop of Konstanz in 1561 and legate to the Council of Trent. He began the development of the massive Villa Mondragone (see Frascati), to the designs of his house architect Martino I Longhi (i); Pope Gregory XIII (reg 1572–85) often visited it. Through papal favour he accumulated enormous wealth, which he used to rebuild the Palazzo Riario near Piazza Navona, Rome, into a magnificent family palace (known thereafter as the Palazzo Altemps) and to build the Altemps Chapel in S Maria in Trastevere; both of these designs were by Longhi. Effects of the Cardinal’s patronage or his generosity survive in the many estates that he purchased or received as gifts, at Loreto, Gallese and in the area around Frascati (e.g. at Mondragone, Monte Compatri and Monte Porzio). ...


Elena Parma



Jan Johnson

(b Mantua, 1558–9; d 1629).

Italian woodcutter and printer. He was the only printmaker to produce a significant number of chiaroscuro woodcuts in Italy in the second half of the 16th century; he also reprinted chiaroscuro woodblocks originally cut 60 or 70 years earlier. He made at least 35 prints in both black and white and colour (many multiple-sheet), using a sophisticated style of cutting characterized by thin, closed contours. Based in Florence in 1584–5 and from 1586 in Siena, by 1590 he was also finding work in his native Mantua, where he is documented as establishing a workshop. He reproduced the designs of artists in diverse media with great fidelity: for example he made several prints (1586–90) after Domenico Beccafumi’s intarsia pavement designs in Siena Cathedral, three prints (1584) from different angles of Giambologna’s marble sculpture of the Rape of the Sabines (Florence, Loggia dei Lanzi; see fig.), as well as of the bas-relief on the base of the same group and of Giambologna’s relief of ...


Richard Harprath

(b Mantua, 1548; d Mantua, 4–5 June 1608).

Italian painter and draughtsman. A leading exponent of late Mannerism at the Gonzaga court in Mantua, he probably trained there with an associate of Giulio Romano. About 80 drawings of the Palazzo del Te and the Palazzo Ducale, Mantua (Düsseldorf, Kstmus.), were commissioned from Andreasi c. 1568 by Jacopo Strada. In 1574 Andreasi collaborated on the design of a series of tapestries of the Acts of Moses for Milan Cathedral. He is documented in 1579–80 collaborating on decorations in the Palazzo Ducale for Guglielmo Gonzaga, 3rd Duke of Mantua, where he painted the ceiling of the Duke’s studiolo, the vault of the Sala Nuova and, c. 1581, the ceiling frescoes in the Sala del Falconi (preparatory study; London, BM). Documents indicate that in 1586–7 Andreasi collaborated on the decoration of the castle of Goito (destr.). As early as August 1590 he was Prefetto delle Fabbriche (Head of Works) for the ...


An antiquary (Lat. antiquarius) is a lover, collector and student of ancient learning, traditions and remains. Antiquarianism originated from the revived interest in Classical antiquity during the Renaissance and became a scientific and historical method in the 17th century. The difference between literary and non-literary sources distinguishes humanism from antiquarianism, the latter being based on those tangible remains of antiquity (inscriptions, coins and ruins) related to literary sources. From the 16th century new attitudes towards antiquity were discussed in antiquarian circles, later giving rise to antiquarian societies. Thereafter, antiquarianism was firmly linked to archaeological excavations and to the study and collecting of ancient art. It was also linked to the search for a national identity in the arts and for the origins of Western culture and was sustained by a curiosity about civilizations outside Europe. Antiquarianism, in fact, was associated with the Grand Tour and with travel more generally. Antiquaries and artist–antiquaries were responsible for producing numerous drawings, prints and illustrated volumes. High-quality illustrations of archaeological sites and ancient sculpture contributed to the growth of art history as an autonomous discipline. They also contributed to the popularization of the Antique and to the transformation of commercial dealing in objects associated with antiquarian interests (...


Leonor Ferrão

(bapt Lisbon, Sept 30, 1643; d Lisbon, Nov 25, 1712).

Portuguese architect and master mason. He worked in the context of a national tradition marked by Mannerism and the Plain style (see Portugal, Republic of, §II, 2), but he also contributed to the progressive acceptance of new Baroque concepts of space in Portugal, as shown in the use of polygonal plans. He gave a festive and sumptuous treatment to the interiors of his buildings, using inlay of coloured jasper or marble, which is sometimes combined with carved and gilded woodwork (talha) and blue and white azulejos (glazed tiles). Antunes probably learnt these intarsia techniques from the examples of the decorations (c. 1665–92; destr. 1755) of the nave and chancel of the church of the convent of S Antão-o-Novo, Lisbon, and those (1668–c. 1707) of the sacristy of the convent church of S Vicente de Fora, Lisbon. In 1670 Antunes was admitted to the Irmandade de S José dos Carpinteiros e Pedreiros in Lisbon, which gave him professional status as master mason. In ...


Giorgio Tabarroni

Italian family of patrons and collectors. They were one of the wealthiest and most celebrated patrician families of Milan. The earliest records of them date from 1228, when they made lavish donations to the monastery of Chiaravalle, near Milan. Giuseppe Archinto (i) (d 1476), Chancellor under Duke Galeazzo Maria Sforza (reg 1466–76), added to the family’s wealth. His grandson Francesco Archinto (d 1551), a jurist, was the favoured commissary of Louis XII in the area of Chiavenna; a portrait of him, preserved by the family, is attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. Francesco’s cousin Filippo Archinto (1500–58) was appointed Senator by Duke Francesco Maria Sforza and in 1530 represented Milan at the coronation of the Emperor Charles V in Bologna. Filippo held various Imperial posts, including that of Ambassador to Rome, where Pope Paul III ordained him Bishop. In 1566 the Pope appointed him Archbishop of Milan, in which capacity his portrait (...


Mario di Giampaolo

(bapt Bologna, Sept 1, 1549; d Bologna, Oct 4, 1612).

Italian painter. His early training was influenced by Bagnacavallo and Venetian painters. His earliest known work, the altarpiece of St Bartholomew Worshipping the Virgin (1570–75; Bologna, S Bartolomeo), is in a Mannerist style, with clear references to the work of Bartolomeo Passarotti, Lorenzo Sabatini and Orazio Samacchini. The austerity of the early Counter-Reformation, introduced in Bologna by Cardinal Gabriele Paleotti, is reflected in the slightly later Crucifixion with the Virgin and Saints (Bologna, Santa Trinità). From c. 1576 he collaborated with Giovanni Battista Fiorini (d after 1599) on such projects as the frescoes of Christ Giving the Keys to St Peter (1579; Bologna, Metropolitana S Pietro) and the Coronation of the Virgin (1588; Bologna, S Michele in Bosco). Also with Fiorini he painted numerous altarpieces for churches in Bologna, including the Birth of the Virgin (1577–82; S Giovanni in Monte), the Miraculous Procession of St Gregory the Great...


[Cesari, Giuseppe]

(b Arpino, nr Sora, 1568; d Rome, July 3, 1640).

Italian painter and draughtsman . His father, Muzio Cesari, was probably a painter; his brother, Bernardino Cesari (1571–1622), became his principal assistant. Giuseppe’s precocious talent for drawing led his mother to take him to Rome in 1581–2, where he became a colour mixer under Niccolò Circignani, then directing the decoration of the third of the great Vatican Logge for Gregory XIII. Circignani promoted him to the painting team; a tiny figure of Abundance on the vault of the seventh compartment has been identified as his earliest known work. During 1583 Giuseppe also worked at the Vatican on the monochrome figure of Samson with the Gates of Gaza in the Sala Vecchia degli Svizzeri and the restoration of the Prophets and Virtues painted by the Raphael workshop in the Sala dei Palafrenieri. Towards the end of the year the Pope granted Giuseppe a salary. Probably in 1584–5 he contributed a fresco of the ...


T. P. Connor

Term introduced by John Summerson to identify an architectural and decorative style, largely derived from north European Mannerism, adopted by English artisans in the mid-17th century. Lugged architraves, broken pediments, grand and ornate gables, hipped roofs, heavy eaves-cornices and strongly demarcated string courses are among the idiosyncracies and embellishments that typify the style. More through available pattern books and the work of immigrant craftsmen than through travel abroad, English artisans, particularly in London, became increasingly aware during the 1620s and 1630s of recent developments in architectural design on the Continent. They took their ideas from such books as Jacques Francart’s Premier livre d’architecture (Brussels, 1616), Rubens’s Palazzi di Genova (Antwerp, 1622) and Salomon de Bray’s Architectura moderna (Amsterdam, 1631)—which illustrates the work of Hendrik de Keyser—but did not treat them as authoritative, although precise borrowings can be traced. Instead, individual workshops developed their own versions, regional differences grew and persisted, and early sources of design, such as the engraved books of Jacques Du Cerceau the elder, continued to be influential. ...


Thomas Martin

(b Padua, c. 1559; d Pisa, between 27 July and Nov 3, 1606).

Italian sculptor . After Girolamo Campagna, he was the leading sculptor in Venice at the end of the 16th century and was particularly gifted in working bronze.

Aspetti came from an artistic family: his grandfather Guido Minio (fl 1511–16), called Lazzaro, was a founder, while his uncle Tiziano Minio was a stuccoist and sculptor. Aspetti probably received his earliest training in the family workshop and may also have collaborated with Campagna. Doubtless through family connections, in 1577 in Venice Aspetti entered the service of Giovanni Grimani, Patriarch of Aquileia. Grimani was a distinguished patron of contemporary art, and his palazzo housed the finest and most extensive collection of antiquities outside Rome. Aspetti worked for the Patriarch for 16 years and hence, unlike any other Venetian artist of his day, began his career as a kind of court artist serving one particular patron. The Grimani were partisans of central Italian Mannerist art, and the family palazzo at S Maria Formosa in Venice contained stuccos and frescoes by Giovanni da Udine, Federico Zuccaro and Francesco Salviati. Because of its collection of antiquities, the palazzo was one of the principal sights for any 16th-century tourist; Aspetti was the house sculptor and restorer of the collection (a project in ...


E. Luther

(b Ulm; fl 1585; bur Neuburg an der Donau, Oct 1, 1619).

German architect–builder . In 1585 he built the towers that give the essential character to Schloss Ratibor at Roth, near Schwabach in Middle Franconia. He is known to have collaborated with Caspar Wallberger (d 1578) and his son Wolfgang Wallberger (c. 1546–1622) in work on the town gates of Nördlingen in Swabia, and before 1590 he was involved in the construction of Hochburg (destr.) in South Baden. From 1587 Bacher was master builder to the Margraves of Ansbach in Franconia, where he was engaged in collaboration with Blasius Berwart I (see Berwart family, §1) in converting the old castle into the Margraves’ palace (destr. 1710) in a German Renaissance idiom; in 1596–7 Bacher built a summer house and opera house (destr. 1667) in the palace garden. The Eybhof (1593) at 10 Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Platz, Ansbach, an example of middle-class domestic architecture, was followed by the Margraves’ chancellery (...


(b London, Jan 22, 1561; d London, April 9, 1626).

English courtier, statesman, lawyer, philosopher and writer . He was the younger son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper under Elizabeth I; he was educated at Cambridge and trained as a lawyer at Gray’s Inn, London. He became a member of parliament in 1584; in his political career he enjoyed the patronage of the Queen’s favourite, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, but after the latter’s fall from favour acted as prosecutor at his trial. Bacon’s political career prospered under James I, and in 1618 he was ennobled and became Lord Chancellor. However, in 1621 he was charged with corruption and, being disgraced, retired into private life.

Bacon was a polymath, who in 1592 wrote: ‘I have taken all knowledge to be my province.’ He wrote on philosophy, politics, history and law and is now most highly regarded for his contribution to the philosophy of science and the development of scientific method. However, his best-known book is the ...


Christopher F. Black


Italian family of patrons. The Baglioni are notorious in Renaissance historiography for their often violent attempts to dominate Perugia. The family network, which numbered 28 separate households in 1511, provided political strength until in-fighting brought destruction. Military and political service to the papacy secured the family feudal tenure or governorships of lesser Umbrian towns, such as Bettona, Spello and Torgiano, where they constructed palaces. Besides helping to promote major civic projects in Perugia, such as the cathedral of S Lorenzo (1440s) and the Collegio del Cambio (1452–7, with a sala dell’udienza richly decorated with frescoes by Perugino and pupils), the Baglioni furthered the careers of many artists, including Benedetto Bonfigli, Pinturicchio, Pordenone, Luca Signorelli and Perugino.

The most culturally active patron was Braccio di Malatesta (1419–79). The extensive exterior and interior decorations of his palace (destr. 1540) celebrated famous soldiers and lawyers and his own exploits. ...


Marco Carminati

(b Orzivecchi, nr Brescia, c. 1548; d Brescia, c. 1625).

Italian painter and architect . An accomplished exponent of Lombard Mannerism, he was trained in Rome, where in 1566 he was in the employment of Alfonso Gonzaga, the lord of Novellara. On his return from Rome he settled in Novellara and came into contact with Lelio Orsi, whose influence on his art proved fundamental and enduring. Between 1569 and 1571 Bagnadore produced three altarpieces for the Jesuit church in Novellara, none of which has survived. The Pietà (Modena, Gal. & Mus. Estense), formerly attributed to Orsi, also dates from this period. In 1575 he went to Brescia, where he painted another Pietà (Brescia, Pin. Civ. Tosio–Martinengo). Back in Emilia in 1580 he painted the great Ascension in the church of S Stefano in Novellara. Evidently his stay was brief, for in March 1582 he was again in Brescia, probably on his way to Bressanone. Between 1582 and 1584 he painted a cycle of frescoes depicting stories from the ...


Claudia Lazzaro

Italian estate near Viterbo, c. 65 km north-east of Rome. It was built for Cardinal Gianfrancesco Gambara, Bishop of Viterbo, from c. 1568, and the design of the whole estate, comprising small twin palaces (palazzine, called casinos in the 17th century), a formal garden and a park, is attributed to Jacopo Vignola. The garden and the first palazzina were mostly completed by 1578 under the direction of the local architect and hydraulic engineer Tommaso Ghinucci. Carlo Maderno built the second palazzina for Cardinal Alessandro Peretti Montalto between 1611 and 1613. The two buildings were planned from the start and have identical exteriors. Their cubical form, with hipped roof and central belvedere, resembles those of the Villa Vecchia at Frascati and the hunting-lodge at Caprarola, both designed by Vignola. Rural and urban architectural traditions were united in the design of the buildings. The simple block with central projection recalls the towers and dovecotes typical of the countryside, while the exterior stone revetment and classical articulation is reminiscent of urban palaces. The floor plan is a variation on a common tripartite plan with a long central space. In the second ...



Lorenza Rossi

Italian family of patrons and collectors. Their residence in the Piazza del Guastato, Genoa, is documented from 1547. With the collaboration of the Genoese comune they made the road (originally the Strada Nuovissima, now the Via Balbi) linking the Piazza del Guastato with the Porta di S Tomaso and were responsible for commissioning many buildings along it. Niccolò Balbi (d c. 1549), a silk merchant, made the family fortune and had four sons: Giovanni Francesco Balbi (d c. 1593), Pantaleo Balbi, Giovanni Girolamo Balbi and Bartolomeo Balbi. The third, Giovanni Girolamo, almost certainly lived in Antwerp, and his collection contained many works by Flemish artists and the works of such Genoese painters as Sinibaldo Scorza, Domenico Fiasella, Giovanni Battista Carlone (i) and Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione. The youngest son, Bartolomeo, also lived in Antwerp, where it is thought that he started his collection of paintings. His son, ...