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Article

Marit Lange and Thea Miller

(b Holmestrand, Jan 21, 1845; d Oslo, March 25, 1932).

Norwegian painter . In the 1860s and early 1870s she took lessons in drawing and painting in Christiania (now Oslo) and also travelled extensively in Europe with her sister Agathe, a composer and pianist. She copied works in major museums and took occasional art lessons; she later considered this experience to have been of fundamental importance to her artistic development. Little Red Riding Hood (1872; Oslo, N.G.) is impressive in technique, and the early portrait of her sister, Agathe Backer-Grøndahl (1874; Holmestrand, Komm.), shows a refined colour scheme. At the age of nearly 30 Backer decided to train professionally as a painter and in 1874 went to Munich. She was never attached to a particular institution, but the influence of her friend the artist Eilif Peterssen was crucial to her development. In Munich she made a thorough study of perspective, which formed a secure basis for her later work. The work she did while in Munich reflects a study of the Old Masters in museums and is characterized by a preference for the historical subjects typical of the Munich school, as well as by an interest in the psychological portrait (e.g. ...

Article

Joan Hichberger

[née Thompson, Elizabeth Southerden]

(b Lausanne, Nov 3, 1846; d Gormanston, Ireland, Oct 2, 1933).

English painter. She was the elder daughter of Thomas James and Christiana (née Weller) Thompson, members of London’s literary and artistic circles and close friends of Charles Dickens. Both she and her sister (the poet and essayist Alice Meynell) were educated by their father. She spent much of her childhood in Italy, but the family returned to England in 1860 so that she could have professional tuition. She became a student in the elementary class at the Female School of Art, South Kensington, London, and, after a further interval of travel and residence on the Continent, obtained a place in the antique and life classes at the school in 1866. Her main rival for academic honours there was Kate Greenaway. In 1869 the family lived in Florence, where she studied drawing at the Accademia di Belle Arti with Giuseppe Bellucci (1827–82). Her first recorded painting was a religious work, ...

Article

Peter Stasny

(b Vienna, Oct 22, 1878; d Hamburg, July 30, 1960).

Austrian printmaker, painter, decorative artist and writer. He studied painting with Christian Griepenkerl (1839–1916) at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna (1894–9). From 1899 to 1900 he renovated the Patronatskirche of Emperor Francis Joseph in Radmer an dem Hasel, decorating it with frescoes. At the same time he received his first illustration commissions from the publishers Gerlach & Wiedling in Vienna. From 1900 he was a member of the Vienna Secession (see Secession, §3). In 1902 he became an assistant tutor in draughtsmanship at the Kunstgewerbeschule (now Hochschule für Angewandte Kunst) in Vienna, and in 1905 he took over a class in painting and draughtsmanship, being one of Oskar Kokoschka’s first teachers.

In Autumn 1905 Czeschka joined the Wiener Werkstätte. Under their auspices he produced jewellery, fabrics, wallpaper, enamelled pictures and furniture, and repoussé work and glass windows for the Palais Stoclet, Brussels (...

Article

Trond Aslaksby

(Olaf Halvor)

(b Smedjebakken, Dalarne, July 8, 1857; d Christiania [now Oslo], Oct 10, 1913).

Norwegian painter. He was born into an enlightened but conservative family, his father being an engineer, occasional architect and writer of Nordic saga poetry, and he spent his childhood and youth in the rapidly expanding town of Drammen, 40 km from the capital Christiania. In 1873 he was admitted to the Kongelige Tegneskole in Christiania, where he studied under Peder C. Thurmann, a landscape artist trained in Düsseldorf. For more advanced training, Heyerdahl was obliged to go abroad, and in 1874 he enrolled at the Munich Akademie. He was encouraged by Professor Ludwig von Löfftz (1845–1910) to give up landscape in favour of history painting and portraits (e.g. the artists Christian Skredsvig, 1876, and Eilif Peterssen, 1877; both Oslo, N.G.). In 1877, under the guidance of Professor Wilhelm Lindenschmit (1829–95), Heyerdahl finished his most inventive and brilliant composition, the Expulsion from the Garden (Oslo, N.G.). Using over life-size figures, set in a barren tempestuous landscape, Heyerdahl skilfully contrasted the youthful rage of Adam with the resigned despair of Eve. This sombre work won him a third prize medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in ...

Article

Zdenko Rus

(b Klanjec, nr Zagreb, April 17, 1869; d Klanjec, July 4, 1939).

Croatian painter and teacher. He studied painting in Zagreb under Ferdo Quiquerez and from 1886 he attended the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna, where he studied with Christian Griepenkerl (1839–1916) and August Eisenmenger (1830–1907). In 1892 he studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Munich, under Wilhelm von Lindenschmidt (1829–95) and also took master classes with Ferdinand Keller (1842–1922) at the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Karlsruhe. From 1895 he taught at the School of Arts and Crafts (now School for Applied Art and Design) in Zagreb and from 1908 to 1927 at the Art School (later Academy of Fine Arts) in the same city. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th he was the most important history painter working in Croatia and the most prolific. Attracted by Vlaho Bukovac’s Divisionist technique and his use of light, he adopted a palette of ...

Article

A. Ziffer

(b Munich, Oct 30, 1868; d Munich, Oct 9, 1940).

German painter, illustrator, teacher and poster designer. The son of the painter Christian Jank (1833–88), he attended Simon Hollósy’s private art school in Munich before studying (1891–6) at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, also in Munich, under Ludwig von Löfftz (1845–1910) and Paul Höcker (1854–1910). From 1896 he exhibited at the Munich Secession, and he became a member of Scholle, Die, founded in 1899. A regular contributor to the journal Jugend and at the forefront of modernism, he made his mark as a humorous illustrator, portraying allegories and scenes from military life. Jank also designed posters (e.g. Underworld, 1896; Berlin, Mus. Dt. Gesch.). He taught at the Damenakademie (1899–1907). Having come to prominence as a portrayer of events from German history with three monumental paintings for Berlin’s Reichstag building (destr.) in 1905, he collaborated with Adolf Münzer (1870–1952) and ...

Article

Ingeborg Wikborg

(Peter)

(b Christiania [now Oslo], May 8, 1876; d Paris, Oct 19, 1926).

Norwegian painter. He studied at the Royal School of Design in Kristiania (1891–5) and in 1896 studied with Karl Raupp (1837–1918) in Munich. Back in Norway, he obtained tuition from Christian Krohg and other eminent artists before applying to the Kunstakademie in Munich in 1900. The same autumn he studied with Eugène Carrière in Paris, where he met several of the future Fauvists, including Henri Matisse and André Derain. The greatest influence on his development as a painter was, however, Edvard Munch, whom he met in 1901. Karsten’s favourite subjects during this period were figures, portraits and landscapes. Consumption (1907; Oslo, N.G.), a full-length frontal presentation of an old, sick woman, was directly inspired by Munch’s portrait of his sister Inger (1892; Oslo, N.G.), although it also reveals an independent talent.

From 1900 Karsten was mostly in Paris, and Munch’s influence receded as impressions from the work of Paul Gauguin, Paul Cézanne and Vincent van Gogh came to affect his painting. ...

Article

Sidsel Helliesen

(b Kragerø, April 27, 1857; d Jeløya, nr Moss, Jan 21, 1914).

Norwegian draughtsman and painter. He grew up in poverty in Kragerø, a small town on the coast south of Christiania (later Kristiania; now Oslo). With support from public funds from 1874 to 1876 he studied drawing with Wilhelm von Hanno and with Julius Middelthun at the Royal School of Drawing. He then spent three years (1876–9) at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich under Wilhelm Lindenschmidt (1829–95) and Ludwig von Loefftz (1845–1910). Kittelsen did not, however, adopt the naturalistic style current in Munich, and he made little mark there as a painter. Works from his first Munich years, for example Strike (1879; Trondheim, Trøndelag Flkmus.), show that his talents were for lively and humorous narrative, and for mythical and poetic studies of nature; subjects he could treat most effectively in drawings. In Munich, Kittelsen joined the circle of Norwegian artists and established a lasting friendship with Erik Werenskiold—a strong influence on his work—and also with Eilif Peterssen, Gerhard Munthe, Christian Skredsvig and others. Lack of funds forced him back to Norway in the autumn of ...

Article

Sabine Kehl-Baierle

(b Bisenz bei Ung Hradisch [now Bzenec], Moravia, Oct 13, 1867; d Vienna, May 9, 1916).

Austrian painter and printmaker. He studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna under the German painter Christian Griepenkerl (1839–1916) in 1886–8 and the Austrian painter Leopold Carl Müller (1834–92) in 1890–91. He went to Paris to further his studies at the Académie Julian and visited Concarneau in Brittany for the first time in 1893: the Breton people, harbour activity, sunrises and sunsets, sailing ships and the shimmering surface of the water became motifs in his art. In 1894–5 he again studied at the academy in Vienna, this time portrait painting, under the Polish painter Kazimierz Pochwalski (1855–1940). After 1895 he came under the influence of French art (especially plein-air painting, Impressionism and works by Vuillard and Bonnard), which led him to use lighter, brighter colours than before. In 1895 he married Martha Guyot, a Breton woman. Subsequently they spent their summers in Brittany and their winters in Vienna, where in ...

Article

Vidar Poulsson

(Peter Frantz Wilhelm)

(b Skanshagen at Elverum, July 19, 1849; d Baerum, Jan 15, 1929).

Norwegian painter and designer. He trained as a landscape painter at the art school in Christiania (after 1877 Kristiania, now Oslo) run by J. F. Eckersberg and his followers from 1870 to 1874. He travelled widely throughout his career but was most attracted to eastern Norway, where he had been born. His first ambition was to paint in a realistic style that would also accommodate impulses from fantasy and literature. During the winters of 1874–5 and 1875–6 he visited his relative the painter Ludvig Munthe at Düsseldorf and was impressed by his work. An Autumn Landscape (1876; Bergen, Meyers Saml.) was Gerhard Munthe’s first major painting. During a long stay at Munich (1877–82) he studied the Old Masters as well as contemporary art. He painted about 70 oils, mainly dark in tone but quite varied in content. They are largely based on impressions of the coastal towns or interior of Norway rather than being inspired by German motifs. ...

Article

(Emanuel)

(b Christiania [now Oslo], Sept 4, 1852; d Bærum, Dec 29, 1928).

Norwegian painter. He attended Johan Fredrik Eckersberg’s School of Drawing in Christiania (1869–70) and then briefly studied painting with Knud Bergslien (1827–1908). In the spring of 1871 Peterssen moved on to the academies of Karlsruhe (1871–3) and Munich (1873–5). He then stayed in Munich until the autumn of 1878 but made many study trips abroad: he returned to Norway but also visited London and Paris and made several journeys to Italian cities. He thus acquired a more profound knowledge of both earlier and contemporary European art than that available to most Norwegians studying in Munich.

In Munich’s galleries he studied and copied the Old Masters but was also deeply impressed by history painting of the Munich school led by Karl Theodor von Piloty. Peterssen turned to themes from Scandinavian history of the 16th and 17th centuries: he painted the Death of Corfitz Ulfedt...

Article

Hans-Olof Boström

(Fredrik)

(b Malmö, Sept 13, 1835; d Malmö, Oct 11, 1933).

Swedish painter. He lodged with and was a pupil of the Danish landscape painter Frederik Christian Kiærskou (1805–91), and at the same time he studied at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen (1852–5). In 1857 he moved to the Akademi för de Fria Konsterna in Stockholm. Like several other Swedish artists of his generation he studied at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf (1859–64). His teacher there was the Norwegian Hans Gude, who was professor of landscape painting and whose strong influence can be seen in several landscapes including Swedish Landscape (1863; Göteborg, Kstmus.), which was painted in Düsseldorf. Rydberg lived in various parts of Sweden, chiefly in Stockholm, and he settled permanently in his native province of Skåne in 1897. His early landscapes were Romantic, in the Düsseldorf tradition, but in about 1870 he became one of the first plein-air painters of Sweden. He has been called ‘the artistic discoverer of Skåne’, for his impressive depictions of the lowland expanses of Skåne with their wide skies. He preferred simple themes, as in ...

Article

Santos  

James Cordova and Claire Farago

Term that refers to handmade paintings and sculptures of Christian holy figures, crafted by artists from the Hispanic and Lusophone Americas. The term first came into widespread use in early 20th-century New Mexico among English-speaking art collectors to convey a sense of cultural authenticity. Throughout the Americas, the term imagenes occurs most frequently in Spanish historical documents. Santos are usually painted on wood panels (retablos) or carved and painted in the round (bultos). Reredos, or altarpieces, often combine multiple retablos and bultos within a multi-level architectural framework.

European Christian imagery was circulated widely through the Spanish viceroyalties in the form of paintings, sculptures, and prints, the majority of which were produced in metropolitan centres such as Mexico City, Antigua, Lima, and Puebla, where European- and American-born artists established guilds and workshops. These became important sources upon which local artists elsewhere based their own traditions of religious image-making using locally available materials such as buffalo hides, vegetal dyes, mineral pigments, and yucca fibres, commonly employed by native artists long before European contact....

Article

Ingrid Reed Thomsen

(b Modum, March 12, 1854; d Eggedal, Jan 19, 1924).

Norwegian painter and writer. After a year at Johan Fredrik Eckersberg’s painting school and the Royal School of Drawing and Art in Christiania (now Oslo), Skredsvig studied in Copenhagen (1870–74), first as a pupil of Vilhelm Kyhn and later at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Besides landscapes, his main interest was animal painting. In 1874–5 he studied in Paris, in museums and with Léon Bonnat. From 1875 to 1879 he worked in Munich, where among others he was influenced by Arnold Böcklin. Skredsvig painted landscapes based on sketches made in Norway but using German models, as in Evening in the Mountains (1878, priv. col.; replica, 1882, Bergen, Billedgal.), a typical studio work in its smooth finish and use of local colour.

Returning to Paris in 1879 Skredsvig again studied briefly under Bonnat and others. Works from this period such as Unloading Snow by the Seine (...

Article

Tone Skedsmo

(b Christiania [Kristiania from 1877; now Oslo], Nov 29, 1869; d Oslo, June 19, 1935).

Norwegian painter and printmaker. Sohlberg decided to be a painter when young, but his father wished him to follow a thorough training as a craftsman. Sohlberg therefore enrolled at the Royal School of Drawing in Kristiania in 1885 under the interior designer Wilhelm Krogh (1829–1913) and stayed at the school until 1890. Subsequently, he attended night classes under the graphic artist and painter Johan Nordhagen (1856–1956) both in the autumn of 1906 and also from 1911 to 1917, when he concentrated on printmaking. Sohlberg painted his first pictures while staying in the Valdrés region to the north-west of Kristiania in summer 1889. The following summer he painted with Sven Jørgensen (1861–1940) at Slagen near Åsgårdstrand, and in autumn 1891 he was a pupil of Erik Werenskiold and Eilif Peterssen in Kristiania. For some months during the winter of 1891–2 Sohlberg attended Kristian Zahrtmann’s art school in Copenhagen. He also studied for four months in ...

Article

Sabine Kehl-Baierle

(b Vienna, July 11, 1875; d Klosterneuburg, nr Vienna, Aug 24, 1959).

Austrian painter. He studied painting from 1890 to 1899 at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna under Christian Griepenkerl (1839–1916), Rudolf Carl Huber (1839–96) and August Eisenmenger (1830–1907). He produced the triptych Faith, Hope and Charity (1899; Giesshübl Church, nr Mödling, Lower Austria). In 1899–1900 he travelled in Italy on a Kenyon scholarship. He volunteered to fight with the Boers in South Africa; having contracted malaria he travelled on to Zanzibar via Madagascar. After a short stay in Bombay he returned to Vienna, where he exhibited studies from his long journey at the Galerie Miethke in 1902 (e.g. portrait of the Sultan of Zanzibar Tipotip, Vienna, Mus. Vlkerknd.). Between 1905 and 1935 (except during World War I), he was a teacher of free-hand drawing at a secondary school in Klosterneuburg. In 1905–6 one of his pupils was Egon Schiele, whose talent he fostered, taking him on outdoor painting trips and introducing him to oil painting. Many of Schiele’s very early works were preserved by Strauch (Vienna, Niederösterreich. Landesmus., on long-term loan in Tulln, Egon Schiele Mus.); several drawings show Strauch working at his easel. Landscapes and genre scenes from his immediate surroundings form the subject-matter of Strauch’s paintings, as in ...

Article

Leif Østby

(b Christiania [now Oslo], Oct 7, 1859; d Lillehammer, Feb 10, 1927).

Norwegian painter . He was descended from a Bohemian family of glassmakers who settled in Norway c. 1750. He studied at Knud Bergslien’s art school (1879–81) and at the same time at the Royal School of Design in Christiania, and in 1883 he was a pupil of Frits Thaulow, who introduced him to plein-air painting. Wentzel paid a short visit to Paris that same year and stayed there again in 1884 as a pupil of William-Adolphe Bouguereau at the Académie Julian. In 1888–9 he studied with Alfred Roll and Léon Bonnat at the Académie Colarossi. During this period he painted mainly interiors with figures, the urban middle-class and artisans in their homes, and also artists’ studios. His earliest paintings, for example Breakfast I (1882; Oslo, N.G.), render detail with a meticulousness unsurpassed in Norwegian Naturalism. Wentzel’s work gradually adopted an influence from contemporary French painting, including a more subtle observation of the effects of light and atmosphere on local colour, as in the ...

Article

Leif Østby

( Theodor )

(b Vinger, Feb 11, 1855; d Oslo, Nov 23, 1938).

Norwegian painter, draughtsman and printmaker . He studied in Christiania (later Kristiania, now Oslo) in 1873–5 under Julius Middelthun, who discovered his unusual gift for drawing, and then at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich (1876–9). Among his early paintings, Female Half-nude (1877; Bergen, Billedgal.) is typical in revealing an interest in individual personality and psychology even in a traditional academic subject. In 1878, while on a visit to Kristiania, Werenskiold met the collector and editor Peter Christien Asbjørnsen (1812–85) and was engaged as an illustrator for his new edition of Norwegian fairy tales (Kristiania, 1879). Together with Theodor Kittelsen, he continued to contribute illustrations to Absjørnsen’s publications. In his drawings for tales such as De Kongsdøtre i berget det blå (‘The three princesses in the mountain-in-the-blue’; Kristiania, 1887), he achieved a striking combination of realistic observation, fantasy and humour, his imaginary creatures being especially successful. During the 1880s Werenskiold was also active as a painter. He left Munich early in ...