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Cathrin Klingsöhr-Leroy

(b Paris, 1662; d Paris, April 14, 1753).

French ecclesiastic and painter. He entered the Dominican Order at the age of 17. He may have begun his artistic training only in 1687, when he was given leave to travel to Rome; he seems to have spent several years there. According to tradition, it was Carlo Maratti’s painting that most influenced him; however, the classical stylistic elements in André’s paintings would seem to reflect the general influence of contemporary Roman and French art, rather than that of any particular artist. Apart from a few portraits, such as his Self-portrait with Rosary (after 1731; Paris, Louvre), André painted works with an exclusively religious content. Many of his surviving monumental paintings may be seen in churches in Lyon and Bordeaux, as well as in several in Paris, for instance the Supper at Emmaus (1741) in St Nicolas du Chardonnet, St Dominic Expounding the Rules of the Order (1738...

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(b Toulouse, Nov 12, 1743; d Toulouse, Jan 31, 1804).

French painter and architect. He was the son of Guillaume Cammas (1698–1777), a painter and architect in Toulouse, who is known principally for having designed the first municipal theatre (1737) in Toulouse and the façade of the Capitole (1749–52), as well as for having carried out the decoration of the Salle des Illustres at the Hôtel de Ville. Lambert-François-Thérèse Cammas studied at the Académie Royale de Peinture in Toulouse, where in 1765 he won the Grand Prix with an Allegory on the Death of the Dauphin (Paris, Ecole B.-A.). The prize money was used to finance a trip to Italy. Cammas remained in Rome from 1767 to 1771, in 1770 being admitted to the Accademia di S Luca with the Accession of Pope Clement XIV (Rome, Accad. N. S Luca). In Rome, Cammas made many architectural studies and drew antique remains, but he was also interested in the problem of restoring ancient monuments. He may have carried out some architectural work; a chapel at the church of Pátrica, near Frosinone, is attributed to him....

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Helmut Börsch-Supan

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Helmut Börsch-Supan

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Ekhart Berckenhagen

(b Berlin, Feb 9, 1738; d Berlin, Feb 28, 1815).

German painter, draughtsman and etcher. He was taught by his father, Ferdinand Helfreich Frisch (1707–58), and by Christian Bernhard Rode (1725–97), supplementing this training by copying pictures in the royal gallery at Sanssouci in Potsdam. He travelled with Jean-Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis d’Argens (1704–71), to Provence and Rome, where from the spring of 1765 he made studies of antiquities and studies after Raphael, Annibale Carracci and Guido Reni. On his return to Berlin in 1768, he undertook commissions mainly for monumental and historical paintings. He executed wall and ceiling paintings in several Potsdam palaces: the Berliner Schloss (1789), the former Niederländisches Palais (before 1779), the Neues Palais (1768, c. 1795), the Neue Kammern at Sanssouci (1774) and the Marmorpalais (1790), and in the Schloss auf der Pfaueninsel (c. 1796). He also produced easel paintings of mythological and historical subjects primarily relating to Frederick II, King of Prussia, and more than 30 known portraits, among them ...

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Ivo Kořán

(b Prague, bapt Dec 4, 1717; d Prague, June 17, 1767).

Bohemian painter. He was the son of the painter Kristián Grund (c. 1686–1751) and brother to the painters František Karel Grund (1721–43), Petr Pavel Christian Grund (1722–84)—also a violin virtuoso—and the harpist Jan Eustach Grund. He learnt painting with his father, who released him from his apprenticeship in 1737. Subsequently he lived in Vienna and then perhaps in Germany; he probably knew his great models, Watteau, Nicolas Lancret and Francesco Guardi, only from engravings.

Grund’s work consists of a rather confused range of small pictures, embodying almost all genres in which landscapes or dwellings include figures. He painted scenes from myths, the Bible, legends and battles; he depicted love scenes, the theatre, storms at sea, visits to ruins, studios etc. Although the human figures always endow his pictures with a light touch, often there is an implicitly deeper allegorical meaning. His paintings from the 1740s are marked by a heavy Late Baroque colour scheme, in the 1750s by fragile Rococo shades; later he accomplished a smooth transition to a classicist realism. The popularity of his works in aristocratic and bourgeois circles is underlined by reproductions by ...

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(b Ilmenau, Thuringia, May 21, 1731; d Erfurt, Oct 18, 1794).

German painter. He received his training from his father, Johann Christian Heintze, who was originally a gunsmith before becoming court painter in the tiny principality of Saxony-Hildburghausen. In 1772 Heinsius was appointed court painter in Weimar, which became one of the centres of intellectual life in Germany at this period. There he painted portraits, for example of Charles Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Weimar and of poets of the ‘Musenhof’ such as Johann Wilhelm Gleim and Johann Karl Musäus. However, he did not receive particular recognition with these works. A period of leave in Hamburg (1781–4) was more successful and artistically fruitful. He returned to Weimar and produced a number of portraits, for example Anna Amalia, Duchess of Saxe-Weimar, of great maturity.

Heinsius’ awkward, choleric temperament and his lack of education did not help to make him popular at a time when the artist–scholar was in demand. His financial position was somewhat improved by an appointment as artist at the Freie Zeichen Schule at Weimar. He was a simple craftsman who had turned his hand to portraits; these had an unvarnished truthfulness that did not flatter the sitter. His conception of art owed much to the ideals of the Baroque, his portraits lacking pathos and sentimentality and showing no trace of classical idealization. However, due to their naturalism, his portraits are of great documentary value. His brother, ...

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(b Kladsko, 1647; d Prague, 1712).

German painter, active in Bohemia. In 1678 he settled in Prague, where he set up a large studio and found his most important clients among the Jesuits. His first extant pictures date from the 1680s. Influenced above all by the realism of Karel Škréta (d 1674), he became the foremost representative of this trend in the late 17th century. Although his painting, unlike Škréta’s, is always purely descriptive, lacking Baroque imagination and compositional sense, he was a close observer of contemporary life and an impressive portrayer of human misery. Miraculous and legendary events are given everyday settings, notably in his lives of the saints, for example St Francis Borgia in a Humble Tavern (after 1680), St John (1690), St Luke Painting St Mary and St John Nepomuk (both 1705; all Prague, N.G., Convent of St George), and a painting of 1710 (Prague, Clementinum). With their strong impact, these paintings constituted an effective Counter-Reformation weapon for the Jesuits. In the 1690s Heintsch attempted to accommodate new stylistic trends, and his work lost its former tension. In ...

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(b Berlin, c. 1722; d Tune, Oct 27, 1805).

Norwegian painter of German birth. He was probably related to the still-life painter Christian Friedrich Hosenfeller (1706–80) and probably studied at an academy of arts in Germany. Around 1760 he was working in the Herrebø Faience Factory near Fredrikshald (now Halden) in Norway as a faience painter. Some of his predominantly blue-and-white wares were decorated with blossoms, chinoiseries and magnificent shell-like motifs. In 1772 he became a citizen of Fredrikshald and with some of his inheritance money he became a portrait and decorative painter, embellishing furniture and rooms with figurative landscapes and ornaments. He devoted himself, however, to portrait painting in which he seems to have been strongly influenced by such contemporary English painters as Johan Zoffany, John Wright (1745–1820) and William Hogarth. Early works may have been painted c. 1776. In the Nasjonalgalleriet in Oslo there are, among other of his works, three unsigned portraits: ...

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Helmut Börsch-Supan

German family of artists. Christian Wilhelm Kolbe (c. 1715–1800) lived in Berlin where he made embroideries worked in gold thread; his brother Johann Diederich Kolbe (d 1786) was a goldsmith. Christian Wilhelm’s wife came from a Huguenot family, and their two sons Christian Friedrich Kolbe (b 1758), who was an embroiderer working in gold thread, and (1) Carl Wilhelm Kolbe (i) grew up in an atmosphere steeped in French culture. Carl Wilhelm’s son was (2) Carl Wilhelm Kolbe (ii), the most important representative of the Romantic history painting movement in Berlin, and a relation by marriage to Daniel Chodowiecki, who influenced his career. Johann Diederich’s son, Heinrich Christian Kolbe (1771–1836), was a painter in Düsseldorf, whose realistic portraits were executed in a Neo-classical style that he alone employed after the appointment of Wilhelm Schadow as Director of the Staatliche Kunstakademie in 1826...

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Rüdiger an der Heiden

(b Strasbourg, Oct 2, 1741; d Munich, Jan 3, 1822).

German painter, lithographer and administrator. He received his first training from his father, Konrad Mannlich (1701–58), court painter to Christian IV, Duke of Zweibrücken. In 1758 he was sent to the drawing academy at Mannheim by Christian IV, and in 1762–3 accompanied him to Paris, where he met François Boucher, Carle Vanloo and also Christoph Gluck and Diderot. His work from this period reveals the influence of French Rococo, for example in The Surprise (a scene from ‘Blaise the Shoemaker’, an opera by F.-A. Danican Philidor; Regensburg, Staatsgal.). He studied in Paris under Boucher in 1765–6, at the Académie de France in Rome under Charles-Joseph Natoire in 1767–70 and also visited Naples; on his return journey to Germany he met Anton Raphael Mengs in Florence. During 1770–71 he made a great many copies of paintings, including one after Raphael’s Madonna della sedia and another after Correggio’s Madonna of St Jerome...

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Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

[Maler Müller]

(b Kreuznach, Jan 13, 1749; d Rome, April 23, 1825).

German painter, engraver, draughtsman, poet and Playwright. From about 1765 he was taught by Daniel Hien (1724–73), court painter to Christian IV, Duke of Zweibrücken, with 17th-century Dutch painting as his model. Müller showed a talent for realistic depiction of animals, especially horses, and landscape, including farm scenes. The Duke gave him an allowance so that, from 1769, he was able to attend the Mannheim Akademie. Müller’s friendship there with Ferdinand Kobell and Franz Kobell (1749–1822) led to a considerable mutual influence in the work of all three. Müller also established himself as a poet at this time, becoming one of the representatives of the late 18th-century German literary movement known as Sturm und Drang. In the course of the 1770s Müller wrote a celebrated series of idylls, the lyric drama Niobe and the first parts of his Fausts Leben dramatisiert, all issued in editions with his own engraved illustrations. Life drawings and etchings from this period are in Mannheim (Städt. Reiss-Mus.), Frankfurt am Main (Goethemus.) and Monaco-Ville (Archvs Pal. Princier). At this time, however, Müller’s work as a poet and dramatist was more widely known and admired than his work as an artist. His study of the famous collection of casts of antique sculptures in the Antikensaal at Mannheim, and of paintings in the picture gallery belonging to the Elector ...

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Pomposa  

Charles B. McClendon

Italian former Benedictine abbey near the mouth of the Po River and 45 km north of Ravenna in the province of Emilia Romagna. Although first documented in ad 874, a monastic settlement probably existed there at least two centuries earlier. Pomposa rose to prominence in the 10th and 11th centuries through the support of the Holy Roman emperors. Over the course of the 14th century, a notable series of wall paintings in three different buildings were sponsored despite the monastery’s waning fortunes. In 1663 the monastic community was suppressed by papal decree. The site was secularized in 1802 and became property of the Italian state after 1870.

The proportions of the wooden-roofed basilican church, along with the polygonal outline of its main apse, reflect influence from nearby Ravenna and Classe and suggest a date in the 8th or 9th century. An elaborate pavement of mosaic and cut stone (opus sectile...

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Anne-Mette Gravgaard, Nano Chatzidakis and Olga Etinhof

Term used to describe the art of Orthodox Christianity that developed after the fall of Constantinople (now Istanbul) in 1453 and the dissolution of the Byzantine empire.

Anne-Mette Gravgaard

The Orthodox world post-1453 can be divided into three main spheres: the Athonite sphere, consisting of Orthodox territories under Turkish rule; the Venetian sphere, consisting of Venice’s possessions in the eastern Mediterranean; and the peripheral sphere, consisting primarily of Russia, Bulgaria, Serbia, Moldavia (partly Moldova, partly Romania), Wallachia (now in Romania) and Georgia.

The Athonite sphere was dominated by two great centres of Orthodox monasticism, Meteora and Mt Athos. The economic basis for undertaking monumental and icon painting was weaker than in previous centuries; there were no imperial or wealthy aristocratic patrons left, and, even though the Ottoman authorities did not interfere with spiritual matters, the Orthodox population was often harassed by financial exactions. The expensive production of mosaics had already ceased in the 14th century. The main aims of the Church were to survive and to safeguard Orthodoxy. This was reflected in a pronounced conservatism towards art and in persistent efforts to keep it free from Western contamination....

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Richard Bösel

(b Trento, Nov 30, 1642; d Vienna, Aug 31, 1709).

Italian painter, architect and stage designer. He was a brilliant quadratura painter, whose most celebrated works, such as the decoration of the church of S Ignazio in Rome, unite painting, architecture and sculpture in effects of overwhelming illusionism and are among the high-points of Baroque church art. He was a Jesuit lay brother and produced his most significant work for the Society of Jesus. This affiliation was fundamental to his conception of art and to his heightened awareness of the artist’s role as instrumental in proclaiming the faith and stimulating religious fervour. The methods he used were those of Counter-Reformation rhetoric, as represented in Ignatius Loyola’s Spirited Exercises (1548). His architectural works are eclectic, and his unconventional combination of varied sources led to bold experiments with both space and structure. His ideas were spread by his highly successful two-volume treatise, Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum (1693–1700).

He received his first artistic training in Trento, with a painter who appears to have worked in the studio of Palma Giovane. He then studied with an unidentifiable pupil of, among others, Andrea Sacchi, who would have been the first to instruct Pozzo in the art of the Roman High Baroque, and he followed this painter to Como and Milan. In Milan Pozzo joined the Society of Jesus on ...

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Sonja Weih-Krüger

[Preisler]

German family of painters and engravers, of Bohemian origin, also active in Denmark. Daniel Preissler (b Prague, 8 March 1627; d Nuremberg, 19 June 1665), a pupil in Dresden of Christian Schiebling (1603–63), lived from 1652 in Nuremberg, becoming a master in 1654 and being nominated to the city’s Greater Council in 1662. He painted altarpieces and numerous portraits, including a Self-portrait of the Artist with his Family (1665; Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.)

Daniel’s son, Johann Daniel Preissler (b Nuremberg, 17 January 1666; d Nuremberg, 13 October 1737), was born after the death of his father; ten years later his mother married her husband’s pupil, Heinrich Popp (1637–82), who became Johann Daniel’s first teacher. On Popp’s death in 1682 Johann Daniel was apprenticed to the painter Johann Murrer (1644–1713). He spent the period 1688–96 in Venice and Rome, returning in ...

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Eva Börsch-Supan

German family of artists. The draughtsmen, engravers and painters Franz [Friedrich] Riepenhausen (b Göttingen, 1786; d Rome, 3 Jan 1831) and his brother Johannes [Christian] Riepenhausen (b Göttingen, 1788; d Rome, 17 Sept 1860) were both taught by their father, the Göttingen engraver Ernst Ludwig Riepenhausen (1765–1840), and first worked in the style of precise, often anecdotal illustration typical of late 18th-century drawing and printmaking. In 1800 they produced engravings of Johann Heinrich Tischbein the elder’s illustrations of the works of Homer, a commission that demanded the use of clear line. Studies in Dresden (from May to October 1804) under Ferdinand Hartmann (1774–1842) reinforced their preference for this style. They were also, however, attracted by Catholicism (they converted in 1804) and to Romanticism. In 1806, they published engravings after Ludwig Tieck’s Genoveva, and they made copies of Hartmann’s studies after old Italian oil paintings....

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Ekhart Berckenhagen

(b Berlin, July 25, 1725; d Berlin, June 24, 1797).

German painter, draughtsman and etcher. He was the son of the goldsmith Christian Bernhard Rode (d 1755) and the pupil of N. Müller (fl 1740s) and Antoine Pesne. From 1750 to 1752 he studied with Carle Vanloo and Jean Restout in Paris, and between 1754 and 1756 he studied in Rome and in Venice, where he produced oil sketches after Titian, Tintoretto, Pordenone and Giordano. He was a fast and prolific worker with a talent for strong composition and use of colour. This last quality became especially evident after 1770, when he began to execute his works in bright, strong-toned colours. He painted several monumental wall and ceiling paintings, mainly in the castles and palaces of the aristocracy in the area of Berlin and Potsdam. In 1771–3 he produced a series of paintings (e.g. the Ploughman Cincinnatus Chosen to be Dictator) for the house of ...