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Article

Marit Lange and Thea Miller

(b Holmestrand, Jan 21, 1845; d Oslo, March 25, 1932).

Norwegian painter . In the 1860s and early 1870s she took lessons in drawing and painting in Christiania (now Oslo) and also travelled extensively in Europe with her sister Agathe, a composer and pianist. She copied works in major museums and took occasional art lessons; she later considered this experience to have been of fundamental importance to her artistic development. Little Red Riding Hood (1872; Oslo, N.G.) is impressive in technique, and the early portrait of her sister, Agathe Backer-Grøndahl (1874; Holmestrand, Komm.), shows a refined colour scheme. At the age of nearly 30 Backer decided to train professionally as a painter and in 1874 went to Munich. She was never attached to a particular institution, but the influence of her friend the artist Eilif Peterssen was crucial to her development. In Munich she made a thorough study of perspective, which formed a secure basis for her later work. The work she did while in Munich reflects a study of the Old Masters in museums and is characterized by a preference for the historical subjects typical of the Munich school, as well as by an interest in the psychological portrait (e.g. ...

Article

Vincent Lombard, Donato Notarnicola and Jhemel Zioua

(b Paris, June 7, 1876; d Quebec, July 5, 1944).

French architect and monk. He was the son of an architect and studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. He was a brilliant student and obtained his diploma in 1901. After a trip to Spain and Italy, where he produced some beautiful watercolours that earned him a special mention at the Salon in Paris (1901), he decided to become a monk and entered the Benedictine monastery at Solesmes, Sarthe. At this time, religious communities exiled from France needed many new buildings, and Bellot was sent to the Netherlands in 1906 to extend a monastery there. He learnt how to build in brick, a material he used for the rest of his life, and he also became acquainted with H. P. Berlage and Modernist Dutch architecture. Bellot worked in the Netherlands and on the Isle of Wight, England, until 1920, producing many fine yet low-cost buildings in brick. His inventiveness, allied to an admiration for medieval architecture and the rationalist theories of Viollet-le-Duc, led him to develop a style that had neo-Gothic aspects, clearly expressing structure and giving an impression of lightness and balance as much as mass and weightiness, and he used brick to create both structure and decoration....

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(b Christiania [now Oslo], March 28, 1864; d Oslo, June 2, 1953).

Norwegian architect and designer. He was trained as a draughtsman and technician in Christiania (1883–4) and completed his education as an architect in Berlin (1884–7). He started his own practice in Christiania in 1888, serving also as a teacher at the Royal School of Design there from 1908 and as director from 1912 to 1934. Early on he demonstrated an extraordinary ability as a draughtsman and a thorough knowledge of architectural history; he was equally interested in the traditional buildings of his own country and international contemporary trends. Bull’s first buildings in Christiania, such as the Paulus Church (1889–92) and Mogens Thorsen’s home for the elderly (1896–8; destr.), are historicist, although freely so. The high spire of the Gothic-Revival church, which is of red brick with details in glazed tiles, provides a landmark for Georg Bull’s earlier Grünerløkka development. In the National Theatre (...

Article

Joan Hichberger

[née Thompson, Elizabeth Southerden]

(b Lausanne, Nov 3, 1846; d Gormanston, Ireland, Oct 2, 1933).

English painter. She was the elder daughter of Thomas James and Christiana (née Weller) Thompson, members of London’s literary and artistic circles and close friends of Charles Dickens. Both she and her sister (the poet and essayist Alice Meynell) were educated by their father. She spent much of her childhood in Italy, but the family returned to England in 1860 so that she could have professional tuition. She became a student in the elementary class at the Female School of Art, South Kensington, London, and, after a further interval of travel and residence on the Continent, obtained a place in the antique and life classes at the school in 1866. Her main rival for academic honours there was Kate Greenaway. In 1869 the family lived in Florence, where she studied drawing at the Accademia di Belle Arti with Giuseppe Bellucci (1827–82). Her first recorded painting was a religious work, ...

Article

Gudrun Schmidt

German family of artists. The sculptor Emil Cauer the elder (b Dresden, 19 Nov 1800; d Bad Kreuznach, 4 Aug 1867) studied in Berlin under Christian Daniel Rauch. He taught art at Bonn University. At first he was more interested in painting, but then turned enthusiastically to sculpture. He settled in Bad Kreuznach in 1832. Much of his work comprises small genre scenes and figures taken from fairytales. He also modelled important figures from German history and the Reformation, such as Ulpich von Hutten and Philipp Melancthon, and characters from Shakespeare’s plays. His two sons, Carl Cauer (b Bonn, 14 Feb 1828; d Bad Kreuznach, 17 April 1885) and Robert Cauer the elder (b Dresden, 13 Feb 1831; d Kassel, 2 April 1893), both became successful sculptors. Carl was the most important member of the family. He trained with his father and then with ...

Article

Peter Stasny

(b Vienna, Oct 22, 1878; d Hamburg, July 30, 1960).

Austrian printmaker, painter, decorative artist and writer. He studied painting with Christian Griepenkerl (1839–1916) at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna (1894–9). From 1899 to 1900 he renovated the Patronatskirche of Emperor Francis Joseph in Radmer an dem Hasel, decorating it with frescoes. At the same time he received his first illustration commissions from the publishers Gerlach & Wiedling in Vienna. From 1900 he was a member of the Vienna Secession (see Secession, §3). In 1902 he became an assistant tutor in draughtsmanship at the Kunstgewerbeschule (now Hochschule für Angewandte Kunst) in Vienna, and in 1905 he took over a class in painting and draughtsmanship, being one of Oskar Kokoschka’s first teachers.

In Autumn 1905 Czeschka joined the Wiener Werkstätte. Under their auspices he produced jewellery, fabrics, wallpaper, enamelled pictures and furniture, and repoussé work and glass windows for the Palais Stoclet, Brussels (...

Article

Cornelia Bauer

(b St Gall, Oct 1, 1858; d Lucerne, Jan 11, 1927).

Swiss architect. After studying architecture for two years (c. 1876–8) at the Hochschule, Stuttgart, under Adolf Gnauth and Christian Friedrich Leins (1814–92), he travelled in Italy and France. From 1879 he worked primarily in St Gall, but he also worked elsewhere in Switzerland. He won a gold medal at the Vatican Exhibition (1887–8), and in 1888 he was made a Knight of St Gregory the Great by Pope Leo XIII. Hardegger was an eclectic architect, using all the traditional historicist styles. His designs were often asymmetrical and irregular in both plan and elevation, as in the church of St Martin (1908–10), Olten; they also incorporated painting and sculpture, for example in the Haus zum Bürgli (before 1890), at St Gall, and they emphasized regional traditions, as at the parish church of Göschenen (1898–9). Following the construction of the parish church at Gossau (...

Article

Trond Aslaksby

(Olaf Halvor)

(b Smedjebakken, Dalarne, July 8, 1857; d Christiania [now Oslo], Oct 10, 1913).

Norwegian painter. He was born into an enlightened but conservative family, his father being an engineer, occasional architect and writer of Nordic saga poetry, and he spent his childhood and youth in the rapidly expanding town of Drammen, 40 km from the capital Christiania. In 1873 he was admitted to the Kongelige Tegneskole in Christiania, where he studied under Peder C. Thurmann, a landscape artist trained in Düsseldorf. For more advanced training, Heyerdahl was obliged to go abroad, and in 1874 he enrolled at the Munich Akademie. He was encouraged by Professor Ludwig von Löfftz (1845–1910) to give up landscape in favour of history painting and portraits (e.g. the artists Christian Skredsvig, 1876, and Eilif Peterssen, 1877; both Oslo, N.G.). In 1877, under the guidance of Professor Wilhelm Lindenschmit (1829–95), Heyerdahl finished his most inventive and brilliant composition, the Expulsion from the Garden (Oslo, N.G.). Using over life-size figures, set in a barren tempestuous landscape, Heyerdahl skilfully contrasted the youthful rage of Adam with the resigned despair of Eve. This sombre work won him a third prize medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in ...

Article

Lene Olesen

(b Rønne, Bornholm, Dec 27, 1834; d Rønne, Dec 9, 1912).

Danish potter and ceramic manufacturer. He served his apprenticeship as a potter in the workshop of Edvard Christian Sonne (1810–76) and then travelled for three years through northern France, Switzerland and Germany, where he worked in various ceramic factories in the Rheinland stoneware region. In 1859 he founded the L. Hjorth’s Terracotta factory in Rønne, where he produced simple, utilitarian wares. In 1862 he began to produce more artistic transfer-printed wares decorated with idyllic landscapes and flower motifs. In 1872 he set up a painter’s studio at the factory and also sent fired wares to artists in Copenhagen, such as the painter and writer Holger Drachmann (1846–1908), for decoration. About 1870 Hjorth began to produce terracotta copies of Greek vases. His inspiration came from the painter Kristian Zahrtmann, who provided drawings and photographs of Greek vases to be used as models. In the 1890s the factory began to manufacture black pottery in Art Nouveau and old Nordic styles....

Article

Gordon Campbell

German porcelain manufactory. In 1777 a porcelain factory was founded in Ilmenau (Thuringia) by Christian Zacharias Gräbner; its products were imitations of wares produced by Wedgwood and Meissen Porcelain Factory. From 1808 to 1871 the factory was known as Nonne and Roesch; in the 20th century it was nationalized under the communists, and is now an independent company. Its products are marked as Grafvon Henneberg porcelain....

Article

Zdenko Rus

(b Klanjec, nr Zagreb, April 17, 1869; d Klanjec, July 4, 1939).

Croatian painter and teacher. He studied painting in Zagreb under Ferdo Quiquerez and from 1886 he attended the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna, where he studied with Christian Griepenkerl (1839–1916) and August Eisenmenger (1830–1907). In 1892 he studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Munich, under Wilhelm von Lindenschmidt (1829–95) and also took master classes with Ferdinand Keller (1842–1922) at the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Karlsruhe. From 1895 he taught at the School of Arts and Crafts (now School for Applied Art and Design) in Zagreb and from 1908 to 1927 at the Art School (later Academy of Fine Arts) in the same city. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th he was the most important history painter working in Croatia and the most prolific. Attracted by Vlaho Bukovac’s Divisionist technique and his use of light, he adopted a palette of ...

Article

A. Ziffer

(b Munich, Oct 30, 1868; d Munich, Oct 9, 1940).

German painter, illustrator, teacher and poster designer. The son of the painter Christian Jank (1833–88), he attended Simon Hollósy’s private art school in Munich before studying (1891–6) at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, also in Munich, under Ludwig von Löfftz (1845–1910) and Paul Höcker (1854–1910). From 1896 he exhibited at the Munich Secession, and he became a member of Scholle, Die, founded in 1899. A regular contributor to the journal Jugend and at the forefront of modernism, he made his mark as a humorous illustrator, portraying allegories and scenes from military life. Jank also designed posters (e.g. Underworld, 1896; Berlin, Mus. Dt. Gesch.). He taught at the Damenakademie (1899–1907). Having come to prominence as a portrayer of events from German history with three monumental paintings for Berlin’s Reichstag building (destr.) in 1905, he collaborated with Adolf Münzer (1870–1952) and ...

Article

Lene Olesen

(b Næstved, March 6, 1846; d Næstved, Nov 16, 1917).

Danish ceramic manufacturer. He received his training as an apprentice at the Kähler ceramic factory. The concern had been founded in Næstved in 1839 by his father, Joachim Christian Herman Kähler (1808–84), who was a potter and tiled-stove manufacturer. Kähler attended the technical colleges in Næstved and Copenhagen (1864–5) and assisted as a modeller in the studio of the sculptor Hermann Wilhelm Bissen. He then travelled abroad until 1867.

In 1872 the concern was divided between Kähler and his brother Carl Frederik Kähler (1850–1930), but the latter withdrew in 1896. Kähler took over the manufacture of tiled stoves and faience and increasingly experimented with glaze and lustre effects. In 1888 Karl Hansen Reistrup (1863–1929) joined the concern as artistic director. Kähler achieved recognition for the factory at the Great Nordic Exhibition of 1888, held at the Industrial Association in Copenhagen. At the Exposition Universelle of ...

Article

Ingeborg Wikborg

(Peter)

(b Christiania [now Oslo], May 8, 1876; d Paris, Oct 19, 1926).

Norwegian painter. He studied at the Royal School of Design in Kristiania (1891–5) and in 1896 studied with Karl Raupp (1837–1918) in Munich. Back in Norway, he obtained tuition from Christian Krohg and other eminent artists before applying to the Kunstakademie in Munich in 1900. The same autumn he studied with Eugène Carrière in Paris, where he met several of the future Fauvists, including Henri Matisse and André Derain. The greatest influence on his development as a painter was, however, Edvard Munch, whom he met in 1901. Karsten’s favourite subjects during this period were figures, portraits and landscapes. Consumption (1907; Oslo, N.G.), a full-length frontal presentation of an old, sick woman, was directly inspired by Munch’s portrait of his sister Inger (1892; Oslo, N.G.), although it also reveals an independent talent.

From 1900 Karsten was mostly in Paris, and Munch’s influence receded as impressions from the work of Paul Gauguin, Paul Cézanne and Vincent van Gogh came to affect his painting. ...

Article

Sidsel Helliesen

(b Kragerø, April 27, 1857; d Jeløya, nr Moss, Jan 21, 1914).

Norwegian draughtsman and painter. He grew up in poverty in Kragerø, a small town on the coast south of Christiania (later Kristiania; now Oslo). With support from public funds from 1874 to 1876 he studied drawing with Wilhelm von Hanno and with Julius Middelthun at the Royal School of Drawing. He then spent three years (1876–9) at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich under Wilhelm Lindenschmidt (1829–95) and Ludwig von Loefftz (1845–1910). Kittelsen did not, however, adopt the naturalistic style current in Munich, and he made little mark there as a painter. Works from his first Munich years, for example Strike (1879; Trondheim, Trøndelag Flkmus.), show that his talents were for lively and humorous narrative, and for mythical and poetic studies of nature; subjects he could treat most effectively in drawings. In Munich, Kittelsen joined the circle of Norwegian artists and established a lasting friendship with Erik Werenskiold—a strong influence on his work—and also with Eilif Peterssen, Gerhard Munthe, Christian Skredsvig and others. Lack of funds forced him back to Norway in the autumn of ...

Article

Sabine Kehl-Baierle

(b Bisenz bei Ung Hradisch [now Bzenec], Moravia, Oct 13, 1867; d Vienna, May 9, 1916).

Austrian painter and printmaker. He studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna under the German painter Christian Griepenkerl (1839–1916) in 1886–8 and the Austrian painter Leopold Carl Müller (1834–92) in 1890–91. He went to Paris to further his studies at the Académie Julian and visited Concarneau in Brittany for the first time in 1893: the Breton people, harbour activity, sunrises and sunsets, sailing ships and the shimmering surface of the water became motifs in his art. In 1894–5 he again studied at the academy in Vienna, this time portrait painting, under the Polish painter Kazimierz Pochwalski (1855–1940). After 1895 he came under the influence of French art (especially plein-air painting, Impressionism and works by Vuillard and Bonnard), which led him to use lighter, brighter colours than before. In 1895 he married Martha Guyot, a Breton woman. Subsequently they spent their summers in Brittany and their winters in Vienna, where in ...

Article

Mormons  

Paul L. Anderson

[Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-day Saints]

Religious sect. Mormonism was founded in 1830 in a farmhouse near Fayette, NY, by Joseph Smith jr (1805–44), who declared that he had been called by God as a modern prophet to restore Christianity in its purity. The name was taken from the Book of Mormon, a companion scripture to the Bible, narrating the religious history of an ancient American people who were visited by the resurrected Christ; this was translated from golden plates and published by Smith in 1830. A central teaching of the Church was that members should gather to the American frontier to build the City of Zion in preparation for Christ’s millennial reign. Attempts to build latter-day Zion aroused violent opposition in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois, culminating in the assassination (1844) of Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum Smith. In 1847 Brigham Young (1801–77), Smith’s successor as president and prophet, founded ...

Article

Vidar Poulsson

(Peter Frantz Wilhelm)

(b Skanshagen at Elverum, July 19, 1849; d Baerum, Jan 15, 1929).

Norwegian painter and designer. He trained as a landscape painter at the art school in Christiania (after 1877 Kristiania, now Oslo) run by J. F. Eckersberg and his followers from 1870 to 1874. He travelled widely throughout his career but was most attracted to eastern Norway, where he had been born. His first ambition was to paint in a realistic style that would also accommodate impulses from fantasy and literature. During the winters of 1874–5 and 1875–6 he visited his relative the painter Ludvig Munthe at Düsseldorf and was impressed by his work. An Autumn Landscape (1876; Bergen, Meyers Saml.) was Gerhard Munthe’s first major painting. During a long stay at Munich (1877–82) he studied the Old Masters as well as contemporary art. He painted about 70 oils, mainly dark in tone but quite varied in content. They are largely based on impressions of the coastal towns or interior of Norway rather than being inspired by German motifs. ...

Article

(Emanuel)

(b Christiania [now Oslo], Sept 4, 1852; d Bærum, Dec 29, 1928).

Norwegian painter. He attended Johan Fredrik Eckersberg’s School of Drawing in Christiania (1869–70) and then briefly studied painting with Knud Bergslien (1827–1908). In the spring of 1871 Peterssen moved on to the academies of Karlsruhe (1871–3) and Munich (1873–5). He then stayed in Munich until the autumn of 1878 but made many study trips abroad: he returned to Norway but also visited London and Paris and made several journeys to Italian cities. He thus acquired a more profound knowledge of both earlier and contemporary European art than that available to most Norwegians studying in Munich.

In Munich’s galleries he studied and copied the Old Masters but was also deeply impressed by history painting of the Munich school led by Karl Theodor von Piloty. Peterssen turned to themes from Scandinavian history of the 16th and 17th centuries: he painted the Death of Corfitz Ulfedt...

Article

Andreas Blühm

(b Siegen, Sept 5, 1843; d Agrigento, Oct 15, 1906).

German sculptor and teacher. He received a technically sound training in sculpture at the Staatliche Hochschule für Bildende Künste in Berlin from Albert Wolff, a pupil of Christian Daniel Rauch, and was awarded the Michael Beer Prize, enabling him to study in Rome. His early works included the marble group Market Traffic (destr.), formerly on the Belle-Alliance bridge in Berlin, and the allegorical Demon of Steam (destr.), which was erected in a light-well of the Technische Hochschule in Berlin-Charlottenburg. In 1881 he taught at the Kunstakademie in Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia); he was appointed a professor in 1883 and later became its Director. Reusch was an exponent of an academic style of sculpture practised in the late 19th century by members of the Hochschule. They erected large and imposing monuments of the ruling Hohenzollern family and of Otto von Bismarck (1815–98), principally in the province of Prussia. There is, however, a restraint in Reusch’s bronze sculptures, bringing his work closer to the Neo-classical style of Louis Tuaillon than to the neo-Baroque of Reinhold Begas, as seen in the equestrian statue of ...