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Richard K. Emmerson

The expectation that Antichrist would appear as a man in the Last Days to deceive and persecute Christians before the Last Judgement is not biblical, since only contemporary opponents of Christianity are labelled ‘antichrists’ in the Bible (1 and 2 John). Later exegetes, however, interpreted many enemies of God’s people from biblical and apocryphal texts, Early Christian history, and the apocalyptic visions of Daniel and Revelation as prefiguring or symbolizing a tyrannical future Antichrist. Illustrated Apocalypse manuscripts were among the first to depict this human incarnation of evil when representing the Beast from the Abyss attacking the Two Witnesses (Revelation 11:7), as in the Morgan Beatus Apocalypse (c. 940–45; New York, Morgan Lib., MS. M. 644, fol. 151r). The 13th-century Anglo-Norman Apocalypses sometimes supplemented this scene with a brief cycle of images depicting Antichrist’s preaching, bribes, and death, as in the Paris Apocalypse (c. 1255; Paris, Bib. N., MS. fr. 403, fols 17...

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[CESCM]

French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.

CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.

Since 1958 CECSM has published ...

Article

Amy Widmayer

[Galliano-Guillen, Juan Carlos Antonio]

(b Gibraltar, Nov 28, 1960).

British fashion designer, active also in France. Half renegade, half romantic, as a designer for Christian Dior, Galliano deftly captured Dior’s essence, creating excessively elegant garments for the modern, youthful woman unafraid of breaking fashion rules (see fig.). Known for his extravagant catwalk shows, over-the-top couture collections and knack for blending street- and high fashion, Galliano’s outrageous adaptations of iconic Dior silhouettes, master tailoring skills and penchant for theatrics, combined with a keen business sense, have earned him the distinction of being one of the most influential designers of his generation.

Born into a family of modest means in Gibraltar and raised in gritty south London, Galliano was educated at the prestigious Central Saint Martin’s College of Art and Design, where he graduated with a first class honours degree in 1984. His final collection at Central Saint Martin’s, entitled ‘Les Incroyables’, was an irreverent nod to the tattered clothing of the French Revolutionaries, and showcased not only his flawless technical skill, but his astute attention to detail and his passion for historical research....

Article

Santos  

James Cordova and Claire Farago

Term that refers to handmade paintings and sculptures of Christian holy figures, crafted by artists from the Hispanic and Lusophone Americas. The term first came into widespread use in early 20th-century New Mexico among English-speaking art collectors to convey a sense of cultural authenticity. Throughout the Americas, the term imagenes occurs most frequently in Spanish historical documents. Santos are usually painted on wood panels (retablos) or carved and painted in the round (bultos). Reredos, or altarpieces, often combine multiple retablos and bultos within a multi-level architectural framework.

European Christian imagery was circulated widely through the Spanish viceroyalties in the form of paintings, sculptures, and prints, the majority of which were produced in metropolitan centres such as Mexico City, Antigua, Lima, and Puebla, where European- and American-born artists established guilds and workshops. These became important sources upon which local artists elsewhere based their own traditions of religious image-making using locally available materials such as buffalo hides, vegetal dyes, mineral pigments, and yucca fibres, commonly employed by native artists long before European contact....

Article

Elisheva Revel-Neher

(b Budapest, 1927; d Paris, 2008).

Art historian and scholar of Jewish and Christian art, active in France. Known as the ‘grande dame’ of Jewish art, Sed-Rajna came to Paris in 1948. She became Director of the Hebraic Section of the Institut de Recherche et d’Histoire des Textes at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) and then taught at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes and at the Institut d’Etudes Juives of the Université Libre in Brussels. In 1976 she founded with Bezalel Narkiss the Jerusalem Index of Jewish Art and became President of the European Association for Jewish Studies. She published six pioneering books and numerous articles, scrutinizing the role played by the artistic heritage of the Jewish people.

In all her works the visual expression of the Jewish tradition was envisioned in the larger framework of the history of arts. Her immense knowledge of both texts and images led her to publish in ...