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A. Gerhardt

Benedictine abbey on the River Enns in Styria, Austria. It was founded in the mid-11th century by Bishop Gebhard from Salzburg, endowed by St Henna von Gurk, Gräfin von Friessach (d 1045), and settled by Benedictine monks from St Peter’s, Salzburg under Abbot Isingrin. The Romanesque minster (consecrated 1074), which was dedicated to St Blaise, was famous for its marble columns and was rebuilt after a fire in 1152; a Gothic choir was added in 1276–86. The present church incorporates Romanesque side doors as well as other fragments. The abbey became an important cultural centre with a renowned scriptorium. Amongst the many famous scholars there was Abbot Engelbert of Admont (reg 1297–1327). From 1121 to the 16th century a convent was attached to the abbey. Under the abbots Mathias Preininger (reg 1615–28) and Urban Weber (reg 1628–59) the whole establishment was transformed in the Baroque style, and the church was rebuilt (...

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Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Cistercian abbey in Portugal. The abbey, dedicated to S Maria, was founded as part of the policy of repopulation and territorial improvement of the first king of Portugal, Alfonso I (reg 1139–85), who in 1152 granted a large area of land to St Bernard of Clairvaux by a charter known as the Carta dos Coutos (Lisbon, Arquiv. N.). Work on the monastery started in 1158 and adhered to the rigid precepts of the Order. Although the exterior was extended and altered in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially the Baroque façade of the church, the interior essentially preserves its original Early Gothic appearance.

W. Beckford: Recollections of an Excursion to the Monasteries of Alcobaça and Batalha (London, 1835/R 1972) M. V. Natividade: Ignez de Castro e Pedro o Cru perante a iconografia dos seus túmulos (Lisbon, 1910) E. Korrodi: Alcobaça: Estudo histórico, arqueológico e artístico da Real Abadia de Alcobaça...

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Ursula Härting

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Article

Cathrin Klingsöhr-Leroy

(b Paris, 1662; d Paris, April 14, 1753).

French ecclesiastic and painter. He entered the Dominican Order at the age of 17. He may have begun his artistic training only in 1687, when he was given leave to travel to Rome; he seems to have spent several years there. According to tradition, it was Carlo Maratti’s painting that most influenced him; however, the classical stylistic elements in André’s paintings would seem to reflect the general influence of contemporary Roman and French art, rather than that of any particular artist. Apart from a few portraits, such as his Self-portrait with Rosary (after 1731; Paris, Louvre), André painted works with an exclusively religious content. Many of his surviving monumental paintings may be seen in churches in Lyon and Bordeaux, as well as in several in Paris, for instance the Supper at Emmaus (1741) in St Nicolas du Chardonnet, St Dominic Expounding the Rules of the Order (1738...

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D. Kösslerová

(b Hradec Králové, Dec 3, 1621; d Prague, Nov 29, 1688).

Bohemian historiographer . Born into a noble family, he entered the Jesuit Order in 1638 and graduated in history at the Klementinum Jesuit College in Prague. As a student he accompanied the Spanish theologian Rodrigo Arriaga (1592–1667) on his tour of Bohemia. He was ordained a priest in 1649 and subsequently devoted himself to writing. His historiographic works include many descriptions of architecture and art works. Writing about places of pilgrimage and miraculous religious images, such as statues of the Virgin in Varta and Příbram (15th century; Church of Our Lady), he drew on the detailed knowledge he had acquired during his extensive travels and from his archive studies. In the Vita venerabilis Arnesti (Prague, 1664) he described the patronage of both Arnošt, first Archbishop of Prague (1297–1364), and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV. His two principal works, Epitome historica rerum Bohemicarum (Prague, 1677) and ...

Article

Andrew John Martin

(b Bologna, 1627; d after 1687).

Italian architect. His first known work is in connection with the church of S Bartolomeo (consecrated 1664) in Bologna; he completed this for the Theatines to the designs, which he modified, of Giovanni Battista Falcetti (1580–1629). His masterpiece is the church of St Kajetan in Munich, which was commissioned by Adelaide Henrietta of Savoy (1636–76), wife of Ferdinand, Elector of Bavaria, in thanksgiving for the long-awaited birth in 1662 of the heir to the throne, Maximilian II Emmanuel. When her initial attempt to employ Guarino Guarini failed, Adelaide Henrietta approached Barelli, who submitted his first scheme in Munich in October 1662 and was awarded the commission. Six months later he presented a second set of designs; in April 1663 the foundation stone was laid. The building, which faces the Residenz, was designed to fulfil several functions: it served as a church for the Theatines and as a sacred ceremonial assembly hall for the court, and it housed the Wittelsbach family sepulchre. One of the terms of the commission was that Barelli should observe the proportions of the mother church of the Theatines, S Andrea della Valle (...

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Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos

(b Murcia, 1594; d Madrid, May 20, 1679).

Spanish architect. He entered the Jesuit Order at 16 as a lay brother and began his career as a carpenter and assembler of retables. His earliest work included the Mannerist retable in the church of the Jesuit college of Alcalá de Henares and the tabernacle in Juan Gómez de Mora’s Bernadine church (c. 1624–30) in the same city. The latter is an empty, free-standing feature, placed on the altar, quite distinct from the traditional Spanish retable, which rests against the rear wall of the sanctuary. In 1633 he replaced the lay brother Pedro Sánchez (1568–?1633) as master of the works at the church of the Colegio Imperial in Madrid, now the cathedral of S Isidoro. There he built the vaults and the dome over the crossing, the latter being the first instance of the ‘cúpula encamonada’, a dome constructed using a timber frame (‘camón’), roofed in slate and plastered inside, with a brick drum. The ease of construction of this type of dome, its low cost and its structural stability made it the prototype of Madrid domes in the Baroque period. Bautista reduced the height and width of the nave arcades in S Isidoro and replaced the capitals and entablatures of the façade columns and paired pilasters of the nave with others of his own particular invention. The capitals featured Corinthian foliage surmounted by an egg-and-dart moulding, while the entablatures displayed paired triglyph consoles....

Article

Hannelore Hägele

(b Pfarrkirchen, Upper Bavaria, c. 1660; d Augsburg, Jan 31, 1738).

German sculptor. He was the son of the sculptor Johann Christian Bendl, with whom he trained. Having become a journeyman, he travelled for six years, probably to Bohemia and Venice. On his return he entered in 1684 the workshop in Augsburg of Johann Jakob Rill (fl c. 1686–99); on 26 November 1687 he was made a master and also became a citizen of Augsburg. He was the city’s leading sculptor during the late Baroque period; many important churches in and outside of Augsburg had sculptures by him. He worked mostly in wood, but also in stone, terracotta and stucco, and probably in ivory and metal as well. For jewellers and goldsmiths he produced models, such as a figure of St Sebastian (1714–15) and a crucifix (1716). His major work included two series of life-size statues: one, of the Apostles, for St Moritz and the other, of the ...

Article

Ramón Gutiérrez

(b nr Rome, 1677; d Córdoba, Argentina, Dec 25, 1740).

Italian architect, active in Argentina. Having studied architecture in Rome, in 1716 he joined the Jesuit Order. In 1717 he travelled with Giovanni Battista Primoli to Buenos Aires, subsequently settling in Córdoba. He was an able designer with a considerable theoretical knowledge of architecture and often worked in collaboration with Primoli, who completed many of his designs. Bianchi’s purified, classical style contained some Mannerist tendencies, and its implementation helped to increase the level of craftsmanship in architecture in the region. In 1719 he set up the lime kilns at La Calera, near Córdoba, so enabling an improvement in the building techniques of the region. In 1720 he moved to Buenos Aires, where he directed work on the Jesuit Colegio and later completed the construction of their church. Other important projects in Buenos Aires were his designs for the churches of Nuestra Señora del Pilar (Recoletos), Belén, S Catalina, La Merced, and S Francisco as well as the façade of the cathedral (all ...

Article

Annick Benavides

[Bitti, Aloisio Bernardino Giovanni Demócrito]

(b Camerino, the Marches, 1548; d Lima, 1610).

Italian painter and sculptor active in Peru. One of seven children born to Pablo and Cornelia Bitti, Bernardo Bitti commenced formal training in the arts at the age of 14 in Camerino and completed his training in Rome. He was inducted into the Society of Jesus as a Coadjutor Brother on 2 May 1568 at the age of 20. The General of the Society of Jesus, Everardo Mecurián, assigned Bitti to the Viceroyalty of Peru in 1573 at the request of the Jesuit Provincial in Peru, Diego Bracamante, who believed religious imagery would facilitate the Catholic indoctrination of indigenous Andeans at missions. After spending 14 months in Seville, Bitti arrived in Lima on 31 May 1575 and worked there for 8 years. He subsequently embarked on a peripatetic career decorating the interiors of Jesuit sites in Cuzco, Juli, La Paz, Sucre, Potosí, Arequipa, and Ayacucho.

Bitti created the main and lateral altarpieces of the Jesuit provisional church of S Pedro in Lima with the assistance of the Andalusian Jesuit artist Pedro de Vargas (...

Article

Delia Kottmann

Italian village in Lazio, north of Rome, known for its church. The church of SS Anastasius and Nonnosus is all that remains of the 6th-century Benedictine monastery, which submitted to Cluny in ad 940. Apart from some re-used fragments, the architecture is Romanesque, with a Cosmati pavement in opus sectile as well as an ambo and ciborium. The church is famous for its wall paintings from the first quarter of the 12th century. The apse and its adjacent walls, showing the 24 elders, are influenced by Romano–Christian motifs. Christ in the middle of the conch is flanked by Peter and Paul in a Traditio legis depiction, with a procession of lambs below. Underneath, Maria Regina has to be reconstructed in the middle, between two conserved angels followed by female saints in a Byzantine manner. No Romano–Christian iconography seems to have influenced the vast apocalyptic cycle painted on the side walls of the transept. A band of prophets runs beneath the roof on all the walls of the transept. An inscription in the apse indicates three Roman painters....

Article

A. S. Arbury

Large, temporary structure erected to commemorate the death of an important person. Designed to display a symbolic coffin for the deceased, catafalques were the visual and theological focal point of elaborate obsequies involving prayers, orations, a requiem mass and absolution rites. Their architectural forms and profuse decoration permitted complex iconographic programmes that glorified the deceased.

Catafalques were built primarily in the Catholic countries of Europe and in their colonies from the 16th to the 19th century. They were erected for illustrious persons, including monarchs, nobles, ecclesiastics, academicians and artists, but royal catafalques were the most numerous, the most spectacular and the best documented. Their development is obscure, but the introduction of the catafalque may be connected with the Habsburgs’ desire to emulate the august funeral practices of antiquity, for which justification was sought in Classical literature, the writings of the Church Fathers and the Bible. The custom was certainly popularized by the many catafalques erected throughout Europe for Holy Roman Emperor ...

Article

Javier Rivera

Spanish monastery in the town of Celanova in the province of Orense, Galicia. It was founded in 936 by the bishop and monk St Rosendo (d 977), who was also abbot of the monastery from 959 until his death. The monastery belonged to the Benedictine Order and was dedicated to St Salvador. The oldest and most important part of the monastery, the chapel of St Michael of Celanova, founded in the 10th century by St Rosendo, is located in the former novitiate’s garden. It comprises a small pre-Romanesque, Mozarabic oratory that can be dated to the fourth decade of the 10th century, as the monastery was consecrated in 942. Its architectural language and its spatial concepts belong to contemporaneous art developed in the kingdom of León, with similarities to such buildings as Santiago de Peñalba and Santa Comba de Bande and drawing on Asturian, Visigothic, and Islamic influences. Its ground-plan covers an area of 22 sq. m, and the chapel reaches a maximum height of 6 m. It is composed of three spatial units arranged longitudinally. The first unit contains the access door on its south side; it has a square ground-plan and a horseshoe arch along its axis. The next unit, slightly larger in area and of a greater height, has a rectangular ground-plan and has a ribbed vault resting on arches with lobed pendentives. The chancel is entered via a horseshoe arch that is framed by an ...

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Pedro Dias

[Manuel de Sousa]

(b Braga, c. 1650; d Tibães, 1716).

Portuguese sculptor. He was born to a family of craftsmen and later entered one of the many workshops of wood-carvers in Braga. In 1676, however, he entered the Benedictine order at its Portuguese mother house of Tibães, near Braga. Here he made statues and reliefs for the church of S Martinho. From this period date his St Benedict and St Gregory the Great and the relief of the Visitation, now in the Benedictine church, S Romão do Neiva. Between 1680 and 1683, during the abbotship of Frei João Osório, he made terracotta sculptures of the eight Virtues and the four Benedictine kings (Tibães, Sacristy), images that appear rather rigid and stereotyped.

Frei Cipriano da Cruz moved to Coimbra before July 1691, when it is recorded that he made the St Catherine in the chapel of the University of Coimbra. This contact with the main centre for sculpture in Portugal had a broadening effect on his art. His most important work outside Tibães is the group of serene and dignified sculptures (dispersed) that he made for the Colégio de S Bento (Benedict), Coimbra. This group includes his gilt and polychromed wooden ...

Article

Vitor Serrão

(b Lisbon, 1598; d Cotovia, May 11, 1644).

Portuguese painter and Jesuit priest. He was apprenticed in Madrid to Eugenio Cajés, in whose studio he became familiar with the tenebrist style characterized by sharply contrasting figures, strong gradations of chiaroscuro and naturalistically rendered background and drapery. He returned to Lisbon around 1625. In 1632 he became a Jesuit, and in 1644 he died in the Noviciado da Cotovia, renowned for his saintliness. The naturalism of his works quickly gained him fame, and he was nicknamed cabrinha (little goat) by his contemporaries because of his ‘oriental features’. An early work is the beautiful Visitation (c. 1630; Lisbon, S Mamede, Sacristy). Among his patrons and collectors were the Inquisitor General, Dom Francisco de Castro, and the Capelão-mor (royal chaplain) and future Bishop of Elvas, Dom Manuel da Cunha.

Like the work of André Reinoso, that of Domingos da Cunha clearly reflects the innovative spirit of the Portuguese painters trained at the school of Madrid. Félix da Costa Meesen noted that ‘he is a good colourist’ and a ‘great imitator of the natural’, although ‘narrative was not his strong point’. These qualities are seen in the series of scenes from the ...

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Jean-Pierre Babelon

(b Vic-sur-Seille, Moselle, 1588 or 1591; d Agde, Hérault, Oct 29, 1644).

French Jesuit priest and architect. Entering the novitiate of the Society of Jesus in 1611, he studied in Rouen and La Flèche, was ordained a priest in 1621 and studied theology in Paris (1621–2). He had also taught grammar at Rennes (1615–18) and mathematics at La Flèche (1618–21). He worked first as an architect at the Jesuit college in Rouen, where from 1622 to 1629 he was praefectus fabricae; then as architectus at the college in Rennes, where he supervised the building works; at the college of Orléans, for which he provided plans in 1632; and, above all, at the Jesuit church in Paris, St Louis (now St Paul–St Louis). In plans for the latter he found himself in competition with Etienne Martellange. Both sets of plans were submitted to Rome; those by Martellange were preferred, and he began work on the church in ...

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M. I. Andreyev

Monastery in the Vologda region of the Russian Federation, c. 500 km north of Moscow and 20 km north of the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery. It was founded in 1398 on the summit of a small hill near the White Lake by Ferapont, a monk from the Simonov Monastery in Moscow. In the mid-15th century the monastery became a major religious and cultural centre in the Russian north, with a scriptorium and a large library. It played an important role in the social and political life of the Moscow state and became a place of honourable exile for disgraced higher-ranking members of the clergy. At the end of the 17th century the monastery fell into decline, and it was dissolved in 1798, when its churches became parish churches. It was briefly revived as a convent between 1903 and 1923, and from 1908 to 1915, and in 1920–21 it was restored by the architects ...

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Ursula Härting

Flemish family of artists. The fact that the same Christian names occurred in three generations of painters who used identical signatures has caused a great deal of confusion in attributing their various works. It is still not possible to distinguish between all members of the family reliably, as signed and dated works are not available for some of the family members. Several of them were also active in France. Nicholas Francken (b Herentals, c. 1510/20; d Antwerp, 12 March 1596) moved to Antwerp with his family in the early 1560s; he taught three of his sons to paint, (1) Hieronymus Francken I, (2) Frans Francken I and (3) Ambrosius Francken I, who were also apprenticed to Frans Floris in Antwerp c. 1560. In the next generation, all the sons of Frans Francken I were artists: Thomas Francken (b Antwerp, 28 Feb 1574; d Antwerp, c. 1625...

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Ursula Härting

In