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Article

Kirk Ambrose

(b Moscow, May 7, 1903; d Paris, Jan 25, 1988).

Lithuanian art historian, scholar of folklore and Egyptology, and diplomat of Russian birth. Son of the celebrated Lithuanian Symbolist poet of the same name, Jurgis Baltrušaitis II studied under Henri(-Joseph) Focillon at the Sorbonne and earned the PhD in 1931. The concerns of his mentor are evident in La stylistique ornementale dans la sculpture romane (1931), which reprises and extends arguments for the ‘law of the frame’ in Romanesque sculpture. Accordingly, the shapes of architectural members, such as capitals and tympana, determined the articulation of sculptural forms. This theory could account for the genesis of a wide array of monumental carvings, from foliate capitals to narrative reliefs, but ultimately it had a rather limited impact on the field of Romanesque sculptural studies. In a scathing critique, Schapiro argued that Baltrušaitis’s book—and by implication Focillon’s methods—robbed Romanesque sculptors of agency and neglected the religious and expressive meanings of this art form....

Article

Eleanor Heartney

(b Bangkok, Feb 25, 1953; d Bangkok, Aug 25, 2000).

Thai sculptor and installation artist. Boonma studied at the Poh Chang Arts and Crafts School, Bangkok (1971–3) and went on to study painting at Silpakorn University, Bangkok (1974–8). He became a Buddhist monk in 1986 and his work explores a distinctively Buddhist art language. His early work dealt with environmental issues that came out of his concerns about the effects of industrialization on rural Thailand. Increasingly his work became involved with issues of illness and death as his own health faltered. He subtly melded natural forms, Buddhist architecture and ritual objects with a minimalist sense of structure inspired by his study of Western art. He fashioned sculptural objects based on Buddhist alms bowls, ‘painted’ with healing herbs and created walls and enclosures from stacks of hundreds of ceramic temple bells.

From 1991 Boonma’s wife struggled with breast cancer, until she succumbed in 1994. During this period the pair turned to both Western and Eastern tools to battle her disease, alternating chemotherapy with visits to shrines and offerings to propitious spirits. In ...

Article

Donald F. McCallum

[Kuratsukuri no Tori; Shiba Kuratsukuribe no Obito Tori]

(fl early 7th century).

Japanese sculptor. He is associated with the inception of Buddhist image production in Japan and is generally considered to be the first great master of Japanese Buddhist sculpture (see also Japan §V 3., (i)). Tori Busshi is believed to have worked on the most important monumental sculpture of the Asuka period (c. 552–710), the bronze Great Buddha (Jap. Daibutsu) enshrined in the Asukadera (Japan’s first fully fledged temple complex, on the Yamato Plain c. 25 km from Nara). In addition, his name is inscribed on the mandorla of the gilt-bronze Shaka Triad of the Golden Hall (Kondō) at Hōryūji in Nara (623). He may, however, have operated primarily as a supervisor rather than a craftsman. Scholars usually associate most Asuka period images with his studio, which produced work modelled on the stone sculpture of Chinese Buddhist cave temples of the Northern Wei period (386–535). This is termed ...

Article

En  

Samuel C. Morse

School of Japanese sculpture that flourished during the 12th century. It was founded by and named after Ensei (d 1134) and was one of the two major schools of Japanese Buddhist sculpture of the later Heian period (794–1185), the other being the In school (see also Japan, §V, 3, (iii), (c)). Ensei was a pupil of Chōsei (d 1091), the chief disciple of Jōchō, who had developed a refined, elegant style that satisfied both the secular and spiritual pretensions of the 11th-century aristocracy. Sculptors of both the En and In schools were patronized by the most influential figures of the capital of Heian (now Kyoto), at whose behest they rejected innovation in favour of close replication of the formal qualities of Jōchō’s imagery. They worked mainly in wood. Ensei’s only surviving work is a seated Healing Buddha (Jap. Yakushi, Skt Bhaishajyaguru; 1103...

Article

Enkū  

Donald F. McCallum

(b Mino Province [now Gifu Prefecture], 1632; d 1695).

Japanese sculptor and Buddhist itinerant monk (hijiri). He was active during the early Edo period (1600–1868). He entered the priesthood of the Tendai sect (see Buddhism §III 10.) at an early age, this being one of the few means of advancement within feudal society for individuals of the lower classes. Enkū began sculpting images in the early 1660s for both Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines in his home province. In the later 1660s he made an important missionary expedition to the Tōhoku region of Honshu and to the northern island of Hokkaido, which had only recently come under the control of the Tokugawa shogunate, introducing Buddhism and Buddhist imagery to that still remote island. Thereafter he travelled extensively, carving icons for rural temples and wayside shrines in Honshu, especially in the Kantō and Chūbu regions. He also carved images on living trees on mountain-tops. For more than 300 years his works were little known outside their localities; to local people they were objects of worship, imbued with magical powers to heal and protect....

Article

(Mark David)

(b London, Aug 30, 1950).

English sculptor and draughtsman. He studied archaeology, anthropology and art history at Trinity College, Cambridge (1968–71) and Buddhist meditation in India and Sri Lanka (1971–4), experiences that profoundly inform his work. Influenced by the ideals of Indian sculpture as much as by those of modernism, his sculptures use the human form to explore man’s existence in and relation to the world. He is primarily known for the lead figures cast from his own body. Free of individualizing surface detail, with welding lines emphatically exposed, these remain physical casings rather than imitative representations of the universal human form. His belief that the spiritual and physical selves are inseparable is reflected in works such as Land, Sea and Air II (1982). Three figures, crouching, kneeling and standing, were placed on the seashore, embodying the process of Buddhist spiritual awareness. The work also referred to the earthly condition of the body and man’s relationship with his surroundings. These concerns are further reflected in Gormley’s full use of installation space, with sculptures suspended from ceiling and walls. Many works were made specifically for natural environments, most controversially ...

Article

In  

Samuel C. Morse

Major school of Japanese Buddhist sculpture of the late Heian (ad 794–1185) and early Kamakura (1185–1333) periods (see Japan, §V, 3, (iii)). The school took its name from Injō (d 1108), who was the chief disciple of Kakujō (d 1077), son of Jōchō, who had developed a gentle, elegant style of wood sculpture suited to the refined tastes of the mid-Heian aristocracy of the capital (modern Kyoto). Art historians generally consider Kakujō to have been the first-generation master of the school, which specialized in producing for their patrons close formal replicas of Jōchō’s imagery. There were two workshops (bussho) of the In school in Kyoto: the Shichijō–Ōmiya workshop, established by Injō, and the Rokujō–Madenokōji workshop, set up in the mid-12th century. Initially in competition with the other main exponent of Jōchō’s style, the En school, the In was pre-eminent in the second half of the 12th century. After this, the work of the school became increasingly mannered and began to decline in popularity. In the early Kamakura period it was eclipsed by the dynamic realism of the ...

Article

Kaikei  

Hiromichi Soejima

[An Amida Butsu]

(fl Nara area, 1183–1223).

Japanese sculptor. He is associated with the Kei school of Buddhist sculpture and is thought to have been a disciple of Kōkei. The first reference to Kaikei occurs in the Lotus Sutra (Jap. Hokkekyō or Myōhō renge kyō; 1183; Ueno priv. col.), transcribed by Unkei and others, in which he is recorded receiving a kechien (establishing a tie with Buddha, in order to be entitled to his benefits). It is believed that he sculpted the Miroku (Skt Maitreya) for the temple of Kōfukuji in Nara (see Nara, §III, 7) in 1189 (Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.). In 1192 he made a wooden image of the Miroku for Daigoji in Kyoto (in situ; see Kyoto, §IV, 3, (i)). From then on, until he was received into the official priesthood (sōgō), he usually went by his artist’s name (), An Amida Butsu.

In 1194 he carved the wooden ...

Article

Samuel C. Morse

(b c. ad 700; d 774).

Japanese sculptor. He worked in the Buddhist tradition of the Nara period (ad 710–94; see also Japan §V 3., (ii)). Like many artists of that time, Kimimaro was of foreign descent, his grandfather having immigrated from the Korean kingdom of Paekche in the 660s. His original family name was Kuni, but when he was rewarded in 749 with the honorary rank of muraji (a hereditary title granted to government officials), it was changed to Kuninaka after the village where the family resided. Kimimaro directed work on the monumental bronze Great Buddha (Daibutsu) at Tōdaiji (see Nara §III 4.), which became the symbol of Buddhism as state religion. Since his name first appears in a record dated 745 (Tenpyō 17), he may also have worked on the predecessor to the Great Buddha, which was begun in 743 at Kogadera near the Shigaraki Palace to the north of Nara (anc. Heijō). Emperor Shōmu moved the project back to Nara in 745 and appointed Kimimaro chief sculptor in 747. At the same time, Kimimaro is recorded as having requisitioned materials for the mandorla for the statue of ...

Article

Kōkei  

Hiromichi Soejima

(fl c. Nara region, 1151–1200).

Japanese sculptor. He played a great role in the formation of a new style of Japanese Buddhist sculpture of the Kamakura period (1185–1333) and was the first of the sculptors working in this mode to whom the term Kei school is applied. He was one of the Nara busshi (‘Nara Buddhist sculptors’) based at the temple of Kōfukuji in Nara (see Nara, §III, 7). Contemporary documents indicate that the first work attributable to Kōkei was an image of Kichijōten (Skt Srimahadevi; the goddess of wealth and beauty) made in 1151 (untraced). Kōkei’s name appears in the inscription on the wooden statue of the Dainichi nyorai (Skt Mahavairocana tathagata; the Buddha who expounded Esoteric Buddhism) carved in 1176 by his son Unkei for the temple of Enjōji in Nara (in situ), thus suggesting that Kōkei supervised this work. It is conjectured that Kōkei was the disciple of the ...

Article

Donald F. McCallum

[Mokujiki Gogyō; Mokujiki Gyōdō; Mokujiki Meiman]

(b Marubatake, Kai Province [now Yamashi Prefecture], 1718; d 1810).

Japanese sculptor and Buddhist monk. He was an ascetic priest of the Shingon sect (see Buddhism §III 10.) during the Edo period (1600–1868) and apparently functioned as an itinerant monk (hijiri) in early adulthood. At the age of 45 he took vows as a ‘wood-eater’ (mokujiki), one who abstained not only from meat, fish and fowl but also from grains, eating only nuts, roots and berries. In 1773, after taking an additional vow to travel throughout Japan, he embarked on a programme of missionary activity that took him from Hokkaido in the north to Kyushu in the south. Mokujiki was already in his early 60s when he began sculpting devotional images for the communities he visited, apparently following the example of his predecessor Enkū. Interestingly, he avoided localities where Enkū had made images. Mokujiki enjoyed excellent health and continued to produce sculptures until he was over 90 years old....

Article

Norihisa Mizuta

[Xin yue; Shōun]

(b Puyang, nr Hangzhou, Zhejiang Prov., 1639; d Mito, Ibaragi Prefect., 1695).

Chinese Zen monk, seal-carver, calligrapher, poet and Musician, active in Japan. He left his family at the age of seven and entered the Buddhist order, first training in Jiangxi Province and eventually in Hangzhou. In 1677 he emigrated to Japan, at the invitation of the monk Chin’i Dōryō of Kōfukuji, an Obaku-sect Zen temple in Nagasaki. He took up missionary work but found himself at odds with Ōbaku monks and for a short time was held in temple confinement. In 1681 the daimyo of Mito, Tokugawa Mitsukuni (1628–1700), hearing of this situation, invited Shin’etsu to his fiefdom, where in 1692 he became founding abbot of Mitsukuni’s temple, Jushōzan Gionji (formerly Tentokuji) in Mito, later the place of his burial. Shin’etsu’s school of Buddhism is known as the Jushō or Shin’etsu school of Sōtō Zen.

Shin’etsu is best known as an artist and true literatus. Together with Dokuryū Shōeki...

Article

Elizabeth Horton Sharf

[Duli Xingyi; Dai Mangong; Tianwai yi xianren]

(b Hangzhou Prefect., Zhejiang Prov., 1596; d Nagasaki, 1672).

Chinese Ōbaku Zen monk, calligrapher, poet, seal-carver and medical expert, active in Japan. Dokuryū was one of many learned men from south-east China to emigrate to Japan during the political turmoil following the collapse of the Ming dynasty in 1644. He arrived in Nagasaki in 1653 accomplished in several disciplines and quickly became a major force in the development of these arts and skills in Japan. Together with Tōkō Shin’etsu, Dokuryū is revered for having introduced techniques and practices of late Ming literati seal-carving to Japan. On his arrival there, Dokuryū became an itinerant scholar and medical specialist, establishing ties with émigré Chinese abbots and Japanese political figures. When the distinguished Chinese prelate Yinyuan Longqi (known in Japan as Ingen Ryūki) arrived in 1654, Dokuryū was ordained as his disciple and received the Buddhist names Dokuryū and Shōeki.

He was Ingen’s scribe from 1655 until 1658, when he took up residence at the Rinzai Zen monastery Heirinji (Saitama Prefect.) under the patronage of the shogunal minister ...